明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月23日 08:46:32

The territorial tensions that are inflaming relations between China and its neighbours are due in part to a collapse in local fish stocks, which is pushing the Chinese fishing fleet into conflict with nearby states.导致中国与多个邻国关系恶化的领土争端在一定程度上是由于中国当地渔业资源大量减少,迫使中国渔船与周边国家发生冲突。Friction between China and Japan in the East China Sea tends to flare shortly after China’s annual summer fishing ban — imposed to protect domestic fisheries — is lifted at the start of August. Similarly, diplomatic and military jostling in the South China Sea plays out against a backdrop of a steady stream of Chinese fishing boats captured in the waters of Indonesia and the Philippines, in what the Chinese foreign ministry has called China’s “traditional fishing grounds”.每年8月初中国夏季休渔期(旨在保护国内渔业资源的禁止制度)结束不久,中国与日本在东中国海(East China Sea)的擦往往就会升级。同样,南中国海(South China Sea)的外交和军事角力是在这样的背景之下上演的:不断有中国渔船在印尼和菲律宾的领海——中国外交部称之为中国的“传统海域”——被扣押。On the first day of August, the crackle and bang of fireworks marked the start of the fishing season in the coastal community along China’s eastern seaboard. A few days later, Japanese diplomats began vociferously protesting against the arrival of a 230-boat flotilla in disputed waters near islands that Japan calls the Senkaku and China the Diaoyu, accompanied by about a dozen Chinese coastguard vessels.8月的第一天,中国东部沿海地区在炮竹声中迎来了开渔季。几天后,日本外交官就高声抗议一由230条艘船组成的船队在十数艘中国海警船陪同下,进入日本称为尖阁列岛(Senkaku)、中国称为“钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿”的群岛附近的争议海域。Meagre catches in nearby waters plus government subsidies to the fishing industry drive investment in bigger boats, which can roam further in search of more fish. Earlier this year, Chinese boats were caught in Australia, New Zealand and even Argentine waters, on the opposite side of the globe.中国周边海域量的匮乏,再加上政府对渔业的补贴,推动渔民投资建造更大型的渔船,到更远的地方捕捞更多的鱼。今年早些时候,在澳大利亚、新西兰、甚至地球另一边的阿根廷海域,都出现了中国渔船的身影。Fishermen in Zhoushan, the eastern archipelago that is home to one of China’s largest fishing communities, say their boats have been pushed further afield by pollution and overfishing in China’s coastal waters.位于华东的舟山群岛是中国最大的渔场之一,当地渔民表示,由于中国近海水域污染严重和过度捕捞的缘故,他们的渔船不得不开赴更远的海域。“In all the seas of China there are no fish,” says Li Minkui, a tanned migrant worker who has drifted to Shenjiamen, the archipelago’s market port, looking for a spot on a boat before the start of the season. Over the 20 years he has worked in and around fishing boats, he says he has seen declines both in catches and the size of fish.“中国所有海域都没鱼了。”皮肤黝黑的李民奎(音译)表示,他从外地来到舟山的沈家门渔港打工,希望开渔前在船上找一份工作。20年来,他不是在渔船上干就是做着相关的工作。据他所见,不光是量下降了,鱼的个头也变小了。Other men on the pier agree, shouting out the names of fish — including the yellow croaker, octopus and cuttlefish — that are no longer caught in commercially viable volumes in Zhoushan’s waters. Only eels and shrimp remain, they say.码头上的其他人也同意这种说法,他们张口就说出了几种在舟山海域捕捞量已无法取得经济效益的鱼类,其中包括黄花鱼、章鱼和墨鱼。他们说,值得捕捞的只剩下鳗鱼和虾了。Foreign analysts sometimes depict Chinese fishing boats as convenient fronts for paramilitary expansionism. But the technocrats setting Chinese fishing policy frame it the opposite way: China’s need to catch fish justifies a stronger international stance. The Chinese ambassador to Tokyo said that the dozen coast guard vessels deployed to the East China Sea this month were to “protect its fishing boats”.外国分析人士有时会将中国渔船描述为中国进行准军事扩张的便利前线。中国负责制定渔业政策框架的技术官员却有着相反的说法:的需求表明中国有必要在国际上持更强硬的立场。中国驻日大使表示,本月派往东中国海的十几条海警船是为了“保护中国渔船”。