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7.Canada is Completely Free, Independent, and Sovereign7.加拿大是独立自由之邦Most people think of Canada as an entirely free and sovereign nation with an advanced modern democratic system of government.大多数人认为,加拿大主权完全自由,有先进的现代民主政府。They have healthcare for all, a robustly running economy and a standing military that is certainly no joke.该国给所有人提供医疗保险,经济稳健,军队不容小觑。Most people may not take Canada particularly seriously, but most people would consider them very much their own country.人们可能不太重视加拿大,但都会希望自己的国家发展成这样。However, the truth is that Canada takes part in some very strange traditions hearkening back to the monarchies of old.然而,加拿大有一些很奇怪的传统,让人回想起君主制时期。The Queen of England is also considered the Queen of Canada – for whom she is considered to be a constitutional monarch, like she is in England.英国女王也是加拿大的女王,她在加拿大和在英国一样,是个立宪君主。She is Colonel in Chief of most of the armed forces, and visits the country more than any other.她是大部分军队的名誉团长,并且访问加拿大的频率超过访问其他国家。While, like in England, she always goes by ceremony and takes the recommendation of her government minister#39;s choices, she still gets to choose the people who are in very high level government positions.跟在英国一样,女王也会出席典礼,听取总督的建议,决定政府高层职位人选。However, it goes beyond simply paying homage to old traditions.然而,这并不仅仅是为了尊重传统。Everything in the country, including elections, are still called in the Queen#39;s name, and everyone must swear allegiance to the Queen, including all new citizens of Canada – who must accept the Queen as the living symbol of their country.加拿大的所有事务,包括选举,仍然以女王的名义进行,所有人都要发誓效忠女王,即便加拿大的新移民也是如此,必须奉女王为国家元首。6.British People Don#39;t Care About Their Teeth6.英国人不在意自己的牙齿Around the world, apart from being known for drinking tea and trying to take over the world, the British are also famous, or rather infamous, for having some of the worst oral hygiene among all developed countries.英国人以喜爱喝茶和企图称霸世界而闻名,除此之外,英国人口腔卫生也可谓举世皆知,或说声名狼藉,是所有发达国家中最糟的。The claims are that the British have plenty of money to do so, have the proper health infrastructure, and just really don#39;t care.传言称英国人有足够多的钱,也有正规的卫生基础设施,但他们不在乎这些。They let their teeth get misshapen, brown, and rotting, and would practically let the suckers fall out of their mouths if they didn#39;t actually need them.他们任由自己的牙齿扭曲变形、呈褐色并伴有口臭,如果他们愿意的话嘴里的菜叶也会掉出来。Jokes about British teeth have been popularized by shows like The Simpsons – and almost everything else. However, the truth behind this claim is a bit more complicated.关于英国人牙齿的笑话通过《辛普森一家》等剧广为流传,额,其实,随处可见。但是,这些说法背后的真相却更复杂。While the average British teeth may appear misshapen to an American, they also have a different idea when it comes to teeth in general.虽然美国人觉得英国人的牙齿畸形,但谈及牙齿这个问题,英国人还是持不同看法。The British still care about oral hygiene – brushing teeth, and going in for annual tooth cleaning – but most of them prefer a more natural look and only go for minimal tooth straightening.英国人觉得他们还是在意口腔卫生的——比如刷牙、定期清洁牙齿——但因为大多数英国人喜欢看起来更自然一些,所以只做一些牙齿微矫正。Whereas Americans will spend countless thousands making sure all their chompers line up just right, many of our friends across the pond are fine as long as the teeth are healthy and line up fairly straight – enough to be mostly functional.美国人为了使牙齿整齐花销无数,而英国人只要牙齿健康、差不多整齐(够用就行)就可以了。However, even this stereotype is beginning to change. Due to exposure to American media and popular culture, it is becoming an increasing trend to go for extra teeth whitening and straightening, so as to mimic the look seen on television.不过,这一文化定势也已经有所改变,由于美国媒体和大众文化的曝光,牙齿矫正和美白在英国也已成为潮流。5.Spanish People are Extremely Lazy5.西班牙人懒惰至极One of the most popular stereotypes around the world is that Spanish people are lazy.世界上有一条广为流传的误解:西班牙人很懒。This stereotype has evolved from Spanish people being lazy, to anyone who speaks Spanish also being lazy, and is often misapplied by racists to anyone vaguely Hispanic looking who is working within the ed States.该文化定势从;西班牙人很懒;发展为;讲西班牙语的人也很懒;,种族主义者又将其扩展为;在美国工作的任何西班牙长相的人都很懒;。