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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月21日 19:38:33
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The portraits of Edouard Manet爱德华·马内的肖像画Bold and strange勇辟蹊径,立异标新He worked to imbue his paintings with life as no photograph could马内画笔下的人物生动形象,照片难以匹敌THREE portraits share a wall. In one a dark-eyed, forthright beauty stares at the viewer; another features a scarlet-lipped, tormented woman ringed by an inky sea of grief. The final image is of a wary creature with a pert nose who shivers in her furs. Each is so different in mood and technique that it is remarkable that they were all painted by Edouard Manet between 1868 and 1874. More remarkable still, the sitters are the same woman: Berthe Morisot, a fellow painter. These paintings and others make a show of Manets portraits at the Royal Academy in London one not to be missed.面墙,三幅肖像画。第一幅,一位黑眼睛美人凝视前方,神情真挚,仿佛盯着观众;另一幅中,一位女子唇如烈焰,神情痛苦,四周弥漫着浓浓的悲伤。最后一幅,画中人鼻子小巧笔挺,一副小心谨慎的样子,在皮草里瑟瑟发抖。这三幅作品的基调与技巧迥然相异,却都是爱德华·马内在1868年至1874年间所创作的,实在了不起。更厉害的是,画中的模特儿是同一位女子:马内的同行—画家贝尔特·莫里索。这三幅画还有其他一些作品正在伦敦皇家艺术院的一个马内肖像画展览中展出,实在不容错过。On view are some 50 paintings and works on paper. Inspired by the dramatic masterpieces of Francisco Goya and Diego Velázquez (all those luscious blacks), and Frans Halss genius for portraying people with a gusto for life, these works trace Manets influences and his efforts to master a vision of his own. Grouped by theme, the portraits are spotlit against dark walls as if each was a jewel. Many are, though the curators could have exercised more discretion. A stronger show would have been a smaller one; arranged chronologically, it could have revealed more about the artist.展览有大约50幅油画及素描。这些作品是马内被弗朗西斯科·戈雅、迭戈·委拉兹开斯出色的大作所感染,又受佛兰斯·哈尔斯画人物栩栩如生的本领所启发而创作的,从中可以看出马内受到哪些前辈的影响以及他为追求个人风格所做的努力。这些肖像画按主题展出,挂在黑暗的墙上用聚光灯照亮,仿佛每幅画都是一件珠宝。其中很多确实被视为珠宝,不过馆长考虑得还不够周到。如果规模小些,展览会更有感染力,如果作品按时间顺序展出,人们就可以更加了解马内。Seductive, witty and intelligent, Manet was also financially independent. Few of these portraits were commissions. His pianist wife can be seen in several glowing, affectionate works, and Manet painted some arresting portraits of his friends. The canvasses of Victorine Meurent, a professional model, radiate a sexual charge. This is as true when she is wearing a simple shirt as when she is seen naked at a picnic in the company of fashionably dressed men in his famous painting “Le dejeuner sur lherbe”. Meurent inspired haunting and unforgettable works, including Manets greatest one, “Olympia”, which is unfortunately not in this show.马内本人迷人、诙谐、睿智,经济也比较宽裕。这些肖像画往往不是受人委托而画的。好几幅色鲜艳、充满深情的作品里,都可以看见马内那位钢琴家妻子的身影,马内还为朋友们画了一些出的肖像画。有些油画画的是职业模特维多利安·莫涵,在画中她散发着一种性感的魅力。这种魅力不论莫涵只穿一件简单的衬衣,还是像马内另一幅著作《草地上的野餐》那样一丝不挂地与衣着入时的男子们野餐,你都能感受得到。莫涵激发了马内的灵感,使他画出了许多深入人心的作品,其中包括最著名的《奥林匹亚》,可惜这幅画不在本次展览中。Manet hated the thought that his paintings would be seen jammed together. Here the hanging could not be more generous; a cynic might say stretched out. One gallery is devoted to a map of Paris. “Music in the Tuileries Gardens”, a freely painted park scene from 1862, has a room to itself. This crowded vision of men in top hats and women in fashionable bonnets is not actually a portrait, but viewers can make out the figures of Manet and Charles Baudelaire, a poet. Unstaged and exuberant, his evocation of the bourgeoisie at play has been called “the first truly modern picture”. It was brutally attacked at the time.马内不喜欢自己的作品被挂得密密麻麻地展出。而这次,展览场地可谓宽敞至极,有人可能会挖苦说简直是空旷。有个展厅专门用来展览一幅巴黎地图。《杜乐丽花园中的音乐》也有一个专门的展厅,画中人山人海,男士们戴着大礼帽,女士们戴着时尚软帽。其实这幅不算肖像画,不过观众可以从中认出马内和诗人查尔斯·波德莱尔。这幅活泼随性的资产阶级玩乐图如今被尊为“第一幅真正的现代画”,但在当时却遭到猛烈抨击。