原标题: 哈尔滨省妇幼保健院的qq号乐视知识
You know, when I watch futuristic sci-fi movies, I noticeeveryone has a normal aging pattern.我看未来派科幻电影的时候,发觉里面的人物年龄都是很正常的,就像我们普通人一样,活不了特别长。You dont encounter people who just having been 107 years old.在这种电影里,你根本就不可能会看到一个活到一百多岁的人。Thats probably amistake.我个人觉得这有问题。A mistake? Why?有问题?你又有何凭?Because science is giving us longer lifespans all the time.因为科学一直以来都致力于延长人们寿命的研究。Now, that sounds like science fiction!这样听来倒真的像是科幻小说了!Its true.这可是真的。A study conducted by James Carey and his colleagues at the University of California,for example, found a link between how long a mouse lives and its ovaries.比如说吧,加利佛利亚大学的James Carey和他的同事们进行了一项研究,他们发现老鼠的寿命和它的卵巢有很大关联。Its ovaries? What do they have to do with the aging?卵巢?卵巢和寿命会有什么关系啊?The researchers removed the ovaries of one set of mice when they were a few weeks old.研究人员准备了三组老鼠。在老鼠几星期大的时候,他们将一组老鼠的卵巢切除。Those mice didn’t live as long as mice who still had their ovaries.结果表明,被切除卵巢的一组老鼠没有未被切除卵巢的一组老鼠长寿。Another group of mice had theirovaries removed but got young ones later.另外还有一组老鼠被切除了卵巢,但后来又被植入了年轻的卵巢。The mice with the young ovaries implanted into them lived forty percent longer than the ones whokept their original ovaries, and sixty percent longer than the ones with no ovaries at all!被植入年轻卵巢的一组老鼠比未被切除卵巢的一组老鼠寿命长40%,比被切除卵巢的一组老鼠寿命整整长了60%!Yalza! Sixty percent longer?啊!60%!?Some chemical message is being sent from the ovaries to the rest of the body, telling it whatstage of life it is in.卵巢可以将某些化学信息传送至身体的其他部分,生命究竟处于哪个阶段。By renewing their ovaries, the scientists were essentially able to set the clockback.科学家们再将卵巢植入老鼠体内,可以说是让时光倒流了。So who wants mice to live longer?谁那么无聊,想要让老鼠长寿啊?Mice are just test.老鼠只是试验品。If we could understand how the body tells itself to age, maybe we couldmake other species live longer…like people.如果说我们能搞清楚老鼠的身体是怎样来发送有关年龄的信息的,有可能,我们就能使其他物种长寿些…比如,人类! 201406/308407Business商业报道Love, Korean-style韩式之恋Twos company两个人的专属网络The worlds most exclusive social network世界上最专一的社交网络SOUTH KOREANS take romance seriously.韩国人向来注重浪漫。Lovers are expected to swap sweet nothings many times a day and woe betide the clod who forgets a 100-day anniversary.一天之内,恋人总是交换甜言蜜语数遍不厌倦。Some pairs dress in couple style, in the same garish red sweater and blue jeans combo, for instance.若是谁忘了100天纪念日,那他可就要倒霉了。一些情侣穿着情侣装,诸如艳丽的红色羊毛套衫搭配蓝色牛仔裤。Small wonder that a Korean firm has created a social network for couples.由此,一家韩国公司开创了一个专属于情侣的社交网络,这也没什么好大惊小怪的。VCNCs app is called Between.韩国公司VCNC开发了一款叫Between的社交应用。It creates a private space for two people,这款社交应用给情侣们提供了两个人的专属空间。in which they can share photographs and special memories, chat in real time and exchange any number of cute emoticons:情侣们可以分享相片,珍贵的时刻,可以即时聊天,以及交换一些可爱的表情符号。smiley faces, winks, hearts and so on.如笑脸,眨眼,爱心等等。Though revolting to singles, Between is a hit.不得不说,Between让单身人士感到恶心,但它却引领起一股风潮。Since its launch in November, more than 560,000 Koreans have fallen for it.自去年十一月推出以来,超过56万的韩国人爱上了它。This comes despite VCNC spending virtually nothing on marketing.实际上,VCNC公司并没有在营销上做出太多动作。Park Jae-uk, the firms boss, claims another 200,000 users abroad, divided between China, Japan and North America.公司老板朴在旭宣称Between在海外拥有20万用户,并分布在中国,日本以及北美。Between is part of a trend towards intimacy in social networking.如今社交网络趋向私密化,Between也紧跟这种潮流。Some Facebook users are fed up with the torrent of friend requests from people they barely know.一些Facebook用户已经对源源不断的好友申请感到厌倦。这些好友申请通常来自于他们几乎不认识的人。Others resent being tagged in embarrassing photographs their boss can see.而一些用户则讨厌被标记在一些尴尬的照片上,因为这些照片连他们的老板也看得到。Hence the rise of services such as Path, an American network that limits members to 150 friends.因此,一些社交网络务的崛起,诸如Path,就严格限制了好友的封顶数为150人,Other networks, such as FamilyLeaf and Storytree, target families.而其它的一些社交网络,如FamilyLeaf和Storytree的目标受众则是家族成员。VCNC is betting that couples particularly value their privacy.VCNC认定情侣之间特别重视个人隐私。A message on ones Facebook Wall from an old flame can incinerate a new relationship.在Facebook上一条旧情人的信息足以破坏一段新恋情。Cutting the ex out removes the risk.屏蔽掉前度或者其他人则可以移除风险。Cynics may ask how a social network for two differs from simply sending text messages back and forth.有些愤世嫉俗者可能会问,Between和简单的来回发短信有什么不同。Betweens users presumably think the cynics lack romance in their souls.Between的用户可能会认为,这些批判者是骨子里缺乏浪漫基因。Revenue will come from advertising.未来,Between的收入将来自于广告。