Earlier this month, China’s minister of agriculture said the country would trim its fishing fleet to preserve local fish stocks. Previous initiatives have been coupled with incentives to expand the long-distance fleet, thus increasing the fishing pressure in international waters.中国农业部长本月早些时候表示,中国将减少渔船数量,以保护国内渔业资源。此前推行的相关措施同时伴随着扩大远洋渔船数量的激励措施,加大了国际海域的捕捞压力。Chinese overfishing is partly driven by rising demand thanks to improved standards of living — by some counts, China accounts for about a third of world seafood consumption, including farmed fish.中国的过度捕捞部分是由于居民生活水平提高导致对鱼类需求上升推动的。根据一些估算,包括养殖的鱼类在内,中国约占世界海产品消费量的三分之一。But that is far from the only factor. Chinese processors are the largest source of seafood imported into the UK, and account for substantial shares of the fish sold in Europe, North America, Japan and Korea. Almost half the Chinese fleet’s catch in international waters is ultimately exported.但这绝非造成过度捕捞的唯一因素。中国加工厂是英国海产品进口的最大来源,欧洲、北美、日本和韩国市场上销售的鱼类产品,有相当大一部分也来自中国。中国渔船在国际海域捕获的鱼类接近一半最终用于出口。Meanwhile, rapid expansion fuelled by debt and government incentives has left Chinese fish processors struggling with overcapacity, like many other industries in China. That encourages Beijing to subsidise the Chinese fishing fleet to keep searching for diminishing supplies of fish, just to maintain jobs in fish processing, boatbuilding and other related industries.另一方面,在债务和政府激励措施助推下的快速扩张,已经让中国鱼类加工厂饱受产能过剩之苦,落入与中国其他许多产业相似的困境。这种局面愈发促使中国政府补贴国内渔船,以继续捕捞日渐减少的鱼类,仅仅是为了维持鱼类加工、造船及其他相关产业的就业机会。“If the country wasn’t subsidising the diesel, half the boats here would be off the water,” says Mr Chen, a boat owner from Zhoushan who believes he is the last generation in his family to make a living off the sea. “But fishermen need to fish. If there aren’t fish in our waters, we need to go somewhere else.”舟山一位陈姓船主表示:“如果国家不补贴柴油,这里有一半渔船不会出海。”他相信自己是家里在海上谋生的最后一代人。“不过渔民就要打鱼,如果我们的水域没鱼了,我们就得去别的地方。” /201608/462419









  When the new US embassy in London, just along the river Thames from Battersea power station, opens its doors in late 2016, it will be one of the most secure buildings in Britain.当位于伦敦的美国大使馆新楼于2016年末正式启用时——它位于泰晤士河畔的巴特西发电厂(Battersea Power Station)附近——将是英国保安最严密的建筑之一。Architects KieranTimberlake trumpet its high-spec, high-security features: “In contrast to high perimeter walls and fences, security requirements are achieved through landscape design — such as the large pond, low garden walls with bench seating, and differences in elevation that create natural, unobtrusive barriers.”建筑师事务所基兰#8226;廷伯雷克(Kieran Timberlake)夸耀其高规格、高度安全的特色:“保安要求是通过景观设计来实现的,而没有采用高围墙和栅栏——例如宽阔的池塘,低矮的花园围墙搭配长条座椅,以及通过高度差异创建的自然而不突兀的屏障。”The embassy’s own description of the building as “modern, welcoming, safe” sums up the challenge planners have in reconciling the conflicting desires for security and openness in contemporary urban environments.大使馆自身对这座建筑的描述是“现代、友好、安全”,这概括了设计师们在当代城市环境中调和安全与开放这对相互冲突的目的时面临的挑战。But while the embassy design is a far cry from the more obviously militarised current site in Grosvenor Square, critics say it is emblematic of a broader trend. 虽然新大使馆的设计与位于格罗夫纳广场(Grosvenor Square)风格明显更加军事化的美国大使馆现址相去甚远,但家们称其代表了一股更加广泛的潮流。The past decade, has seen highly defended spaces spring up across towns and cities, creating what some describe as a hostile “fortresslike” environment.过去10年来,高度戒备的建筑空间在各个城镇拔地而起,营造出了被某些人描述为“像堡垒一样的”带有敌意的环境。The new US embassy is “like a Norman castle,” says Stephen Graham, professor of cities and society at Newcastle University. “It even has a moat and is set back, with empty space to protect it from truck bombs or blast,” he adds. “This is the logic of what an antiterrorist city would look like.”