The critics shredded Manet. They mocked his inconsistent style; his refusal to respect conventions. Their vicious words were like “lashes of a whip”, Manet once wrote. Yet he had contemporary champions, including Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, a symbolist poet, and Emile Zola, a novelist. Younger artists, such as the nascent Impressionists, also admired him. Pierre-Auguste Renoir observed that Manet was as important to them “as Cimabue or Giotto were to the Italians of the Quattrocento.” His influence continues. Rineke Dijkstra, a photographer, credits Manet with helping inspire contemporary large-format portraits.那时,人士将马内批得体无完肤。他们讥讽马内的画风前后矛盾,笑话他不尊重传统。他们的毒舌就像“鞭子的抽打”,马内曾写道。但也有一些同时代的人拥护马内,包括波德莱尔、象征主义诗人斯忒法·马拉美及小说家埃米尔·左拉。年轻一代的画家也很崇拜他,如早期的印象派画家。皮埃尔-奥古斯特·雷阿诺说,马内之于其拥护者,就如契马布埃或乔托之于十五世纪的意大利那样重要。时至今日,马内的影响力依然未减。摄影师日尼科·迪克斯特拉认为,马内是现代大幅肖像画发展的功臣。As it happens, Manets own style was in part a response to the rise of portrait photography. By the time he was in his 30s it seemed “everybody” wanted such a photograph, himself included. He understood this presented a challenge for painters, and so he set out to make his portraits “boldly strange”, argues Carol Armstrong, an art historian. This show may not be without disappointments, but it offers ample evidence of why Manet is revered.当时恰逢人物摄影兴起,马内自己的画风多少受此影响。在马内三十多岁那个年代,似乎“每个人”都想要一张自己的照片,马内也不例外。美术史家卡罗·阿姆斯特朗认为,马内深知摄影给画家带来了挑战,于是他打算创作出“大胆而新奇”的肖像画。这次展览可能会有不尽人意之处,但也能充分说明为什么马内如此备受推崇。 /201406/302916

At first sight, manatees might look like seals or dolphins. But in fact, some of their closest relatives live on land. These toenails are the giveaway, remarkably similar to those of elephants. 乍一看,海牛可能看起来像是海报或是海豚。可事实上,他们的一些“近亲”却生活在陆地上。这些脚部化石给了我们线索,他们和大象很可能有“血缘关系”。13,000 years ago, two other members of the elephant family roamed this land. The manatees that swim in Floridas springs today are living relatives of ice age mammoths and mastodons. 13000年前,大象家族的两个分来到这片陆地。今天在佛罗利达温泉里游荡的海牛就是冰河时代猛犸象和乳齿象一个分的后裔。Some of the bones found in these springs are easy to identify, but scattering among them are some more obscure remains. What kind of animal could this belong to? These rosettes are bony scales or scutes, similar to those that cover some reptiles today. But this is only one piece of the jigsaw. Imagine what the creature would have looked like when all these pieces were fitted together. 一些在温泉中发现的动物骨骼很容易进行辨认,但是他们之中零散的一些话是却很难辨认。这些化石属于什么动物?这些莲座丛是骨鳞,和今天的一些爬行动物很相似。但是这是这些化石残留中唯一的一片。想象一下,当把这些残片拼凑到一起,将会是个什么样的生物?The scutes, around 2,000 of them, once formed the shell of a huge animal called the glyptodont. With its heavy weight exterior, the glyptodont looks like a reptile, like the alligator, which has been around for millions of years, long before the last ice age.雕齿兽这种大型动物的外壳上就曾经有着2000片左右的骨鳞。它的外表十分沉重,雕齿兽看起来像是一种爬行动物,就像存活了数百万年的短吻鳄一样,但是雕齿兽存于距冰河时代末期前很长的时间。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249247

  

  Business商业报道Takafumi Hories comeback堀江贵文的回归Up, up and away升高,升高再升高The controversial entrepreneur remains popular, brash and ambitious这个有着很大争议的企业家依旧很受欢迎并且野心勃勃IN 2005 Takafumi Horie, then president of Livedoor, an internet firm, joined the X PRIZE Foundation,2005年,互联网公司活力门的总经理堀江贵文加入了X奖基金会。a charity which gives cash for innovative projects such as space tourism.X奖基金会是一个慈善组织,这个组织会为一些创新科技项目提供资金,如:太空旅行。Joining forces with the likes of Larry Page and Elon Musk, co-founders of Google and PayPal respectively, was a typically bold move by the self-styled boy billionaire from Fukuoka.加入一个有拉里佩奇和埃隆?马斯克这样的人的组织,无疑是这个福冈不为人知的亿万富翁小子的一项勇敢举措。拉里佩奇和埃隆?马斯克分别是谷歌和贝宝的合作创建人。Instead of going into orbit, however, Mr Horie went behind bars.不像其他人那样走的一帆风顺,堀江贵文曾在监狱过刑。He was arrested in Japans biggest financial scandal of the decade.他被捕的原因是卷入了日本数十年来最大的财政丑闻。Now, however, he is out on parole, and says he will soon launch a low-cost space-tourism business using a Russian capsule.但是现在,他假释出狱,并且表示,他马上就会使用俄罗斯研发的一种太空舱经营一个低成本的太空旅行企业。He has completed several test launches.他已经进行了多次发射演练。A large Japanese firm is on the verge of sponsoring a flight next year, he says.他说,日本的一家大公司已经准备明年投资一架飞机。Other investors, he claims, are standing by.并且声称,其他的投资者也都蠢蠢欲动了。