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A small Slovenian town is pressing ahead with plans to build a fountain which spouts beer instead of water, despite opposition from some councillors.尽管遭到一些地方议员反对,但斯洛文尼亚的一个小镇仍在极力推行一项计划:建造一座啤酒喷泉——该喷泉喷出的将是啤酒,而不是水。The project in Zalec, which is known for its hop plantations, is being described as the first beer fountain in Europe, and has made headlines in neighbouring Croatia and further afield in Serbia. The fountain doesn#39;t yet have a completion date, but future visitors will find a variety of Slovenian beers on offer, and pay six euros for three 30cl helpings served in a commemorative mug, Slovenia#39;s Dnevnik news website reports.小镇名为扎来茨,因啤酒花种植而闻名,有望成为欧洲首个建造啤酒喷泉的地方。它要建造啤酒喷泉的消息已在邻国克罗地亚、甚至更远的塞尔维亚引发轰动。据斯洛文尼亚的邓尼维克新闻网报道,目前这座喷泉还未确定建成日期,不过等它竣工后,游客可以品尝到斯洛文尼亚出售的各种啤酒。每个纪念马克杯可以盛三份啤酒,每份啤酒30厘升。每杯啤酒售价6欧元。It#39;s set to cost the council about 170,000 euros—half of the total bill for construction, the website says. The town#39;s mayor, Janko Kos, says the remainder will come from private donations. ;It#39;s true the fountain won#39;t be cheap. But it#39;s a development project, a tourism product,; he told the website.报道称,建造总费用的一半将由镇议会付,即17万欧元。镇长扬科·科斯表示,剩下的费用将来自民间捐助。他接受采访时称:“建造这个喷泉确实耗资巨大,但这是一个发展项目,一个旅游产品。”But the course of the beer fountain has not run smoothly—some opposition councillors aren#39;t happy about the amount being spent, saying it could be put to better use in the community. They attempted to scupper the plans at an extraordinary council meeting last week, but were ultimately outvoted by two-thirds of their colleagues.然而建造啤酒喷泉的提议也收到不少阻力,一些持反对意见的地方议员认为项目太费钱。他们表示,这些钱本可以投入到社区中,发挥更大的作用。在上周举行的镇议会特别会议中,反对者试图否决这一计划,但最终,有三分之二的议员投了赞成票。Zalec sits in a valley of hop plantations in central Slovenia, known locally as the ;valley of green gold;. Even the town#39;s green and yellow crest pays tribute to its main activity, simply featuring the outline of a hop plant.扎来茨位于斯洛文尼亚中部,是一个满是啤酒花种植园的山谷。当地人称之为“绿金山谷”。甚至当地黄绿相间的山峰波谷也来配合它的宣传——勾勒出一幅啤酒花植株的样子。 /201602/426429In America, we#39;re known for our indulgences — home appliances, electronics, vacations, cars. So how does our spending stack up against Europeans, or folks in Asia? Read on for our analysis of the most uniquely American spendings habits out there.作为美国人,人们会因为家用电器、电子产品、假期、汽车等特色而被熟知。那么美国人的消费和欧洲人以及亚洲人相比较呢?下面就一起来看一看我们分析出来的最独特的美国消费习惯。1.The Lottery1.票Americans spend more money playing the lotto than on books, games, and movie and sporting event tickets combined. In 2014, lottery spending in the U.S. totaled a whopping billion.美国人在玩乐透票上的花费要超过购买书籍、视频游戏、电影以及体育赛事门票的总和。2014年,在美国票上的消费总额高达700亿美元。2.Doctors and Dentists2.医生和牙医The U.S. spends more public dollars on healthcare than all but two countries. There are a couple of reasons for that. First, healthcare services are notably higher in the U.S. than in most other nations. And secondly, Americans are greater users of expensive medical treatments and technologies, such as MRI machines.除了两个国家,美国在医疗方面的花费比其他所有国家都要多。这主要是因为两大原因。第一就是因为美国的医疗保健务明显优于其他国家。第二,美国拥有更多的如核磁共振成像机在内的昂贵的医疗设备和技术的使用者。3.Housing3.住房Americans spend more money on housing than people in Canada, the ed Kingdom, and Japan. In a 2009 study, Americans funneled an average 26% of their expenditures toward shelter.美国人在住房上的花销要高于加拿大人、英国人和日本人。一项2009年的调查显示,美国人平均26%的出都花在了住房上。4.Taxis, Planes, and Trains4.出租车,飞机以及火车The same study showed Americans also spend more on private transit, other than automobiles, than folks in Canada, the ed Kingdom, and Japan.同样的一项调查显示,美国人相比起加拿大人、英国人和日本人来说,在私人交通上花费更多的钱,而不是花在公共汽车上。5.Education5.教育The U.S. spends more on education than any other developed nation, and most of the funding comes from the pockets of parents and private foundations. Total spending per student in the U.S. tops ,000. Switzerland spends nearly ,000 and Mexico pays about ,000. Despite big spending, American students still lag behind comparable nations on international tests.