美国大使馆新楼“看起来像一座诺曼式城堡”,英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)研究城市与社会的教授斯蒂芬#8226;格雷厄姆(Stephen Graham)表示。“它甚至有一条护城河,并且布局靠后,留出了空荡荡的空间以防备卡车炸弹或者爆炸,”他补充称。“这种构思体现出了一座反恐城市会有的样子。”Such fortified buildings are one aspect of a trend that has introduced several forms of “defensible space” into the landscape. A public outcry greeted the “anti-homeless” spikes that were spotted fixed into the ground outside a private apartment block in south London’s Southwark Bridge Road last summer.这种加强防御的建筑是潮流的一个侧面,这股潮流将多种形式的“可防御空间”引入了城市景观。去年夏天,伦敦南部南华桥路(Southwark Bridge Road)一栋私人公寓楼外的地面被发现嵌入了“防范无家可归者的”尖钉,此事激起了强烈的公众抗议。Boris Johnson, London’s mayor, called them “ugly, self-defeating and stupid” and they were later removed.时任伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)将这些尖钉称为是“丑陋、适得其反和愚蠢的”,随后这些尖钉被移除。Retailers have courted controversy by installing so-called “Mosquito” alarms, which emit a high-pitched sound heard only by young people and babies, to discourage loitering. 零售商们安装的所谓“蚊子”警报器也很容易招致争议,这种装置通过发出只有年轻人和婴幼儿听得到的高频声音来阻止他们在店内逗留。In New York, spiked coverings have been attached to fire hydrants to prevent people sitting on them. Other examples include sloped bus shelter seats, park benches you cannot lie down on and the Camden bench, designed to deter skateboarders.在纽约,消防栓上被安装了带有尖钉的覆盖物,以防止人们坐在消防栓上。其他例子还包括带有坡度的公车站座椅,让你无法平躺其上的公园长椅,以及坎姆登区(Camden)为了阻止滑板玩家而设计的水泥长凳。The term “defensible space” was coined by the US architect Oscar Newman in the 1970s. This spawned an industry based on the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), ideas that journeyed across the Atlantic and have a far-reaching influence on urban policy through, for example, the UK police’s initiative, Secured by Design.“可防御空间”这个词是美国建筑师奥斯卡#8226;纽曼(Oscar Newman)在20世纪70年代发明的。这一理念催生了基于通过环境设计预防犯罪(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design,简称CPTED)原则的一个产业,相关创意传播至大西洋彼岸,对城市政策产生了深远影响,英国警方的安全设计(Secured by Design)倡议就是一例。Prof Graham comments: “We are redesigning the city so that anyone who doesn’t move is deemed a threat, which includes someone who is pregnant, who has young kids or a disability. 格雷厄姆教授称:“我们正在重新设计城市,使任何不在移动的人都被看成了威胁,这其中包括妇、带有年幼子女的人或者残疾人。I can’t deny there are attacks and dangers and vulnerabilities, but sometimes those are exaggerated and the terrorist threat becomes a massive obsession.”我不否认存在恐怖袭击、危险以及安全漏洞,但有些时候这些因素被夸大了,恐怖主义威胁变成了一种让人纠结的东西。”Phoebe Boulton Jaggi, a student at the London College of Communication who has researched antisocial street furniture says cities become “more liveable for consumers and less liveable for other people”. 菲比#8226;尔顿#8226;贾吉(Phoebe Boulton Jaggi)是伦敦传媒学院(London College of Communication)的一名学生,她曾研究反社会的街道公共设施。While architects may attract support for building defences into potential targets such as the US embassy, critics object to fortress security levels grafted on to other public buildings, including schools, hospitals and housing. 贾吉称,城市正变得“对消费者更加宜居,对其他人群不那么宜居”。尽管建筑师将防御设计融入潜在袭击目标(如美国大使馆)或许会获得持,但家们反对将堡垒级的保安设施移植到其他公共建筑上,例如学校、医院和住宅区。These often incorporate features such as high-perimeter fencing, barbed wire and CCTV cameras.这类保安设施准往往包括高耸的防护围栏、带刺铁丝网和闭路电视摄像头。“Secured by Design has become the template for all new development today,” says Anna Minton, author of Ground Control and er in architecture at the University of East London. 《地面控制》(Ground Control)一书作者、东伦敦大学(University of East London)建筑学准教授安娜#8226;敏顿(Anna Minton)表示:“安全设计已经成了当今所有新开发项目的基本模板。”