This time the money will come not from inflating the earnings and shares of Livedoor, for which Mr Horie was sent down,现在这个时期,对于像堀江贵文这样子被开除的人来说,钱不是那么容易就能从活力门的股份和通货膨胀的工资中挣到,but from a dedicated following of 20- and 30-somethings who pay to hear his thoughts via a monthly digital magazine.但是他却可以从一大批忠心的追随者中赚到钱,那些追随者会订电子月刊付钱听他的想法。He has almost a million followers on Twitter. Social media and crowdfunding platforms, he says, make it far easier now to launch new businesses.他在推特上已经有了将近一百万的追随者。他说,社交媒体和云募资平台使得创建新企业变得更加容易。Not even 21 months in a Japanese prison,绝不仅仅只是21个月在日本监狱生活,including solitary confinement, freezing temperatures and forced labour, were able to stop him entertaining an audience.这之中堀江贵文还被送到那种极度寒冷且被迫大量劳动的地方单独监禁,这种经历使得他不再用愉悦的口吻为自己的听众做讲解。From his cell he published two well-received books with gritty manga strips describing his new life:牢狱中,他在自己的小房间中出版了两本很受欢迎的书,书中他用日本漫画来描绘自己的生活:cleaning pubic hair out of toilets, being farted at by the senior prisoners he had to tend to, and having to surrender porn magazines to prison guards.清理洗手间的毛发,比自己早来的犯人冲着自己放屁,被迫向监狱看守交出自己的色轻杂志。He also dreamed up dozens of new-business ideas.他也在书中阐述了很多关于新企业的想法。Among the 30 or so earthbound plans are a new reality show where fans will pay to put their idols on television,大约有三十个切合实际的计划都是关于一个新的实体秀的,在这个实体秀中,粉丝需要付钱把他们的偶像放到电视上,a celebrity-chat smartphone application and a scheme to undercut the price of livestreaming to phones. Nothing too radical, then:付钱去申请一个和名人电话通话的机会,付钱去买更为廉价的主流音像资源到手机上。这之中没有任何一个特别激进的,然后:Japan, after all, is aly awash with social-media and smartphone start-ups.日本就会充斥着社交媒体和智能电话企业。As for his reception back into business life,至于他返回商业界的感受,Mr Horie jokes that everyone has welcomed me, except for the chairman of Fuji TV.堀江贵文开玩笑地说道:每个人都很欢迎我,除了富士电视套台长。Many people reckon the entrepreneur was punished harshly mainly because he tried to win control of the big broadcaster, and because he flaunted his wealth.很多人推测堀江贵文之所以被如此严厉的惩戒主要是因为他曾经试图去控制广播公司,而且他还总是去炫耀自己的资产。The authorities usually treat accounting fraud more leniently. In July a group of executives at Olympus, a camera-maker, received suspended prison sentences for a far larger scheme.政府惩罚做假账的都比这轻。七月,奥林巴斯的一组高官由于一个很大的商业阴谋而被判缓刑。Mr Horie, now 40, says he is trying to forget what happened.四十岁的堀江贵文说他正在试图忘记所发生的不好的事情。It will be hard for his generation to do likewise.但这对于他那一代人来说却很难。William Saito, a serial entrepreneur who travels the country encouraging graduates to start new businesses, says he has spent the past five years trying to undo the dispiriting effect of Mr Hories fall and punishment on young people.连环创业者威廉斋藤游遍全国去游说毕业生创业,他说,他过去五年都在尝试解开堀江贵文的失败为年轻人们带来的负面效应。A successful new venture would help greatly.一个成功的新企业将会起到很大的帮助。 /201309/255982。

  

  Butterflies in America美国的蝴蝶To marvel at all things所有事都值得惊奇A splendid twinning of natural science and America自然科学与美利坚民族的完美结合Butterfly People: An American Encounter with the Beauty of the World.By William Leach.蝴蝶客:美国与世界之美的相遇“BUTTERFLIES and butterflies”, wrote Walt Whitman, “continue to flit to and fro, all sorts, white, yellow, brown, purple”. Whitman may have had an eye for colour, but as a mere journalist and poet with perhaps a touch of lepidopterophilia, he does not quite qualify as one of William Leachs “Butterfly People”.“蝴蝶、还是蝴蝶”,沃尔特惠特曼写道,“它们不停地来回飞过,各种各样的,有白的、黄的、棕色的还有紫色的”。惠特曼对颜色是有判断力,但是仅仅作为一位知道点鳞翅类昆虫的记者和诗人,并不是威廉所称的“蝴蝶客”True butterfly people were far more serious. They were enthusiasts and obsessives who took advantage of the unfettered access to undeveloped land afforded by a young country pressing its frontier westward. They were artisans and aesthetes: scientists of a sort that gradually ceased to exist as the natural sciences grew more formal and mature.真正的蝴蝶客远远严谨的多。他们狂热而迫切,年轻的国家正在向西部扩充领土,所以他们可以利用这种优势,自由使用未开发的土地。他们是手艺人兼审美家:这类所谓的科学家,随着自然科学发展得更加正式和成熟,这类科学家渐渐不存在了。