美国在教育方面的出比其他任何发达国家都要多,而且大部分的资金是来源于父母和私人基金会。每名学生在美国的总出约为15000美元,位居全球第一位。瑞士在该方面的花费近15000美元,而墨西哥则只需付约3000美元。但是,尽管出数额巨大,美国的学生还是在国际测试中落后于其他国家的学生。Americans are also more likely than residents of any European nation to go into debt to pay for Christmas presents. One in five Americans used credit to cover holiday spending in 2014. What#39;s more, the US leads global spending on chocolate bars, topping out at nearly b per year. That shakes out to an average annual chocolate expenditure of per American.此外,美国人比欧洲任何一个国家的居民更可能在圣诞节;借债送礼;。2014年,1/5的美国人靠刷信用卡才能付假日花销。另外,美国还引领了全球巧克力棒的消费,平均每年消费近30亿美元;相当于每个美国人平均一年在巧克力棒上要消费57美元。 /201601/424694As the population imbalance in China between men and women has become intensive, Xie Zuoshi, a professor with the School of Economics and International Trade at Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, said in his blog that the problem can be solved by allowing polyandry.对于国内男女比例越来越不均衡,浙江大学国际经济贸易学院的谢作诗在他的客中说道这个问题可以通过允许一妻多夫制解决。This view is presented in an article written by Xie, ;No Need to Worry about 30 Million Single Men;, which is under severe criticism as many consider it violating moral standard.这个观点出自谢作诗的文章《三千万光棍是杞人忧天》,受到了严重批评,很多人称其破坏了道德准则。According to the National Bureau of Statistics, due to a severe gender imbalance, China will have more than 30 million men who cannot find wives. Sociology experts worry that this will turn into a severe social problem for the country.根据国家统计局数据显示,由于严重的男女比例失调,中国将有超过三千万男性找不到配偶。社会学专家担心这将变成一个严重的社会问题。Xie Zuoshi wrote that he does not think the imbalance will develop into a severe social problem because analyzed by economic theories, the 30 million single men problem can be viewed as a problem of high-income versus low income and several low-income earners can share a wife.谢教授并不认为这种比例失衡会造成严重社会问题,因为这三千万男性可以看作是一种高收入男性VS低收入男性,而低收入者可以几个人有一个妻子。;Males with high-income will get married easier because they can afford a wife. For low-incomers, one solution is to allow polyandry,; he wrote. ;In fact, in some rural areas in China, there are situations in which brothers of a family share one wife and they also live happily together.他说:;高收入男性更容易结婚,因为他们更能养得起自己的妻子。对于低收入者,一个解决方法是允许一妻多夫。实际上在很多中国农村地区,一家几兄弟配一个妻子的现象的确存在,而且他们生活很幸福。;He said that if polyandry is legalized, it would be a perfect solution to solve the 30 million single men#39;s sexual needs, which he believed will be the most important factor in igniting social unrest.他说这三千万男性的生理需求将是引起社会不安的重要因素,而一夫多妻可以解决这一问题。In addition, Xie Zuoshi wrote that with better economic development, more women from Africa and Southeast Asia will be attracted to marry Chinese men and allowing gay marriage will also relieve the problem.除此以外,谢教授还写道,随着经济发展,更多的来自非洲和东南亚的女性会愿意嫁到中国,允许同性婚姻也会缓解这一问题。While putting forward solutions, he also said that the abuse of estrogen in food might reduce sexual needs and capabilities of men in China.除了推荐解决方法外,他还称食物中滥用雌性激素可能会减少中国男性的生理需求和性能力。 /201510/406821

Organic meat and milk differ markedly from their conventionally produced counterparts in measures of certain nutrients, a review of scientific studies reported on Tuesday.周二(2月9日),一项科学研究综述报告,有机肉类和牛奶在某些营养成分上与通过常规方式生产的同类产品间存在明显差异。In particular, levels of omega-3 fatty acids, beneficial for lowering the risk of heart disease, were 50 percent higher in the organic versions.尤其是,有机产品中有益于降低心脏病风险的ω-3脂肪酸的水平比普通产品高出50%。“The fatty acid composition is definitely better,” said Carlo Leifert, a professor of ecological agriculture at Newcastle University in England and the leader of an international team of scientists who performed the review.该综述由一国际科学家小组完成,其负责人,英格兰纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的生态农业教授卡洛·莱费特(Carlo Leifert)说:“(有机产品的)脂肪酸组成绝对更佳。”