The firm hopes that nice restaurants and sellers of romantic holidays will pay to pitch to loved-up couples.VCNC公司希望一些高品质的餐馆,以及一些以浪漫假期为主打商品的商家可以来它的网站做宣传,VCNC由此收取广告费。It also plans to offer premium services, such as the printing of photobooks documenting the progress of a relationship.VCNC同时计划推出一项付费务,例如将相片集结成书,以此来记录情侣之间的感情历程。Swingers may be miffed to learn that Between allows only one partner per user.得知Between只允许每位用户拥有一位伴侣,一些滥交人士可能会有些许恼怒。But some cheaters have beaten the system by using multiple identities, laughs Mr Park.朴先生笑着说,然而有一些骗子却骗过系统的法眼,使用了多重身份。He is unlikely to join them.他自己不可能加入这些人的阵营中。Running VCNC keeps him too busy even for one girlfriend, he laments.他感叹道,经营VCNC已经让他够忙了,一个女朋友足矣。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245487

Business商业报道African entrepreneurs非洲企业家Parallel players同舞者Why many of Africas budding businessfolk are jacks-of-all-trades为何许多非洲的新兴企业家杂而不精ONE of the many terms Silicon Valley has bequeathed to the business world is serial entrepreneur, a label for those restless souls who start one business after another.硅谷留给商界的众多术语之一是连续企业家,指的是那些接连创业的不安分的人。Perhaps Africa can now contribute another expression: the parallel entrepreneur.也许非洲正在提供另一种表述并行企业家。More than in any other part of the developing world, the continents budding business folk create networks of several firms across a number of different sectors of the economy, according to research by IMANI, a think-tank based in Ghana.根据加纳智库IMANI的研究,与世界任何发展中的地区相比,更多非洲大陆的新兴企业家创造了横跨不同经济领域的系列公司网络。The 189 successful entrepreneurs it surveyed in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya own, on average, six businesses each.在参与调查的加纳,尼日尔和肯尼亚的189个成功企业家中,他们人均拥有6家企业,其中一位拥有超过60家企业。One boasted more than 60. What explains this entrepreneurial hyperactivity?如何解释这种企业家的极度活跃现象?One reason for it is simply the wealth of opportunity, says Cyril Allen II, a well-connected businessman in Liberias capital, Monrovia.利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚一家实力雄厚的家族式企业家,Cyril Allen 二世表示,大量的机会是造成这种现象的原因之一。He and his family farm cocoa and coffee, run a cleaning business, lease out property and manage logistics for international companies.他和他的家族种植可可树和咖啡树,经营一家清洁公司,财产租赁以及为跨国公司提供物流管理务。The civil war here ended less than a decade ago.他还表示内战已经结束将近十年了。Once a firm has established a degree of trust among its customers, that can in turn spawn new businesses, particularly when many other firms are unreliable.公司一旦在客户群中建立了一定的信用度,这就可以育出新的公司,尤其是在其他企业没有信用的情况下。We work based on relationships, so if I have a good relationship with a client, they might ask for another service,我们的工作基于关系网,这样如果我与客户维系一个良好的关系,客户就有可能会要求提供其他务。explains Njeri Rionge, an entrepreneur in Kenya whose interests extend from an internet provider to a management consultancy.肯尼亚企业家Njeri Rionge的业务涉及网络接入到管理咨询务等领域,他解释道。Necessity can also give rise to the creation of more than one company.需求会导致更多公司的创建。UT Holdings, in Ghana, started out in 1997 granting loans.位于加纳的UT Holdings创建于1997年,提供贷款务。But Prince Kofi Amoabeng, its founder, soon discovered that he needed to provide additional services to make the loans business work. He first added a debt-collection company, then security firms.但创建者Kofi Amoabeng王子很快发现他需要提供额外的务来维持贷款业务的运行。We found existing companies wanting, says Mr Amoabeng.他说:我们发现已有公司的需求。He keeps expanding his business portfolio, which now includes a life-insurance firm.他首先创立一家债务收缴公司,然后是劵公司。他不断的扩展公司的业务组合,目前还包括了一家人寿保险公司。Certain characteristics of African economies also make it more profitable to keep starting new firms rather than build a single big one.非洲经济的特性同样使得创建新企业比建立一个大型企业更加有利可图。Key resources are scarce.关键资源非常稀少,Mid-level managers are in sufficient supply, but few are capable of running large businesses, which is why they often apply their talents in several firms simultaneously.中型企业的管理者可以获得充足的供应,但很少人有能力运行一家大型企业,这也是他们使人才同时从事不同企业的原因。Financing is hard to come by; entrepreneurs find it easier to get several small loans for each business rather than a large chunk of money.融资非常困难,而企业家发现为几个企业单独申请小额贷款比一宗大笔贷款更加容易。But the most crucial factor may be bureaucracy.但是最关键的因素应该是政府。Its unpredictability deters businessmen from putting all their resources into one basket—out of fear that the market could be the target of onerous regulation.它们不可预知的阻碍商人将所有资源集中到一起—由于担心市场会被麻烦的监管条例所限制。Separate companies are often used to lower tax payments, says Bright Simons, an entrepreneur in Accra, Ghanas capital, who also works as a business analyst.Bright Simons是加纳首都阿克拉的企业家,同时也是一名商业分析师。