Mr Leachs compelling thesis is that 19th-century America provided a uniquely hospitable time and place for lovers, and especially collectors, of butterflies. Agricultural toil and westward expansion brought droves of ordinary people into intimate contact with vast expanses of pristine lands. Most 19th-century Americans, Mr Leach writes—uncharitably but probably accurately—saw nature “as something to dig up or harvest from the earth or to be torn down and transformed into real estate or money”, and yet because there was so much untouched land, even the most rapacious miner or builder would in the course of his life come into contact with the natural world on a scale and in a way unknown to Americans today.里奇先生的有趣命题是:19世纪的美国为蝴蝶爱好者,特别是收藏家提供了一个独一无二的热情好客的时代。农业耕作和西部扩张将大批的普通人与广袤无际的未开垦土地紧密联系在一起。大多数19世纪的美国人,里奇先生写道,视自然为“可以从地下挖掘或从地上收割的,可以推倒盖房子或者卖钱的东西”,他的评语尽管尖刻,却也许十分精准。可是因为有如此之多未开垦的土地,即使是最贪婪的财主和建设者也会在他一生中与大自然发生联系,这种联系无论从规模上、在形式上, 都是如今的美国人无法想象的。Perhaps more important, “natural science” had not yet become “biology”. It was practised out of doors rather than in a laboratory, and aside from the classification madness of Linnaeus, it was light on systems and formality. Its early titans, such as Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt, a Prussian aristocrat whose masterwork, “The Cosmos”, began being published in 1845, “seemed indifferent to drawing lines between art and science,” Mr Leach writes. “Their prose was often excellent and able, so much so as to later seem unscientific. They often wrote on behalf of the artistic attractions of nature.” They led with a sense of curiosity driven by rapture and wonder. Natural science belonged not to the trained and pedigreed biologist, but to the passionate amateur: they were “naturalists”, not biologists.或许更重要的是,“自然科学”没有发展为“生物学”。它的研究在户外进行而不是在实验室,不像林奈繁杂的分类法,体系和形式是次要的。有关研究它的早期的泰斗,像查尔斯达尔文,以及亚历山大洪堡特,一位在1845年出版名著《大宇宙》的普鲁士贵族,“似乎对划分科学与艺术的界线漠不关心”,里奇先生写道。“他们写的散文总是出色易懂,以至于对后人来说显得不科学,他们常常为了自然的艺术吸引力而写文章。”他们引领了一种由狂喜和惊奇驱使的好奇感。自然科学不属于受过训练的正统生物学家,但却属于热情激昂的业余爱好者:他们是“物学家”,而不是生物学家。Butterfly people learned by observing, thinking and arguing. They included Samuel Scudder, who named the monarch butterfly and wrote a magisterial, three-volume work about North American butterflies that won raves from lepidopterys literary champion, Vladimir Nabokov, 70 years after its publication. Another was William Henry Edwards. His great grandfather was Americas most renowned Puritan theologian, and he eventually wrote his own three-volume doorstop.蝴蝶客们从观察、思考和争论中学习。他们中包括萨缪尔斯卡德,他命名了黑脉金蝴蝶,写了一本关于北美蝴蝶的三卷的权威著作,这部书出版70年后令鳞翅类昆虫的文学巨匠弗拉基米尔纳科夫惊叹不已。另一位是威廉亨利爱德华。他了不起的祖父是美国最有名望的普鲁士神学家,他最终写出了自己三卷鸿篇巨著。Mr Leach is at his best when profiling men such as Edwards, Scudder and others, including solitary, taciturn Herman Strecker and resentful, bilious Augustus Grote. These are the amateur giants on whose broad shoulders much contemporary biology and entomology rests.里奇先生最擅长介绍爱德华、斯卡德等等,包括沉默寡言的隐士斯特雷克和坏脾气的奥古斯塔斯格罗特。当代生物学和昆虫学正是站在这些业余研究巨匠宽阔的肩膀上。 /201405/297251

  

  

  Women and work女性和工作Girl talk女人之间的事Working women today have it better than ever before. But few agree on how to help them rise further—or whether they still need help at all今天,职场女性的地位比过去已经有了显著进步。但关于怎样帮助她们进一步攀登职业生涯的更高峰,或者她们到底还需不需要帮助,仍然存在着很大的意见分歧。Work With Me: The 8 Blind Spots Between Men and Women in Business.和我一起工作:男性和女性在职场中的八大盲点By Barbara Annis and John Gray. Palgrave Macmillan; 272 pages; .作者:芭芭拉·安妮丝,约翰·格雷。麦克米伦出版社;272页;27美元。To be published in Britain by Piatkus next month; 13.99.下月将由Piatkus出版社在英国出版;13.99英镑。Buy from Amazon.comAmazon.com有售A Rising Tide: Financing Strategies for Women-Owned Firms.新潮:女性主导公司的金融策略By Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb.作者:苏珊·科尔曼,艾丽西亚·罗布。Stanford University Press; 288 pages; and 77.50.斯坦福大学出版社;288页;85美元/77.5英镑。Buy fromAmazon.com, Amazon.co.ukAmazon.com, Amazon.co.uk有售The XX factor: How Working Women are Creating a New Society.XX因子:职场女性如何创造新社会By Alison Wolf. Profile; 464 pages; 15.99. Buy fromAmazon.co.uk作者:艾莉森·伍尔芙。Profile出版社;464页;15.99英镑。