The European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, and the Sheepdrove Trust, a British charity that supports organic farming research, paid for the analysis, which cost about 0,000.该项分析耗资约60万美元,这些费用由欧盟(European Union)的执行机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)和持有机农业研究的英国慈善机构Sheepdrove Trust承担。However, the question of whether these differences are likely to translate to better health in people who eat organic meat and drink organic milk is sharply disputed.然而,上述差异是否代表着吃有机肉类、喝有机牛奶的人更为健康呢?人们对此仍有尖锐的争议。“We don’t have that answer right now,” said Richard P. Bazinet, a professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto who was not involved with the research. “Based on the composition, it looks like they should be better for us.”“这个问题的我们现在还不得而知,”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的营养科学教授理查德·P·巴齐内(Richard P. Bazinet)说,他没有参与上述研究。“但就营养组成而言,它们(有机产品)似乎更为有益。”The two new scientific papers, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, are not the result of any new experiments, but instead employ a statistical technique called meta-analysis that attempts to pull robust conclusions out of many disparate studies.这两篇新的科学论文发表在《英国营养学杂志》(The British Journal of Nutrition)上,它们并没有介绍什么新的实验结果,而是采用了一种名为荟萃分析的统计技术,试图从众多不同的研究中得出强有力的结论。They are certain to further stir a combative debate over whether organic foods are healthier. Some scientists assert that organic and conventional foods are nutritionally indistinguishable, and others find significant benefits to organic. Many people who buy organic food say they do so not for a nutritional advantage, but because of environmental concerns and to avoid pesticides.它们势必会进一步激起人们就有机食品是否更为健康展开激烈的辩论。一些科学家宣称,有机食品和常规食品的营养价值并无区别,而其他人则发现有机产品显著较好。许多人称自己购买有机食品并非是为了更高的营养价值,而是出于对环境的忧虑,以及希望能避免农药问题。The higher levels of omega-3, a type of polyunsaturated fat, arise not from the attributes usually associated with organic food — that the animals are not given antibiotics, hormones or genetically modified feed — but rather from a requirement that animals raised organically spend time outside. Organic milk and beef come from cattle that graze on grass, while most conventional milk and beef come from cows subsisting on grain.ω-3脂肪酸是一种多不饱和脂肪。有机食品中ω-3脂肪酸水平较高,并不是有机食品本身的特点(即不给予动物抗生素、激素或转基因饲料)造成的,而是因为有机养殖的动物在室外活动的时间较长。有机牛奶和牛肉产自在草地上放牧的牛,而大多数普通牛奶和牛肉则产自吃谷物的牛。“It’s not something magical about organic,” said Charles M. Benbrook, an organic industry consultant who is an author of the studies. “It’s about what the animals are being fed.”“有机食品本身并没有什么神奇之处,”研究的作者之一,有机产业顾问查尔斯·M·本布鲁克(Charles M. Benbrook)说。“关键在于动物是用什么东西饲喂的。”Most of the same changes would be observed in conventionally raised animals that also grazed for the majority of their diet, the scientists said.“For once, this is a pretty simple story,” Dr. Benbrook said.科学家们表示,如果常规饲养的动物也以吃草为主,那么在它们身上也能发现很多相同的改变。“这样一来,问题就变得简单了,“本布鲁克士说。The review of comparisons of organic and conventional milk analyzed all 196 papers the scientists found. Because studies of meat are sparser, they could not look at just one type of meat like beef or pork. Instead, they did one analysis of the 67 papers they found for all types of meat. “Only if you throw them all in one pot can you do a meta-analysis,” Dr. Leifert said.科学家们在比较有机和常规牛奶的综述中分析了他们所能找到的所有196篇论文。由于对肉类的研究较少,他们发现只审查关于某一种肉,如牛肉或猪肉的研究不现实。反之,他们对关于各种肉的67篇论文统一进行了分析。“只有把它们放在一起才能进行荟萃分析,”莱费特士解释道。Two years ago, Dr. Leifert led a similar review for fruits and vegetables that found organic produce had higher levels of some antioxidants and less pesticide residue than conventionally grown crops.两年前,莱费特士领导了一项关于水果和蔬菜的类似综述,发现与用常规方法种植的作物相比,有机农产品中某些抗氧化剂的水平较高,农药残留较少。