A second firm might be formed to supply materials to the first, he explains, allowing the owner to adjust the prices and profits.他解释说,单独的公司通常缴纳较低的税金,而第二个公司为第一个提供原材料,这使得企业家可以调整产品的价格和利润。And once an entrepreneur has learned how to navigate the red tape, why not apply this valuable skill to other undertakings?如果一个企业家学会了如何驾驭这些政府的繁杂手续,为何不将这种有价值的技术应用于其他的企业中呢?Critics of Africas parallel entrepreneurs worry that jacks-of-all-trades cannot become masters of any.针对非洲并行企业家的批评家担心,这种杂而不精的方式会使企业变得没有专长。And some investors are wary of putting money into African firms because of their often labyrinthine ownership structures.一些投资者由于非洲企业错综复杂的所有权结构而采取非常谨慎的投资行为。But multitasking has its good sides, argues Ms Rionge, who in one of her parallel activities mentors young entrepreneurs.但在自己的并行企业中培训青年企业家的Rionge女士认为,这种多企业的并行方式有着自身的优点,It makes African business leaders agile and adaptable—both good skills that are absent in many developed economies.它培养了非洲企业领导人的灵活性和适应性,而这两种优秀技巧正是许多发达经济体中所欠缺的。 /201307/247736Science and technology科学技术The science of justice司法的学问I think its time we broke for lunch…该吃午餐了Court rulings depend partly on when the judge last had a snack法庭判决结果一定程度上取决于法官上一次吃点心的时间AROUND the world, courthouses are adorned with a statue of a blindfolded woman holding a set of scales and a sword:世界各地的法院都装饰有一尊女子的雕像,这个女人被蒙住双眼,手持一架天平和一把剑。Justice personified.她是正义的化身。Her sword stands for the power of the court, her scales for the competing claims of the petitioners.剑代表着法庭的权力,而天平代表着上诉人的竞争性权利主张。The blindfold represents the principle that justice should be blind.眼罩代表着司法的盲目性原则。The law should be applied without fear or favour, with only cold reason and the facts of the case determining what happens to the accused.也就是说应用法律应该毫无畏惧和偏袒之心,只有冷静的推理和案件事实才能决定如何处理被告。Lawyers, though, have long suspected that such lofty ideals are not always achieved in practice, even in well run judicial systems free from political meddling.然而,律师们一直以来都怀疑在实践中这种崇高的理想是否总能实现,就连在那些不受政治干涉、运转良好的司法体系里都是如此。Justice, say the cynics, is what the judge had for breakfast. Now they have proof.犬儒主义者说:司法就是法官的早餐。而且现在他们有了据。A paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes how Shai Danziger of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and his colleagues followed eight Israeli judges for ten months as they ruled on over 1,000 applications made by prisoners to parole boards.美国国家科学院学报一篇文章描述了内盖夫本-古里安大学的舍夷?丹齐格和他的几个同事追踪8位以色列法官10个月的事情,在这10个月里法官们裁判了囚犯向假释裁决委员会提出的1000多分申请。The plaintiffs were asking either to be allowed out on parole or to have the conditions of their incarceration changed.申请人要么请求准许假释要么请求改善狱中居住条件。The team found that, at the start of the day, the judges granted around two-thirds of the applications before them.调查小队发现,早晨法官所阅申请的约2/3得到了批准。As the hours passed, that number fell sharply, eventually reaching zero.而随着中午的临近,批准的数量急剧减少,最终接近于0。But clemency returned after each of two daily breaks, during which the judges retired for food.但是在每天的两餐休息时间过后,仁慈又重新降临。The approval rate shot back up to near its original value, before falling again as the day wore on.批准率回到了接近于早晨的水平,并随着时间的消逝再次下跌。To be sure, mealtimes were not the only thing that predicted the outcome of the rulings.当然,用餐时间并非预测判决结果的唯一因素。Offenders who appeared prone to recidivism were more likely to be turned down, as were those who were not in a rehabilitation programme.那些看起来容易再犯的犯人更可能被拒,那些没有参与罪犯改過自新项目的也是一样。Happily, neither the sex nor the ethnicity of the prisoners seemed to matter to the judges.而令人高兴的是,据一个司法专家组成的独立小组评定,Nor did the length of time the offenders had aly spent in prison, nor even the severity of their crimes.法官似乎不考虑罪犯的性别、种族、入狱时间长短甚至是他们罪行的严重程度。But after controlling for recidivism and rehabilitation programmes, the meal-related pattern remained.剔除了累犯和改过自新计划这些因素之后,与就餐相关的模式依然存在。The researchers offer two hypotheses for this rise in grumpiness.研究人员就这种暴躁情绪的产生给出了两种假设。One is that blood-sugar level is the crucial variable.其一是血糖浓度是关键的变量,This, though, predicts that the precise amount of time since the judge last ate will be what matters.可是这样就有人会猜测距法官上一次用餐的准确时间是重要的因素。In fact, it is the number of cases he has heard since his last break, not the number of hours he has been sitting, which best matches the data.而事实上,与调查数据最匹配的不是法官坐在那儿工作的时间长短,而是他上一次休息用餐后所审理的案件数量。