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2019年09月15日 22:48:07来源:医苑报

  • Thank you for your warm welcome.It is a privilege and honour to be invited to address this prestigious academicinstitution. I would also like to thank the other co-hosts, the City of Leidenand the Leiden University Medical Center.Leiden University is aninternationally renowned hub of learning and research with a history thatstretches back many centuries.Indeed, one of the pioneers ofinternational law and the principles that guide the ed Nations began hisstudies here more than 400 years ago, the legendary jurist Hugo Grotius.Many distinguished scholars havefollowed. Today, each of you is carrying forward that proud tradition.I thank you for your commitmentand want to single out for special praise your University’s global focus andapproach to education.Ladies and gentlemen,We are here to talk aboutfreedom. I can think of no better time or place.Leiden is synonymous with freedom.Leiden University’s credo is“Bastion of Liberty”, and the city itself carries the motto “for the sake offreedom”.This is also a very special day.Earlier today, I took part in events marking the 100th anniversary of the PeacePalace in The Hague. And on this date fifty years ago, Dr. Martin Luther King,Jr. delivered his monumental “I Have a Dream” speech.Dr. King spoke of the “riches offreedom and the security of justice”. He reminded the world that the rights ofany minority should be the cause of all.As he said, “their freedom isinextricably bound to our freedom”.In other words, we share a commonfuture with shared responsibilities.That understanding is even truertoday.Our freedom … our possibilities…. our perils … are linked like never before.The ed Nations Charter speaksto our shared fate – and highlights the need “to promote social progress andbetter standards of life in larger freedom”.The word “freedom” suffuses theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights.Our work to deepen the meaning offreedom is built on three pillars: development -- or freedom from want; peaceand security -- or freedom from fear; and human rights -- or simply the freedomto enjoy and exercise the full body of human rights.These pillars are interdependentand mutually reinforcing.There can be no peace withoutdevelopment … no development without peace …and neither can be achieved withoutfull respect for human rights and the rule of law.Today I would like to addressthose three dimensions of freedom.Let me begin with freedom fromwant.At the dawn of this newmillennium, the international community set out on an unprecedented journey totackle freedom from want around the world.The Millennium Development Goalsare our touchstone for this effort. The eight goals and associated targets makeup our blueprint to fight poverty and hunger, expand education and health,empower women and girls, and ensure environmental sustainability.Thanks to combined efforts fromgovernments to the grassroots, we have made important progress.The proportion of people livingin extreme poverty has been halved. Fewer children are losing their lives tomalaria and tuberculosis. And more than 2.1 billion people gained access toimproved sources of drinking water – a challenge on which the Netherlands andKing Willem-Alexander have been global leaders.But there is much unfinishedbusiness.Nineteen thousand children underage five still die each day, most from preventable diseases.Two and a half billion peoplestill lack access to sanitation.201412/349671。