This stereotype originally began because in Spain, due to a long held tradition in the country of napping during the middle of the day – or siesta.其实这最初是因为,西班牙有午间打个小盹或者午睡的传统。If you ask most people, they will tell you that in the early afternoon Spaniards take three hours off to go take a break and nap to get some rest, before going back to work.如果你询问一些人,他们会告诉你,在午后,西班牙人会休息三个小时再继续工作。This has created a reputation as a people who really don#39;t care about hard work, and would rather spend their time resting.这就给西班牙人带来了;不认真工作,宁愿花时间来休息;的名声。However, the truth is that the traditional siesta is not only becoming less and less of a reality, but that Spaniards may still be running themselves into the ground harder and faster than the people of most nations.但真相是,坚持这个午睡传统的人越来越少了,西班牙人可能比其它任何国家的人工作都要卖力。The siesta was originally designed to give people some respite during the hottest hours of the day, but now it is rarely used to actually get any sleep.最初午睡的目的是为了让人们能够在一天最热的时候得到一些休息,但是现在真正睡上一觉的人是少之又少。And, due to the three hour break during the day, Spaniards tend to get up much earlier for work, and leave work much later than those in other countries.而且由于西班牙人每一天中午要休息三个小时,所以他们比其他国家的人上班更早、下班更晚。This has led many in Spain to seek reform in recent years, as some believe that an incredibly long work day with long, fragmented breaks in between is not really good for anyone.因此,近年来很多西班牙人希望对此加以改革,他们认为每天长时间工作、中途长时间休息是无益于任何人的。It may be a long time before there is change though, as the siesta and the long work day are an entrenched part of Spanish culture.不过这种情况可能需要很长时间才会有所改变,毕竟午睡和工作时间长早已是西班牙文化中根深蒂固的一部分。4.Black People and Their Alleged Love of Fried Chicken4.黑人和他们;热爱;的炸鸡If most people ask you what kind of foods black people like, you will get a lot of answers that generally describe Southern comfort food.如果有人问黑人喜欢什么样的食物,可能会得到很多,而这些通常提到南方爽心食物。This should not be surprising, as the majority of the black people who were brought to this country spent much of their time in the South as slaves, and even after being freed, money would have been tight so the majority of people would have settled nearby.这不足为奇,因为黑人被带到这个国家之后,大多数时间都在南方做奴隶,甚至在被释放后,因为资金缺乏,大多数人会选择在附近定居。However, if you asked for two specific foods the most common you#39;ll always hear are fried chicken and watermelon.但是,如果要说两种特色食品,你通常会听到炸鸡和西瓜。This has led some people to wonder over the years if there is actually any truth to this stereotype at all, or if it is just a Southern myth.这就让人好奇,这种文化定势到底是事实还是只是一个南方谬传。Back in the early 1900s race relations in this country were not so good (we#39;ll take that ;Understatement of the Year Award; anytime).回溯到20世纪初,这个国家的种族关系不太理想(我们将获得;轻描淡写奖;)。One of the earliest and most controversial films – Birth of a Nation – was released by the notoriously racist D.W. Griffith.《一个国家的诞生》是美国最早和最具争议的电影之一,由臭名昭著的种族主义者D.W.格里菲斯执导。The film depicted what Griffith considered the consequences of black people being freed and having power.这部电影描述了格里菲斯眼中黑人解放并掌握权力的后果。In one scene in the film, black lawmakers are shown generally behaving badly in an assembly, and one of them is chomping on a piece of fried chicken while his feet are up on the desk. Some believe this was the birth of the stereotype, and really entrenched the idea in popular culture.在其中一场戏中,一群黑人议员行为粗鲁,其中一个还把腿翘在桌上,嚼着一块炸鸡,人们认为该刻板印象由此诞生,从此在流行文化中根深蒂固。It also is likely that foods like fried chicken and watermelon were chosen to represent black people because they are foods you have to eat with your hands, and hence can be considered ;dirty foods;.不过,人们之所以选择炸鸡和西瓜之类的食物代表黑人,也有可能是因为这些食物必须用手吃,因此可以被认为是;肮脏的食物;。 /201611/478487Shuttlecock Kicking in China中国的踢毽子Shuttlecock kicking,Ti Jian Zi, is another traditional popular folk game. Some records date its origin as far back as the Han Dynasty (206-220AD). This game prevailed during the Tang Dynasty (618-907),when shops specializing in shuttlecocks business appeared. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644),formal competition of shuttlecock kicking was held. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911),shuttlecock kicking reached its climax in terms of both making technics and the kicking skills.