That is consistent with a second theory, familiar from other studies, that decision making is mentally taxing and that,这就和第二种假设一致起来,即决策是一项耗费心神的劳动,if forced to keep deciding things, people get tired and start looking for easy answers.如果人们被迫一直做决定,那他们会变得疲惫而开始寻找简单的解决办法,这是其他研究也得出的结论。In this case, the easy answer is to maintain the status quo by denying the prisoners request.既然如此,那简单的解决办法就是拒绝犯人的申请,维持现状。Two further findings buttress the idea that it is the psychological load of decision making which matters.还有另外两个发现可以持这种精神负担作用的观点。First, the average unfavourable decision took less time to arrive at than the average favourable one.首先,通常作不利的决定比作有利的决定花费的时间短,前者约为5.2分钟,后者约为7.4分钟。Second, it also took more time to explain.其次,后者所花费的解释时间也更长。Written verdicts in favourable rulings averaged 90 words, compared with just 47 for unfavourable ones.有利决定的书面判决通常有90个单词,而不利判决书只有47个单词。In truth, these results, though disturbing, are unsurprising.事实上,尽管这些调查结果令人不安,却是意料之中的事。Judges may be trained to confine themselves to the legally relevant facts before them.法官接受的训练是将自己限制在面前的法律事实范围内。But they are also human,但他们也是凡人,and thus subject to all sorts of cognitive biases which can muddy their judgment.因而也会让各种认知偏见模糊了他们的判断力。Other fields are familiar with human imperfectibility, and take steps to ameliorate it.人性的弱点在其他领域也很常见,人们会采取措施改进这一点。Pilots, for instance, are given checklists to follow, partly in order to combat the effects of fatigue.例如飞行员需要遵循一些清单,其部分原因是为了抵抗疲劳。Lorry drivers in the European Union are not allowed to drive for more than four and a half hours without taking a break.欧盟也不允许卡车司机连续驾驶4.5小时以上。Dr Danzigers co-author, Jonathan Levav of Columbia University in New York, wonders whether the law should consider similar arrangements.丹齐格教授的合著者哥伦比亚大学的乔奈森·勒瓦夫设想司法界是否也能考虑作类似的安排。Some, of course, aly do.当然,有些地方已经这样做了。English judges, legendary for their prandial proclivities, are way ahead of him.英国的法官早就想到了这点,所以他们因爱好吃饭而闻名。 /201308/250744Off the East Coast, Australia, up to 200 kilometers off shore, a line of surf rises out of the open ocean. 澳大利亚东海岸之外,200公里的近海之内,宽广的海面上一层层浪花翻腾。Beneath the surface, creating these breaking waves is the most magical marine environment on Earth.在这海面之下,形成这些波浪的正是这个地球上最奇幻的海洋生境。;Im Monty Halls, Im a marine biologist and diver, and Ive always been fascinated by the sea. 我是蒙蒂胡奥斯,一名海洋生物学家兼潜水员。我一直对海洋着迷。For me, theres always been one place that is the epitome of everything that is wonderful about the marine environment. 对我而言,总有一个地方,浓缩了海洋所有的美丽。Its a true, global icon. Its a Mecca for anyone whos ever heard the word coral-the Great Barrier Reef.;这是一个真正的圣地,就像麦加对于穆斯林一样,大堡礁!Stretching for over 2,000 kilometers up the tropical coast of Australia, it is quite simply the largest living structure on the planet. 长达2000公里的澳大利亚热带海岸线,是地球上最大的生命聚集地。Its made up of almost 3,000 different reefs, each one with a different personality. 这里有3000多种珊瑚礁,每一种都各有特性。And its so much more than just coral. 出名的不仅仅是珊瑚。But the Great Barrier Reef is most famous for its underwater world. 大堡礁最著名的是她的海底世界。Here, there is more life than almost anywhere else on Earth.这里有比世界上任何其他地方都丰富的物种。201408/321049

We are back with the stars of Two Broke Girls欢迎回来 嘉宾仍是《破产》的主演and animals enthusiast Kat Dennings and Beth Behrs.动物死忠粉 kat和bethSo umm...and before you got this,所以 在出演此片之前You actually were on Sex and the City. Yes.你参演过 欲望都市 是的And you were a nanny. yeah ,so much.而你是一个保姆 是呀 真的I think we have the clip of sex and the city right? Oh my good.我们找到了欲望都市里的那段 是吧 我的天哪How old were you there?你那时多大14 ,maybe just turned 14.14 好像刚满1414 on sex an the city, lets take a look.14岁出演 欲望都市 我们来看一下where is that little brat mitzvah beast?那个乳臭味干 要办犹太人成人礼的小恶魔在哪儿Jenny. so ladies, is everything fabulous?jenny 女士们 一切都还好吗it is now. I didnt know you were here.现在不错 我不知道你会在这里And I didnt know you knew Carrie Bradshaw.我不知道你认识carrie bradshawYou are fabulous.你真厉害Your column about secret sex,你专栏提到的秘密性爱Hello,my life.根本就是我的生活Seriously, my ex was so completely about the sex when we were alone.说真的 我跟前男友相处时 他想要的只是性But at school in the hallway, I didnt exist.但是在学校走廊时 他根本无视我的存在Sassy mouth . I know.嘴好毒 是啊God. and your aunts in the audience . thats horrible.天啊 而且你姨妈还在观众席里 太糟糕了Yeah, even horrible.是啊 更糟了And you were a nanny even all through when you are shooting the pilot你在拍摄试播集的时候 还一直当着保姆cause you didnt trust the show was gonna go. I was.因为你不太相信这部剧会爆红 是的well, I mean... you know. you never know and I stayed...