Amazon.co.uk有售PEOPLE have been holding heated discussions recently about women’s experience in the workplace.最近,关于女性职场角色的讨论尤为火热。The catalyst? A single Silicon Valley executive.点燃这场讨论的是一位硅谷的女主管。Last month Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer at Facebook, published “Lean In”, a controversial manifesto on why women have not ascended to the most senior positions at companies.上月,Facebook的首席营运官雪莉·桑德伯格发表了颇受争议的新书《跻身:女性、工作与领导意愿》,讲述女性难以在公司担任高层职位的原因。She concludes that it is partly women’s own fault: they do not “lean in” and ask for promotions, pipe up at meetings and insist on taking a seat at the table.在书中,桑德伯格女士总结说,这一部分是女性自身的问题:她们不愿“跻身”,不主动要求升职,不积极在公司会议上发言,甚至在开会时都不愿上桌。Three new books will not have the same impact as “Lean In”, but they offer some interesting new perspectives on how women are coping at work, and what is holding them back.本文要介绍的三本新书虽然无法在影响上与《跻身》相媲美,但也为我们了解女性如何适应职场、是什么阻碍了她们晋升提供了一些有趣的新视角。Some of it is down to simple miscommunication.有时这仅仅是因为简单的沟通障碍。Barbara Annis and John Gray argue in “Work With Me” that men and women are biologically wired to think and react differently to situations, and have “gender blind spots” when it comes to understanding their co-workers’ behaviour.芭芭拉·安妮丝和约翰·格雷在《和我一起工作》一书中说,男人和女人因为生理结构的差异而注定对同一情况有不同的看法和反应,并且在理解异性同事的行为时,会存在“性别盲点”。Ms Annis, who leads workshops on gender for big companies and governments, and Mr Gray, author of “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, a bestselling book in 1992 about relationship problems, have collaborated to produce an easy-to- guide to workplace communications.安妮丝女士平时经常为大公司和政府机构主持关于性别问题的研习班,格雷先生则是《男人来自火星,女人来自金星》一书的作者,这本书出版于1992年,是一本讲述恋爱关系中存在的问题的畅销书。这样的两个人合作出一本关于职场沟通的简明指南,可谓是珠联璧合。Women ask more questions, gather more people’s opinions and seek collaboration with co-workers more frequently than men.和男性相比,女性通常更喜欢提问题,更多地寻求他人的意见,并且也更愿意与同事合作。Men view these preferences as signs of weakness, and women, in turn, grow annoyed by how competitively men work, and how quickly and unilaterally they arrive at conclusions.这些特点在男性看来是软弱的标志,而女性同样也很讨厌男人工作时的好胜心,以及他们不征求别人意见、迅速作出自己单方面结论的作风。If both female and male employees became more “gender intelligent” about how their work and behavioural preferences are hard-wired, it would contribute to a more harmonious workforce.如果男女职员都能够更加明智地认识到性别对他们的工作和行为习惯的固定影响,或许工作团队中的关系会更加和谐。Women have been choosing to leave companies at twice the rate of men, and more than half the women whom the authors met in workshops were considering leaving their firms.女职员主动辞职的比率是男职员的两倍,本书作者在研习班里接触的女职员中也有一半以上都在考虑离开现在的公司。Women often tell their bosses that they are quitting for personal reasons, but the majority actually leave because they feel excluded from teams and not valued for their contributions.她们通常会对老板说,自己辞职是出于私人原因,但实际上,大部分人真正的理由是她们在团队中没有参与感,而且感到自己的贡献没有得到重视。Yet the reality is that women often have trouble communicating with other women at work as well, though the authors do not explain in quite as much detail why this is so.其实还有另外一个现实的原因,女职员经常在工作中与其他女性也存在沟通问题,尽管这一点在本书中并没有详细阐述。Communication and gender equality are not just problems at large firms.沟通和性别平等不是只有大公司才存在的问题。In “A Rising Tide” Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb look beyond women’s experience at big companies.在《新潮》一书中,作者苏珊·科尔曼和艾丽西亚·罗布关注的就是女性在大公司之外的经历。They focus instead on women entrepreneurs, who have the potential to become leaders in their field, earn a high income and hire more women.她们的兴趣点在女企业家身上,这些女性拥有成为本行业领袖的潜力,收入高,并且倾向于雇佣更多的女性为自己工作。In a positive shift, women have been starting more firms in the past decade.过去的十年见了一个积极的转变—女性正在创办越来越多的公司。However, these tend to be in the service and retail industries.然而,这些公司大多从事的是务业和零售业一类的传统产业。They also remain smaller than men’s firms.而且通常在规模上也比不上男性主导的公司。Ms Coleman and Ms Robb point out that part of this may be by design; women sometimes want to keep their businesses small in order to balance their family responsibilities.