  • I grew up in Northern Ireland, right up in the very, very north end of it there,我从小在北爱尔兰长大,就在爱尔兰岛的最最北边where its absolutely freezing cold.那里非常冷This was me running around in the back garden mid-summer.这张照片是一个夏天我在我们家后院玩的时候拍的I couldnt pick a career.我不知道该选择什么样的职业In Ireland the obvious choice is the military,在爱尔兰,最正常的选择应该是参军but to be honest it actually kind of sucks.但是,说实话,部队里太没劲了My mother wanted me to be a dentist.我妈希望我成为一个牙科医生But the problem was that people kept blowing everything up.但问题是,那个时候人们一直在到处乱扔炸弹So I actually went to school in Belfast,我去了贝尔法斯特的一个学校读书which was where all the action happened.所有的骚乱就是在那儿发生的And this was a pretty common sight.这张照片上就是当时常见的景象The school I went to was pretty boring.我上学的那个学校特别无聊They forced us to learn things like Latin.我们被逼着学了像拉丁语这样无聊的东西The school teachers werent having much fun, the sports were very dirty or very painful.学校的老师也都很没劲,学校里的体育项目又脏又累So I cleverly chose rowing, which I got very good at.于是我就非常聪明的选择了赛艇,后来我划得还不错And I was actually rowing for my school here照片上我正代表我的学校参加赛艇比赛until this fateful day, and I flipped over right in front of the entire school.直到灾难性的那天,我翻船了,当着全校师生的面,我翻船了And that was the finishing post right there.其实比赛的终点就在那儿So this was extremely embarrassing.那个时候我觉得特别特别尴尬But our school at that time got a grant from the government,不过后来我们学校从政府拿到一份津贴and they got an incredible computer -- the research machine 3DZ --然后他们买来一台惊人的计算机,用作研究的机器--3DZand they left the programming manuals lying around.当时他们就把编程手册扔在那儿And so students like myself with nothing to do, we would learn how to program it.于是像我这样无所事事的学生就会去看手册学习怎样在那台计算机上编程Also around this time, at home, this was the computer that people were buying.那个时候,我家乡那里的人们都会买这样的一台计算机It was called the Sinclair ZX80. This was a 1K computer,它叫做Sinclair ZX80,是一台只有1K(内存)的计算机and youd buy your programs on cassette tape.然后你就可以去买存在磁带上的程序来运行Actually Im just going to pause for one second,我要在这暂停一下because I heard that theres a prerequisite to speak here at TED我听说要在TED演讲必须有一个条件you had to have a picture of yourself from the old days with big hair.就是要有演讲者必须有一张自己以前留着蓬松长发的老照片So I brought a picture with big hair.根据要求我带来了这张照片I just want to get that out of the way.我就是想赶快先完成这个要求So after the Sinclair ZX80 came along the very cleverly named Sinclair ZX81.接着说,在Sinclair ZX80那台计算机之后,他们又推出了一台新的机器,这台机器名字很有创意叫做Sinclair ZX81And -- you see the picture at the bottom?大家看到底下的那张照片了吗?Theres a picture of a guy doing homework with his son.照片上是一个人在陪他的儿子做作业Thats what they thought they had built it for.这是厂商原来推出这台计算机的目的The reality is we got the programming manual and we started making games for it.而事实上,当我们拿到编程手册的时候,我们就马上开始在这台机器上做游戏了We were programming in BASIC,我们当时用的是BASIC语言编程的which is a pretty awful language for games,这个语言非常不适合用于游戏编程so we ended up learning Assembly language于是我们就开始学习汇编语言so we could really take control of the hardware.因为汇编语言可以让我们完全控制所有硬件This is the guy that invented it, Sir Clive Sinclair, and hes showing his machine.这就是发明那台机器的人,Clive Sinclair阁下,照片上他正在展示他的机器You had this same thing in America, it was called the Timex Sinclair1000.你们美国当时有一种同样的机器叫做Timex Sinclair1000To play a game in those days you had to have an imagination那个时候要玩游戏,你必须有一定的想象力to believe that you were really playing ;Battlestar Galactica.;要相信自己真的在玩《太空堡垒号》The graphics were just horrible.那个时候的图形画面非常差You had to have an even better imagination to play this game,要想玩这个游戏,你得有更强的想象力;Death Rider.;这是《死亡骑士》But of course the scientists couldnt help themselves.当然,科学家们可忍不住了They started making their own games.他们开始做自己的游戏This is one of my favorite ones here, where they have rabbit breeding,这是我最爱的游戏之一,这个游戏是关于养兔子的so males choose the lucky rabbit.雄兔选择走运的雌兔It was around this time we went from 1K to 16K, which was quite the leap.差不多这个时候,计算机从1K跳到了16K,这是一个非常大的跨越And if youre wondering how much 16K is, this eBay logo here is 16K.如果你在想16K到底有多大,这个eBAY的图标就有16KAnd in that amount of memory someone programmed a full flight simulation program.就在那么大的空间里,有人写出了一个完整的飞行模拟程序And thats what it looked like.那个程序看起来就像这样I spent ages flying this flight simulator,我花了好久在这上面开飞机and I honestly believed I could fly airplanes by the end of it.到后来,我真的以为我可以去开真的飞机了Heres Clive Sinclair now launching his color computer.这是Clive Sinclair发布他的色(屏幕)电脑Hes recognized as being the father of games in Europe.他被当作欧洲的之父Hes a multi-millionaire, and I think thats why hes smiling in this photograph.他是个千万富翁,我想这就是为什么他在照片里笑得那么开心吧So I went on for the next 20 years or so making a lot of different games.在接下来的20年里我一直在做不同的游戏201511/412209。
  • Award-winning journalist and TV personality Katie Couric delievered her witty and inspiring address at the 2014 School of Communication commencement ceremony Saturday, May 10, at American University.201504/368322。
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