我的意思是 你事前不会知道I kept my job because i didnt wanna , you know我没把工作辞掉因为我不想 你知道Be jobless if we didnt go, but...right.万一剧黄了我就成无业游民了 好吧So lets talk about...下面我们聊聊I saw the picture of your pets which,我看过你们宠物的照片you know, who who isnt obesessed with their own pets.谁不迷恋自己的宠物小宝贝呢I mean everybody , so you take lots of pictures.大家都是一样 我看你们拍了很多照Yeah,we are.是的 我们确实是so...so you have a little puppy thats cute你养了一只很可爱的小and you have a kitten.你家有只猫星人And lets... who are we showing first?我们先来展示哪个好呢Lets take a look. okay.一起来看看 好的注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201402/274899Business商业报道Antitrust and airlines反垄断和航空公司Brace, brace振奋起来,振奋起来The merger of American Airlines and US Airways meets resistance美国航空公司和全美航空合并困难重重FLYING conditions were perfect, it was widely agreed, when American Airlines and US Airways announced in February their intention to take off together.人们普遍认为,美国航空和全美航空2月份宣布同时起飞的意向时,他们的飞行条件是完美的。But on August 13th the airlines unexpectedly found themselves fighting severe headwinds as the Department of Justice and six state attorneys-general filed a lawsuit to ground the proposed merger for being anti-competitive.但是8月13日,航空公司发现他们受到了严重的阻碍,因为司法部和6位州检察官以反竞争为由提出诉讼阻止计划的合并。The trustbusters argued that this was a bad deal for passengers who would face higher air fares, higher fees and fewer choices.联邦反垄断察官辩论道,这对于乘客来说是一项坏的提议,他们将面临更高的票价,更高的费用和更少的选择。The new airline, to be called American Airlines Group, would be the worlds biggest, with around 187m passengers a year and more than 100,000 workers.新航线,即美国航空集团,将会称为世界上最大的航空公司,他们每年大约有1.87亿客流量并拥有10万多的员工。After decades of consolidation, this would leave over 80% of Americas domestic air-travel market in the hands of only four airlines:合并后的十几年,80%美国国内航空旅游市场会握在4大航空公司手中:the new one plus Delta, ed and Southwest.新航线,达美航空,联合航空和西南航空。Nor would the concentration of the industry be certain to stop.这个行业的集中当然也不会停止。There is speculation that one reason the trustbusters decided to fight this deal is that they suspect that the new airline is planning a further merger with ed.有推测说联邦反垄断检察官决定反对这项提议的一个理由是他们怀疑新航线打算进一步和联航合并。Their action may also indicate that the Obama administration intends to take a tougher line on antitrust laws in its second term.他们的行为也表明奥巴马政府打算在其第二任期内在反垄断法采取更强硬的路线。Is this concern justified?这个担忧是有充分理由的吗?There are many industries where robust full-throated competition persists despite less than a half-dozen major players, says Peter Clark of University College London, a co-author of a new book on mergers, Masterminding the Deal.来自伦敦大学学院的彼得#8226;克拉克,一本关于合并的新书《策划交易》的合著者说,有许多行业即使只有不到半打的主要的竞争对手,强劲有力的竞争还是会存在。Examples include telecoms, retail, oil, chemicals and media.具体实例包括电信、零售、石油、化学和媒体行业。Moreover, American and US Airways compete directly on only 12 domestic routes—which helps to explain why the merger was expected to win approval.而且美国航空和全美航空仅在12条国内航线上竞争,这也解释了为什么合并会预期通过。Yet the lawsuit shows that antitrust enforcers are taking a broader view of competition than has been typical when considering airline mergers in the past,然而这项诉讼表明反垄断实施者以更广阔的眼光看待竞争而非过去典型的考虑航空公司合并的问题的方法,by comparing the price American charges to fly direct between two cities with what US Airways charges between them with a stop en route.也就是通过比较美国航空在两个城市直飞的价格和全美航空两个城市之间有一个停顿的价格。Such flights take longer but are a lot cheaper. The antitrust authorities fear these attractive one-stop fares,这种航线时间长但是便宜很多。反垄断局担心这种一站式票价,which in some cases have been set low and energetically marketed by US Airways to win business from American, would go after the merger.在某些情况下被全美航空定得很低的,并积极地营销来从美国航空赢得生意的方法,在合并后会实行。American and US Airways say they will mount a vigorous defence of the deal.美国航空和全美航空称他们会对这项交易发起一个强烈维护。They will need to provide compelling evidence that passengers will benefit—presumably not least by the new airline providing stronger competition to Delta and ed.他们会提供有力的据明乘客将会从中获益—尤其是由新航线提供更强的竞争给达美航空和联航。They will also have to explain away a treasure trove of internal e-mails uncovered by the antitrust watchdogs which appear to show airline executives dreaming of the many ways they will be able to charge more after a merger.他们也必须为被反垄断检查团体揭露的内部邮件作辩解,这些邮件显示航空公司主管梦想着合并后许多方式他们能够收取更多费用。The airlines may try to settle the lawsuit before it gets to court by giving up certain routes to rivals or guaranteeing prices and services.航空公司可能通过把某些路线给竞争对手或者保价格和务的方式,尝试上法庭前解决诉讼问题。If they are wise, these will be concentrated on Reagan National Airport in Washington, DC.如果他们聪明,就会集中注意力在华盛顿特区的里根国家机场。The new carrier would control 69% of landing slots at an airport under the noses of regulators and politicians.这个新的载体将会在监管人和政客的监管下控制69%的降落跑道。This might constrain the operations of a rival, JetBlue, which leases slots from American and competes with US Airways to provide price competition on routes favoured by the nations politicians.这可能会限制对手捷蓝航空的运行,捷蓝航空向美国航空租用降落跑道,并与全美航空在受国家政客欢迎的线路上打价格战。 /201308/253593