科尔曼女士和罗布女士指出,这种情况一部分可能是有意为之;女老板们有时就是想要保持公司较小的规模,以便兼顾自己的家庭责任。However, women also often lack the financing that male entrepreneurs enjoy.除此之外,女老板们也经常缺少男老板们所拥有的那样充足的资金。They have fewer savings, so usually launch their businesses with less capital than men, and are less likely to apply for a loan for fear of being denied.她们的存款较少,所以经常在创办公司时,启动资金就比不上男企业家。And they have not had as much access to the masculine world of Silicon Valley: in 2000 they obtained only 5% of funding from venture capitalists, a notoriously male-dominated industry.而且,因为害怕被拒绝,她们也不太愿意去申请贷款。因此,在硅谷这个男权世界中,女性的跻身空间很小。2000年,她们仅从风险投资家手中获得了5%的资金。During their first year of operation men raised 27 times more equity from outsiders for their start-ups than women.众所周知,风险投资也是一个男性主导的行业。新公司运营第一年里,男老板们从公司外部募得的投资是女老板们的27倍。How has the success of high-achievers differentiated them from other women?那么,成功的女性精英们与其他女性有什么不同呢?In “The XX Factor”, Alison Wolf, the director of public policy and management at Kings College London, argues that there are now around 70m highly educated, high-earning women around the world.伦敦大学国王学院公共政策与管理系负责人艾莉森·伍尔芙在《XX因子》一书中说,目前全世界大约有七千万接受过高等教育、拿高收入的女性。They have more in common with elite men than with other women.与其他女性相比,她们与男性精英拥有更多相同之处。These grandes dames tend to marry more often and have fewer children than less-educated women.这些“女强人”通常会比教育程度不高的女性结更多次婚,生更少的孩子。They spend more time working, and, unexpectedly, more time parenting.她们花在工作上的时间更多,但令人意外的是,她们花在养育儿女上的时间也更多。Ms Sandberg also makes this point.桑德伯格女士也表达过同样的观点。As the demands on women in the workplace have increased, so too have the standards for being a good, involved mother—which adds to the challenges for women at the top.随着职场对女性的要求越来越高,要做一个合格的、全身心投入的母亲也越来越难。这也增加了女高管们面临的挑战。Ms Wolf and Ms Sandberg ultimately differ, however, on whether the glass is half full or half empty for women.但是,在对待女性职场前景的态度上,伍尔芙女士和桑德伯格女士有着很大的差别。Ms Sandberg’s book is a call to female arms to change their behaviour so they can rise further.桑德伯格女士的书意在呼吁女性改变她们的一些做法,以便攀登事业的更高峰。Ms Wolf concludes with an economist’s detachment. She says that given how much things have improved for women in the past century, it is “a little surprising to find so many elite women still arguing passionately for directed, top-down social change—change designed to improve things for female elites”.而伍尔芙女士的结论则显示出一位经济学家所拥有的淡然和超脱。她说,在过去一个世纪里,女性地位已经有了很大提升,考虑到这一点,她“有些不理解为什么很多女性精英仍然在乐此不疲地要求有序的、自上而下的社会变革,要求进一步改善女性精英的处境”。Most people agree that more needs to change in the workplace. Men still occupy most top jobs, do not feel comfortable mentoring younger women and judge young men differently from young women.大多数人都同意,职场确实还有很多需要改变的地方。男性仍然霸占了大多数的高层职位,不愿意指导年轻的女职员,并且在评价年轻的男女职员时采取双重标准。However, after decades of women failing to gain equal representation in executive suites, it is notable how many books now focus on women altering their behaviour, rather than men changing their way of doing things.但是,在女性奋斗了几十年,仍然未能在主管办公室打下半壁江山之后,我们应该注意到,现在的很多书只关注女性如何调整自己的行为,而不是男性怎样改变他们的行事风格。Women cannot change their fate on their own. What happened to the responsibility for men to “lean in” to listen and advance women in the workforce, as well?女性仅靠自己改变不了命运。难道男性不是也有责任要主动倾听女性的声音,帮助女性在职场进步吗? /201404/285006。

  

  

  Business商业报道Casinos in Asia 2亚洲Place your bets买定离手Casinos are popping up all over Asia. Their biggest risk is political亚洲遍地开花。政治成关键因素。Vegas comes to Manila来到马尼拉KABUKICHO, Japans biggest fleshpot, swarms over a crowded one-kilometre block of Tokyo.距离东京1000米的歌舞伎町区是日本最大的场所,其中混杂着各种俗丽酒吧院和破旧的酒店。It is a gaudy patchwork of clubs, massage parlours and seedy hotels, a short walk from what is probably the worlds busiest train station.距离这里几步之远的或许是世界上最繁忙的火车站。Hoodlums from Yakuza crime gangs tout illicit thrills from a well-thumbed of sex, drugs and gambling.来自流氓团体的暴徒们进行着不正当的色情交易聚众吸食毒品。Takeshi Iwaya, a politician, wants to pull gambling out of the seedy company it keeps in Kabukicho and put it into giant family-friendly casinos.