The threat of terrorism has become the “justification for ever-increasing security” as part of the daily environment, she adds.她补充称,恐怖主义威胁成了“保安日益升级的理由”,这些设施成为了日常环境的一部分。Secured by Design, wholly-owned by the Association of Chief Police Officers, was formed in 1989. It supports the concept of “designing out crime”, with, for example, specially constructed doors and fencing, which, it says, can reduce burglary by 75 per cent.安全设计创立于1989年,由英国警察局长协会(British Association of Chief Police Officers)全资所有。该机构持“用设计预防犯罪”的理念,比如借助特别设计的门和围栏,能将盗窃案减少75%。“Security measures can be invisible,” says Jon Cole, Secured by Design’s national operations manager. “If you build in security at the outset, then the building will generally be far more aesthetically pleasing.”安全设计的全国运营经理乔恩#8226;科尔(Jon Cole)表示,“安保措施可以是无形的。如果你从一开始就在建筑中融入安保设计,那么这种建筑在外形上通常会更加美观。”There has been something of a reaction to hyper-securitised, exclusive city spaces. London’s Oxford Circus is an example of the European idea of “shared space”, which focuses on improving traffic safety through the removal of barriers, roundabouts and even traffic lights.安保措施过于严格而又排外的城市空间激起了某些反应。伦敦的牛津圆环(Oxford Circus)就是一个体现欧洲“共享空间”理念的例子。为了提高交通安全性,有关部门在这里移除障碍物、环形交叉口甚至交通信号灯。In the US, organisations such as San Francisco Rebar, a landscape design group, are influencing the debate on public space. Meanwhile, in Hamburg, designer Oliver Schau has used yellow drainage pipes to create impromptu “guerrilla seating” in urban areas.在美国,旧金山的景观设计机构Rebar等组织正在对有关公共空间的辩论产生影响。与此同时,在汉堡,设计师奥利弗#8226;绍(Oliver Schau)利用黄色排水管在城区即兴创造出了“游击座椅”。In Canada, RainCity Housing, an independent charity that helps the homeless, installed a roofed bench in the city to provide shelter to street sleepers, in contrast to the anti-homeless spikes that have made their appearance on London’s streets.在加拿大,旨在帮助无家可归者的独立慈善组织雨城住房(RainCity Housing)在市区安装了带有顶棚的长椅,为露宿街头者提供庇护。这与伦敦街头曾经出现的防备无家可归者的尖钉形成了鲜明对比。Prof Graham thinks the debate will intensify. “Raising awareness of what is going on is a challenge,” he says. “It is such a massive thing for people to get their heads round.”格雷厄姆教授认为,相关辩论将会变得更加激烈。“提高公众对当前状况的认识是一项挑战,”他表示。“这是一个需要人们大费脑筋才能理解的宏大问题。” /201608/462868

  Electric car sales in China are expected to reach 220,000 to 250,000 this year, surpassing the US to rank first worldwide, China Association of Automobile Manufactures (CAAM) forecast.据中国汽车工业协会预计,中国新能源汽车今年销量将有望达到22万-25万辆,或超过美国成为世界最大新能源汽车市场。Worldwide electric cars sales will hit 600,000 and the figure for the US market is estimated to be 180,000, said Xu Yanhua, deputy secretary-general of CAAM.中国汽车工业协会副秘书长许艳华表示,全球新能源汽车销量今年将达60万辆,美国全年销量预计为18万辆。Although China has achieved rapid development in electric vehicles, quality instead of quantity should be focused on for the sustainable development of the industry, Xu told an industry conference.许艳华在一次产业会议上说,虽然中国已经在新能源汽车这一领域实现了快速发展,但是接下来#39;质量取代数量#39;应该是行业可持续性发展的重中之重。In particular, vehicle safety and the quality of batteries should be carefully examined and supervised, she added.她补充说道,尤其是在汽车的安全以及电池质量这两方面,都是需要经过严密的监督和检查的。China#39;s new energy vehicle sector has seen explosive growth in the past two years, thanks to the government#39;s support policies including subsidies and tax cuts.由于政府出台了购车补贴、税费减免等扶持政策,过去两年我国新能源汽车产业呈现爆炸式增长。In the first ten months, the sales of electric cars surged 290 percent year on year to 171,145, CAAM data showed.国汽车工业协会数据显示,今年1-10月,全国累计销售电动汽车171145辆,同比增长290%。 /201512/415331

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