Science and technology科学技术Animal behaviour动物行为Planet of the apes猩球探秘Chimpanzees personas seem more complex than peoples猩猩的行为特征,似乎比人类还要复杂HUMAN personalities, it is widely agreed by psychologists, can be measured along five dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience.大多数心理学家都承认人类性格特征一共可分为五个维度:外向、易相处、善于动手、神经反应和继承性。One person may be more extrovert than another, less agreeable, more conscientious and so on, and to an extent how well two people will get on can be predicted from how their personalities mesh.甲可能比乙更开朗,或者更勤劳,也可能更固执,等等;就这一点说来,两个人相处是否融洽,取决于二人性格相斥还是相吸。People who dont get on, though, have the option of avoiding each other.甲不愿意和乙共处一室,还有选择的余地。That is not true of animals in zoos.而动物园里的动物却只能逆来顺受,But they too have personalities.但是重点在于动物们也有自己的个性。So, to prevent trouble between members of one species—the chimpanzee—Hani Freeman of Lincoln Park Zoo, in Chicago, has developed a way of assessing those personalities.就拿猩猩来说,为防止其同类间发生擦,来自芝加哥林肯公园动物园的哈尼·弗里曼提出一套得以划定动物性格的方法。In doing so, she sheds an intriguing light not only on chimpanzee psychology, but also on the mental evolution of Homo sapiens.此法一经问世,就像点亮了好奇之灯,不仅照亮了黑猩猩心理学研究之路,对于现代智人心理进化探索的影响也不容小觑。As they report in the American Journal of Primatology, Dr Freeman and her colleagues started by surveying the existing literature on chimpanzee behaviour.弗里曼和她的同事将研究成果刊登在《美国灵长类动物学学术期刊》上面,其中提到他们正是基于现有有关猩猩行为表现的文献而展开探索的。This search threw up 55 terms, ranging from bold and jealous to stingy and sexual, that previous investigators had applied to aspects of chimpanzee character.之前调查人员将黑猩猩性格划分之后,得出了55个术语,包括勇敢、嫉妒、吝啬以及性别差异思维,弗里曼的研究将这55个术语高亮显示。The team then asked five experts—a mixture of scientists and zookeepers, all of whom had had years of day-to-day experiences with captive chimpanzees—to provide their own lists of terms.之后研究小组找来5位专家,其中不乏有科学家,有动物园饲养员,他们都曾与笼子中的动物朝夕相处数年之久。这五位要做的是写下他们自己认为的黑猩猩性格术语。These inquiries collected 71 suggestions, 45 of which overlapped with the 55 from the literature search.他们一共给出71个描述性词汇,其中有45个与文献总结的55个术语重叠。Finally, they compared their results with a review of chimpanzee behaviour carried out in 2008 by a different team. That comparison yielded two further terms.最后,研究小组又与2008年另一针对黑猩猩行为研究小组的结论作对比,结论不过增添了两个新术语。Once Dr Freeman had gone through the accumulated list and merged into one term any set that seemed to mean the same thing, she was left with 41 that seemed robust descriptions of chimpanzee attitudes.弗里曼曾认真研读过这一系列术语表单,然后将可以划为一类的术语总结出来。This done, she gave the list to 17 people who work with chimpanzees on a regular basis at a medical-research facility in Texas, and asked them to rate the 99 chimps there for each of the 41 characteristics.最终她留下了41个能够很犀利的描述猩猩行为的术语。归纳工作完成之后,弗里曼将41个术语的列表交给德克萨斯针对猩猩的定期健康检查研究机构,17名工作人员将用41个术语描述99个黑猩猩。She found that different people rated the same animals in the same way. That suggests their assessments were reliable.弗里曼发现即使是不同的人,对于同一批动物得出的结论仍然是相同的。She also found that scores for particular terms tended to cluster together.也就是说,他们的结论是可靠的。弗里曼还察觉到,一类特殊的词汇总是集中性的出现。A chimp that scored highly for irritability, for example, was also likely to score highly for aggression and for jealousy, and to have low scores for calmness and relaxation.比如,一只黑猩猩在易怒一栏得分较高,那么在富有攻击性和嫉妒分栏中得分也较高,相反在稳定和缓和分栏得分较低。That let her apply a statistical technique called principal-component analysis to the data, to work out the dimensions of chimpanzee personality.从而弗里曼在数据整理中获得一项称之为优先分析部分的统计技术,提高界定黑猩猩性格维度的工作效率。It is analysis of this sort which showed that human personas have five dimensions.此类分析得出的人类性格有五个维度,Chimps personas, by contrast, seem to have six.但是黑猩猩性格维度似乎却达到六个。These are extroversion, agreeableness and openness, which match human dimensions, and reactivity, dominance and methodicalness, which do not.外向、易相处和继承性这三点能够对应人类性格特征,而条件反射、统治思维和使用工具却和人类相异。