政客Takeshi Iwaya希望将从歌舞伎町破旧的公司中转移到巨型家庭之中。He is lobbying for Japan to lift its ban on casinos.他希望通过游说让日本解除对的禁令,A share of Macaus eye-watering gambling revenues is the goal.从而瓜分那令人眼红的收益。Singapore, home to a couple of new upmarket casino resorts, is the model.新加坡这个新兴的度假村形式就是他的范本。Three years ago, the island state allowed Marina Bay Sands, run by Sheldon Adelsons Sands empire, and Resorts World Sentosa, run by Malaysias Genting group, to open.三年前这个岛国允许由谢尔登?埃德森年代金沙帝国经营的金沙和由马来西亚云顶集团经营的综合城开业。They earned 5.9 billion last year, nearly as much as all of the casinos on the Las Vegas strip.去年盈利59亿美元与所有盈利相近。Before it can reach such lofty heights, however, Japan must legalise casinos.对日本而言,要获得如此巨额盈利的前提是是合法化。It has been debating doing so for years, but supporters say they have finally lined up all the ducks.就这一问题各方争论多年,持者称他们最终会规范这个行业。A cross-party group of 140 politicians supports the move, including the prime minister, Shinzo Abe, says Mr Iwaya.他称由包括安倍晋三在内的140位政客组成的跨党派小组持这一想法。Liberalising gambling would fit well with Mr Abes radical reforms to boost Japans sluggish growth.开放业符合安倍晋三的激进改革思路,能推动日本经济复苏。Japans police have dropped their long-standing opposition, and parliament is expected to debate a legalisation bill soon.对此,日本警察的态度似乎稍有缓和,反对意见有所下降。The time is right, says Mr Iwaya.同时国会也希望尽快讨论法案合法化。Iwaya 称:现在是最好的时机Legalisation still has its opponents.但仍有反对者阻止该项法案合法化。Keiko Itokazu, another parliamentarian, worries that the Yakuza gangs have a record of muscling in on legal businesses, from property to banking.一个国会议员Keiko Itokazu担心黑手党会借此干涉合法商业活动,包括所有权及。Mr Iwaya responds that there are aly lots of illegal casinos in Japan; bringing the business out into the open can only make things better.对此Iwaya回应到日本目前已有大量非法,将公开化更有利于管理。Liberalisers also argue that casinos will boost Japans earnings from foreign tourists and, more important, rapidly deliver a tax windfall to the heavily indebted government.持者同时指出经营能够促进外国游客在日本的消费,更重要的是能够通过暴利税缓解政府负债情况。A Japanese business magazine, Toyo Keizai, has argued that Japan is being left behind as neighbouring countries rush to build lucrative gambling resorts, combining casinos with luxury hotels, shops and cultural attractions.鉴于邻国加快建设获利丰富的度假村,与相连的奢华酒店,商店以及由此带来的文化影响,日本的一本商业杂志,东阳经济写到:日本正在落后。Indeed it is: countries across the Asia-Pacific region have abandoned their hostility to gambling and are welcoming the big global casino groups.的确,亚太地区国家已经消除了对事业的敌意并积极引进全球组织。In July it emerged that Stanley Hos son Lawrence, also a casino mogul, had reached a deal to open a casino near Vladivostok in Russias far east.7月份, Stanley Ho之子,巨头Lawrence达成协议将在俄罗斯远东靠近海参崴的地方开设。Vietnam is looking to boost foreign tourism by expanding its casinos, and proponents of gambling are making headway in Sri Lanka and Taiwan.越南也希望通过开设发展旅游业,同时斯里兰卡和台湾的持者也取得了进展。In July Australian lawmakers approved a proposal by James Packer, a billionaire businessman, to open a second casino in Sydney.7月,澳大利亚的立法者通过了一项由James Packer这位亿万富文提交的关于在悉尼开始第二家的提案。His firm, Melco Crown Entertainment, runs casinos in Macau with the younger Mr Ho.他的公司,新濠亚有限公司和小Ho先生在共同经营一家。They are also partners in a casino now being built in the Philippines.他们也共同投资了菲律宾正在建设的一家。Mr Packer has said he is also keen to move into Japan as soon as it liberalises.他表示如果日本开放业,他很有兴趣前去投资。He will face competition closer to home: Tony Fung, a Hong Kong tycoon, plans to build a gambling resort in Queensland.最近在他老家澳大利亚附近他也面临着挑战—Tony Fung,一个香港巨富打算在昆士兰建造一个度假村。A thriller in Manila马尼拉的巨变The Philippine capital is famous for many things—floods and traffic jams for a start—but not for striking architecture.最开始菲律宾首都以洪水和交通拥挤而不是夺人眼球的建筑闻名。Now, however, on a large plot of reclaimed land overlooking Manila Bay, it is getting four big and impressive casino buildings at once.然而,现在站在一大片填海土地上眺望马尼拉湾时,首先映入眼帘的便是4个巨大且令人印象深刻的。The first of Manilas new gambling venues, the Solaire Resort amp; Casino, has opened.