Nutrition experts broadly agree that omega-3 fatty acids in food offer numerous health benefits. When the ed States Department of Agriculture revised its dietary guidelines in 2010, it urged people to eat more seafood, which is rich in omega-3.营养专家普遍认同,食物中的ω-3脂肪酸具有多种健康效益。美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture)在2010年修订其膳食指南时,呼吁人们多多食用富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。Omega-3 is much more prevalent in grass than in grain, which is why organic livestock and milk also contain higher levels. “Lo and behold, we altered in some fundamental ways the nutrient intake of these animals and hence the nutrient composition of the products that we derive from those animals,” Dr. Benbrook said.草料中的ω-3脂肪酸含量比谷物中高,因此有机家畜及其乳制品中也含有较高水平的ω-3脂肪酸。“你瞧,我们改变了这些动物摄入营养的基本方式,这才影响了其衍生产品的营养成分,”本布鲁克士说。The new analysis found that levels of another polyunsaturated fat, omega-6, were slightly lower in organic meat and dairy. Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential for the functioning of the human body, which can make neither. But some have argued that a skewing toward omega-6 has become unhealthy.新的分析还发现,在有机肉类和乳制品中,另一种多不饱和脂肪酸:ω-6脂肪酸的水平略低。ω-3和ω-6脂肪酸对于人体的正常功能来说都必不可少,而且人体无法自己合成它们。但也有人认为,过多摄入ω-6脂肪酸并不利于健康。Centuries ago, people ate roughly equal amounts of the two fatty acids. Today, most Americans eat more than 10 times as much omega-6, which is prevalent in certain vegetable oils and thus also fried foods, as omega-3.几个世纪以前,人们摄入的这两种脂肪酸大致等量。今天,由于某些植物油中普遍含有ω-6脂肪酸(因此油炸食品也一样),大多数美国人摄入的ω-6脂肪酸约为ω-3的10倍以上。In an email, Dr. Walter C. Willett, the chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said the differences between organic and conventional beef were trivial, and the amount of saturated fat in both were high.哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health)的营养系主任沃尔特·C·威利特(Walter C. Willett)士在一封电子邮件中写道,有机和常规牛肉之间的差异微不足道,而且两者中的饱和脂肪含量均很高。“Far greater, and beneficial, differences in fatty acids are seen if poultry and fish replace red meat,” Dr. Willett said.“如果用禽肉和鱼肉来代替红肉,你会发现更大、更有益于健康的脂肪酸差异,”威利特士如是说。A shortcoming of the recommendation to eat more fish is that if everyone followed it, the rivers, oceans and lakes would be emptied of fish. Dr. Bazinet of the University of Toronto said perhaps encouraging people to switch to organic meats and milk would be “a way to kind of get at them with the foods they’re aly eating.”不过,多吃鱼这个建议本身也有其缺点:如果每个人都遵循这个建议,那么河流、海洋和湖泊中的鱼就要被吃光了。多伦多大学的巴齐内士表示,鼓励人们改吃有机肉类和牛奶或许“只是在教人摄入本来就在吃的食物”。Dr. Bazinet said observational studies suggested that adding 200 milligrams a day of omega-3s to an average diet should yield health benefits. Switching to organic beef would add about 50 milligrams. “Eating one grass-fed beef serving per day is not going to do it,” he said.巴齐内士说,观察研究表明,在普通膳食的基础上,每天增加摄入200毫克ω-3脂肪酸可带来健康效益。而改吃有机牛肉只能多摄取到约50毫克的ω-3脂肪酸。于是他总结道:“每天吃一份草饲牛肉达不到你(补充ω-3脂肪酸)的目的。”But if combined with a couple of glasses of organic milk, “it should make a difference,” Dr. Bazinet said. “That would be the hypothesis.”但是,如果再喝上一两杯有机牛奶的话,“应该就有用了,”巴齐内士说。“假设上是如此。”Scientists are now trying to examine the health question more directly.现在科学家们正试图以更直接的方式来探讨这些健康问题。Dr. Leifert cited several studies that indicated that infants of mothers who ate organic fruits and vegetables were less likely to contract some diseases. He is also conducting experiments to see if rats fed organic foods are healthier. So far, he said, it appears that crop pesticide residue does have measurable effects on the rats’ hormones.莱费特士列举了数项研究,它们都表明,食用有机水果和蔬菜的母亲所诞下的婴儿较不容易患某些疾病。他还在进行实验,以研究饲喂有机食品的大鼠是否更健康。他说,从迄今为止的结果来看,农作物上的农药残留确实对大鼠的激素水平造成了明显的影响。“We still don’t know whether it kills you, but we do know it has an effect on hormonal balances,” he said. “It’s something that makes you think a little bit.”“虽然尚不清楚它是否会致死,但我们的确发现,它会影响激素的平衡。”他说,“这一点颇值得深思。” /201602/428192

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