Reactivity is similar to the human dimension called neuroticism, though not similar enough, in Dr Freemans view, to justify the same label.条件反射与人类的神经反应类似,但在弗里曼看来,明确性格标签情况下,相似程度是有限的。And methodicalness, which measures the way animals approach things like using tools and making the nests they sleep in, resembles conscientiousness—though Dr Freemans raters found this difficult to assess because such activities are not much available to the chimps in Texas.动物利用外物的倾向性和建造窝巢统称为使用工具,这一点和人类善于动手是类似的,尽管17位性格划分人员发现很难去评价,因为这类行为在德克萨斯的黑猩猩身上是不常发生的。But there is, intriguingly, no human dimension that resembles chimpanzee dominance.有趣的地方是最后一点,统治思维,这在人类性格维度里毫无对应点。At the moment, it is possible to do little more than speculate about what all this means.此时此刻,也应该分析分析这一切的内在意义了。From a practical point of view it shows that it is probably not a good idea to put two animals with high dominance scores in the same enclosure—a discovery that addresses the question which started the research.从现实角度看,将两只在统治思维一栏中得分较高的黑猩猩放在一个屋檐下,不甚明智,这一问题在研究初始阶段就已经提出。From a theoretical point of view it provides a way to study the mental similarities and differences between chimpanzees and humans:从理论层面看,这给对于人类和黑猩猩之间的心理相似性和差异性研究提供了机会:what, in other words, is core anthropoid behaviour, and what is species-specific.换句话说,类人猿的核心行为是什么,还有不同种类的独有特征是什么? /201311/264837Farish Jenkins法里什·詹金斯Farish Jenkins, paleontologist and polymath, died on November 11th aged 72法里什·詹金斯,古生物学家、学者,卒于11月11日,享年72岁INDIANA JONES is the ultimate action -hero academic: played by Harrison Ford, the indomitable professor outwits Nazis and other villains in search of religious relics, lost temples and alien artefacts. Farish Jenkins preferred a rifle to a bullwhip, and it was palaeontology, not archaeology, that he made glamorous. But he did have a stylish hat, a military background and adventures in wild places. His adoring students dubbed him the real life version of the cinematic creation.由哈里森·福特出演的印第安纳·琼斯是动作片中最出色的学者主人公:这位不屈不挠的教授在寻找宗教遗物、失落的寺庙和天外文物的过程中以智慧战胜了纳粹和其他坏人。比起牛鞭,法里什·詹金斯更喜欢步,而且他是一位出色的古生物学家,而非考古学家。不过他的确拥有一顶时髦的帽子,也是军人背景出身,也有过在野外冒险的经历。崇拜他的学生称他为电影人物的真人版。A Marine Corps captain, he trained as an artillery officer, “cascading expensive, high explosive ordnance onto stockpiles of junk cars”. Unlike most modern academics, he defied categorisation into narrow specialism. A “hybrid” as he put it, he was anatomist, zoologist and vertebrate palaeontologist in equal measure.他是一名海军陆战队的队长,但却接受过和炮兵军官一样的训练,“将大量昂贵的高爆炸性军械放置到垃圾车的储备军火中”。和大多数现代的学术研究者不同,他反对那种把学科分为狭窄类别的做法。他在解剖学、动物学、脊椎动物古生物学上的造诣都同样高深。用詹金斯自己的话来说,他是一名“杂学家”。Arriving at Yale to study geology in 1964, he was told that all major aspects of vertebrate evolution were aly understood. He feared that he and his friends would be left “to build our careers with carefully stacked minutiae”. In fact, “titanic” discoveries awaited. But to crack the secrets of the fossil world, he had to master not only the rocks but the organisms they hid. He was the first Yale Graduate School student to cross over to the Medical School, to study anatomy and embryology.1964年,詹金斯进入耶鲁大学学习地质学,有人告诉他,所有有关脊椎动物进化的主要方面都已被研究透了。他曾担心他和他的朋友只能“通过那些小心翼翼堆积起来的细枝末节来构筑他们的事业”。事实上,“重大的”发现还在前方等着他们。但想要挖出化石世界的秘密,他不仅要精通岩石方面的知识,还要了解藏在这些岩石中的生物的习性。他是耶鲁大学研究生院第一个跨学科去医学院学习解剖学和胚胎学的学生。Later, he illustrated his lectures with fine anatomical drawings, painstakingly rendered with what he proudly called Harvards best collection of sharpened chalks (he was not a PowerPoint person). When necessary, he would draw bones and muscles on his own suit. To illustrate the bodys natural shock-absorbers, he would stomp round the room on a peg leg, ing the description of Captain Ahabs gait in “Moby Dick”. Students loved that, and how he timed his lectures to the second.后来在讲课时,他会不辞辛苦地用粉笔画出精妙的解剖图,还骄傲地把用过的粉笔头称作是“哈佛大学最佳尖头粉笔收集品”。必要的时候,他会把骨骼和肌肉画在自己的西装上。为了展示人体自带的减震器,他会用木制假腿在教室里跺着脚走来走去,一边读着《白鲸记》中描述亚哈船长步态的语句。学生们喜欢他这样做,也佩他能准确地掌控讲课时间,毫秒不差。He had no time for academic squabbles and protocol, brushing off rebukes and bureaucratic constraints. Charm was his first weapon, obstinacy his second. It was not just his clothes and vocabulary that were old-fashioned. He prized thoroughness. Unusually for modern academia, he showered praise on colleagues and deprecated his own triumphs. But he was a mighty foe when roused. He could swear like a Marine, “without repeating myself” and helped oust the abrasive Larry Summers from the Harvard presidency.