马尼拉第一家新兴场馆,the Solaire Resort amp; Casino已经开业。It is a sleek plate-glass affair with a suitably flashy interior created by Paul Steelman, a casino designer from Las Vegas.它由来自的设计师Paul Steelman设计,它有着光滑的玻璃已经舒适华丽的内饰。Operated by the Philippine-owned Bloomberry Resorts and Hotels, Solaire will cost over 1 billion to finish.将耗资10亿美元建设完成Solaire会由菲律宾国营的Bloomberry度假村酒店经营。This was the minimum investment required to win one of the four licences on offer.这是获得四个许可之一的最低投资要求。The other three Manila projects are joint ventures with overseas operators.另外三个马尼拉的项目都是有海外运营商的合资项目。The Belle Grande, to be operated by Melco, is due to open next year.由新濠国际运营的大百丽计划于明年开业。Another, Manila Bay Resorts, is backed by Kazuo Okada, a Japanese billionaire.另外依靠于日本富豪冈田和生的马尼拉湾度假村由于遇到了各种法律上的麻烦可能会推迟开业。It has run into various legal troubles that may delay it, including allegations of bribery and using front companies to own land on its behalf.这些麻烦包括受贿指控以及利用前公司扩占土地等问题。Mr Okadas company says it plans legal action against employees it accuses of making illegal payments contrary to company rules,冈田先生的公司称他们将会运用法律手段与指控其不顾公司规定获取非法收益的员工经行斗争。and that it is co-operating with the authorities to ensure it obeys the law regarding its land ownership.同时它也会与政府展开合作,确保其严格遵守法律获取土地。The fourth project, Resorts World Bayshore, is backed by Genting, a gambling giant with global ambitions.海滨名胜世界作为第四个项目由云顶集团投资。Genting kick-started Manilas casino craze when it opened Resorts World Manila opposite the capitals main airport in .该集团是有着全球野心的巨型企业。年首都机场对面马尼拉云顶世界的开业掀起了马尼拉狂潮。Older casinos had acquired a dubious reputation as smoke-filled dens for solitary gamblers.之前的作为为孤独的赌徒提供烟雾弥漫的窝点已获得了一定地位。RWM demonstrated that a casino complex could appeal to the whole family by incorporating shows, cinemas and posh shops.马尼拉云顶世界则展示了作为一家复合型,它应该为整个家庭提供务,包括综合表演,电影院以及奢侈品店。The formula satisfies both God and mammon;这种经营方式满足了上帝也赚到了钱;it appeased critics of gambling, such as the Philippines influential Catholic church, and made lots of money.它既平息了对来自菲律宾具有影响力的天主教堂对的批判也赚到了钱。RWMs takings were 355m in its first year.第一年RWM就赚到了355,000,000美元。The government hopes the new casinos will boost tourism across the country, with punters moving on to beach resorts to spend their winnings, or cry over their losses into their pia coladas.政府希望这些会带动当地旅游业的发展,让赢家将所赢金钱消费到沙滩度假村,让输家借酒浇愁。Solaire sees a healthy market both from local punters on modest budgets—with bets of as little as 300 pesos—and from VIP tables where the minimum is at least 25,000 pesos.对于仅将7美元作为赌注预算的船夫与那些至少会花25,000pesos的贵宾而言,Solaire都是一个理想的场所。Solaire expects about half of these high-rollers to come from mainland China and another third or so to hail from Japan and South Korea.Solaire表示这些狂赌者有一半以上都来自中国大陆,另外还有三成左右来自日本及韩国。It will send a private jet to pick up the real big spenders, those who think nothing of splashing out 10m over the course of a junket.会派私人飞机接待那些在游览中随便用上1千万美金的真正大款。Solaires owner is Enrique Razon junior, whose family made its money in shipping.其拥有者是小Enrique Razon,他的家族以航海为生。The only cloud on his horizon is geopolitical: the Philippines increasingly acrimonious confrontations with China and Taiwan over disputed territories and waters in the South China Sea.他的眼中只有地理学:在中国南海上的,菲律宾加强了其与中国关于领土领海问题的激烈对抗。 Razon承认道。This does worry us, Mr Razon concedes. When the Chinese government tells people not to go to the Philippines, they dont go.当中国政府告诉人们不要去菲律宾,大家就真的不去了,这让我们很担心。All of the countries in the region have a similar love-hate relationship with China, in which diplomatic spats can all too easily flare up.本区域内的所有国家都与中国有着爱憎关系,这样外交矛盾轻易就会爆发。That is why, as China generates ever larger numbers of well-off consumers with a passion for gambling and a desire to travel, the main concern for the regions many new casino projects is not competition from each other; it is politics.现在中国比以往拥有更多的热爱旅行,热衷的富人。这就是为什么这一地区内项目更关注的是政治而不是同行中的竞争力。 /201309/258012

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