他没有时间来应付学术争吵和学术礼节,对别人的指责和官僚政治的约束视而不见。魅力是他的第一大武器,固执次之,在他身上,过时的不仅仅只是衣和词汇而已。他很珍视认真详细这一点。他时常赞扬自己的同事,却认为自己的成功不屑一提,这在当今学术界是很不寻常的。但他可不是好惹的。他会像海军一样破口大骂,“老子只说一遍”,他还帮忙将粗鲁的拉里·萨默斯④从哈佛大学校长的职位上赶了下去。The first field trip was to Africa, where his “very close and extremely naive encounters” with the local fauna included a self-portrait with a black rhino (plentiful as “rats in a dump” in those days). The beast took offence and charged; Mr Jenkins made it back to his car minus a lens cap. Living vertebrates, he decided, were just as interesting as their extinct relatives.他的第一次实地考察去的是非洲,虽然经验不足,但他还是近距离地接触到了当地的动物群,还在那里画了一张与黑犀牛的自画像。当时黑犀牛因恼怒猛冲了过来,詹金斯先生逃回了汽车中,却丢了一个镜头盖。他确信,活着的脊椎动物和它们已经灭绝的亲属一样有趣。High speed cineradiography, plus tmills and a wind tunnel gave him new insights into how animals move: walking, trotting, galloping, flying and brachiating (the way monkeys swing). His efforts reached, he said proudly, “circus-like” proportions. “Tree shrews ricocheted across my bookshelves and desk,” he recalled. University bosses were appalled. His students and colleagues were captivated.高速的放射性电影照相术加上踏车和风洞使他找到了研究动物运动方式的新角度:散步、慢跑、疾驰、飞翔以及用臂膀吊荡树枝前进。他骄傲地说,他通过努力达到了“马戏团一般的”规模。“树鼩在我的书架和书桌上跳来跳去”,他回忆道。学校里的领导为此而震惊,他的学生和同事却因此而着迷。But fieldwork was even more fun. The most arduous expeditions were to east Greenland and arctic Canada, armed with lavatory paper to wrap the fossils, and chocolate bars for the diggers. Mr Jenkins was a distinctive addition to the landscape: invariably well-dressed, and sporting a beloved Czechoslovak rabbit-fur hat, a pocket-watch, a flask of vodka and a gun. He rigged trip wires and automatic rifle fire to deter polar bears from the camp at night. A cast of a huge paw print in his office was a souvenir of a particularly narrow escape.但更有趣的要数野外工作。对詹金斯来说,最艰难的探险莫过于去东格陵兰岛和加拿大北极地区的那次。当时他身上带着用来包裹化石的卫生纸和为挖掘工作者准备的巧克力棒。他为那儿的景色添加了独特的一笔:他总是穿得十分得体,神气活现地戴着他钟爱的捷克斯洛伐克兔皮帽,还有一只怀表、一瓶伏特加和一把。他用绊网和自动步的扫射来阻止北极熊在夜间闯入营地。在他的办公室里,放着一个巨大爪印的金属铸模,用来纪念他曾艰难地从“熊”口脱险。The trophies of those trips were carefully chipped open at Harvard. One proved to be the great find of his life: Tiktaalik roseae. “Rose” was the Christian name of an anonymous benefactor who subsidised the expeditions. Tiktaalik was a homage to his Inuit hosts: their word for a large freshwater fish. In fossil-speak the discovery was “the elpistostegalian central to understanding the emergence of tetrapods”. In laymans language, it was a 375m-year-old fish with legs, a rudimentary ear and a snout for catching prey—a vital clue to how living beings first moved from sea to land.这些旅途的战利品都被小心翼翼地展出在哈佛大学。其中一个是他一生中的重大发现:提塔利克鱼。其中的“rose”是捐助此次探险的一位匿名人士的教名,Tiktaalik则是为了向探险时招待过他们的主人因纽特人致敬:在因纽特人的语言中,该词的意思是“一种很大的淡水鱼”。用化石学中的话来说,此次发现的是“对理解四足动物的出现十分重要的希望螈类生物”。用外行人的话来解释,提塔利克鱼距今已有3.75亿年历史,身上长着脚和未进化完全的耳朵以及用来捕食猎物的鼻口部—它为人们研究生物最初如何从海洋进化到陆地上来提供了重要的线索。Smart man智慧之人Another big find was what he called the “ugliest animal in the world”. It was a 210m-year-old armoured marine creature. Mr Jenkins spotted its distinguishing feature: that it opened its mouth by lifting its upper jaw. He was crucial in discovering the worlds earliest known frog, which unlike its salamander-like ancestors had hind legs for jumping. He found that in 1981 in the Arizona desert. It initially looked like “road kill”, his colleague Neil Shubin said: a 190m-year-old mash of four different frog skeletons. The two men spent the next 14 years picking them apart and putting them back together. They named their find Prosalirus bitis, combining a Latin word meaning “leap forward” with a Navajo word for “high above it”.詹金斯称他的另一个重大发现为“世界上最丑的动物”。这种有着坚硬外壳的海洋生物距今已有2.1亿年。詹金斯先生发现了这种生物所独有的特征:通过抬起上颌来张嘴。在发现人类已知的最早的蛙类上詹金斯也扮演了十分关键的角色,这种蛙类和它的祖先蝾螈不同,它没有用来弹跳的后肢。1989年,詹金斯在亚利桑那沙漠发现了这种生物。他的同事尼尔·舒宾说,最初他们发现这种生物时,它们看起来像是“被车压死的”:四只距今已有1.9亿年的蛙类的骨骼被压碎了搅在一起。詹金斯和舒宾两个人花了14年的时间把这些骨骼分开,又重新组合在一起。他们将这种蛙类命名为Prosalirus bitis,这一名字由拉丁文中的“向前跳”和纳瓦霍语中的“高于某物”组合而成。After a bout of cancer he dismissed a visitors worries, saying: “as a palaeontologist, Im familiar with extinction.” In his spare time he trapped the chipmunks that infested his barn and made prodigious quantities of cider from his own apples.在詹金斯癌症病发之后,有人忧心忡忡地来探望他。他宽慰对方说:“作为一位古生物学家,我对‘灭绝可是熟悉得很”。他曾在空闲的时候诱捕侵入谷仓的花栗鼠,也曾用自己种的苹果酿造了数量可谓多得惊人的苹果酒。 /201406/306874

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