踢毽子,是另一种传统的流行的民间游戏。它的起源可以追溯到汉代(公元前206-公元220)。在唐代(618-907)这个游戏盛行,一些商店专门卖毽子。在明朝(1368-1644),踢毽子正式举行比赛。在清朝(1644-1911),踢毽达到高潮在制作工艺和踢对技能方面。There are endless variations in terms of styles and methods of kicking- just as long as the shuttlecock remains in the air. With one leg fixed on the ground,the shuttlecock is kicked by the inner ankle of the other. Some other styles include kicking the shuttlecock back and forth between two people. Those who advance to a high level of mastery can perform some truly impressive feats. The challenge of the increasingly difficult levels of shuttlecock kicking has made it a popular and timeless game among the Chinese children. This game helps people strengthen their legs and enhance their concentration.在款式和踢毽子的方法方面变化无穷,只是只要毽子保持在空中。一条腿固定在地面上,毽子被另一种脚的内踝踢。其他一些样式包括两个人之间来回踢毽子。有些掌握先进高超水平的可以踢得真正令人印象深刻。踢毽子的越来越困难级别的挑战使得它成为了中国孩子普遍和永恒的游戏。这个游戏可以帮助人们增强他们的腿力和提高他们的专注度。 /201612/482289

In 2009, the Chinese-American artist Jennifer Wen Ma took over a pottery kiln in Japan’s Niigata prefecture. 2009年,美籍华裔艺术家马文(Jennifer Wen Ma)接手了日本新泻县(Niigata)的一个陶瓷窑。For her piece You Can’t Always See Where You Are Going, But Can You See Where You’ve Been?, she flooded the sloping chambers of the kiln with black ink, and then drenched the surrounding vegetation in the pigment. 在她的作品《你不会总知道自己将去何方。但是你知道自己去过哪里吗?》(You Can’t Always See Where You Are Going, But Can You See Where You’ve Been?)中,她把倾斜的窑炉中灌满黑色墨水,之后把周围的植被染上颜色。Since then Ma, who began her career as an oil painter but soon found the discipline of ink wash increasingly attractive, has repeatedly revisited a vision of the world as an ink painting.自那之后,她从水墨画的角度不断重新审视这个世界。马文以油画画家的身份开始职业生涯,但她很快发现自己越来越着迷于水墨的魅力。Ink is used to fill reflective pools in Ma’s latest installation, Molar, which lies at the heart of the Cass Sculpture Foundation’s A Beautiful Disorder exhibition. 在马文最新的装置作品《蕴》(Molar)中,墨水被用于填满反光池。该作品在卡斯雕塑基金会(Cass Sculpture Foundation)的无序之美(A Beautiful Disorder)展览中处于中心位置。From the ground up, an inky landscape takes shape: the pitch-black liquid coalesces in wells, whose surfaces acquire a strange, impure sheen as the ink’s mineral-rich content floats to the surface. 从地面往上,一个立体的水墨景观出现在人们眼前:井中充满漆黑的液体,墨水中富含矿物质的成分漂浮在表面上,形成一层怪异、不纯的光泽。Even the air takes on the fragrance of the pigment.就连空气中也散发着颜料的香味。Ma places glowing glass orbs in the ink pools, then marks the enclosure with glass panels bearing ink paintings of the surrounding West Sussex countryside. 马文在墨水池中放入发光的玻璃球,然后用带有周围的西萨塞克斯郡(West Sussex)乡村风景水墨画的玻璃面板把池子围起来。From the ceiling, a tree bursts through, its foliage coated black with ink, sprouting cancerous, crystalline fruit. 从屋顶看,一棵树从中穿过,叶子用墨水涂黑,树上长着肿瘤一般的晶体果实。These 400 hand-blown glass pieces contain teardrop-shaped, sperm-like structures, as well as voluptuous fertility symbols, while others have mutated into malignant cell-like forms. 这400个人工吹制的玻璃制品包含泪滴形、精子形,同时还有象征着生育能力的饱满形状,而还有一些果实突变成恶性肿瘤般的形状。As in traditional Daoist thought, the internal workings of the human body here become a microcosm of the wider natural world.就像传统的道家思维,人体的内部构造在这里成了整个自然界的缩影。For this exhibition, Cass has invited young artists from the Greater China region to create installation pieces across its extensive grounds, covering light woodland and open fields, as well as indoor gallery space. 对于此次展览,卡斯邀请了来自大中华区的年轻艺术家,在整个宽阔的场地(包括明亮的树林和开阔田野,还有室内展示空间)创作装置作品。In doing so, it has recorded a search for what the French Jesuit painter Jean Denis Attiret, a missionary to China in the 18th century, called the beautiful disorder of Chinese landscape aesthetics. 这样一来,它记录下一个搜寻过程,目标是18世纪前往中国的耶稣会传教士、法国画家王致诚(Jean Denis Attiret)所称的中国景观美学中的无序之美。His description was echoed by another western visitor to China at the time, the architect William Chambers, for whom the Chinese garden created violent or opposing sensations: a container for the pleasing, the terrible and the surprising.这一描述得到了另一位在同一时期前往中国的西方人、建筑学家威廉#8226;钱伯斯(William Chambers)的赞同。对钱伯斯而言,中国园林创造了暴力或者对立的感觉:融合了愉悦、糟糕和惊喜。A Beautiful Disorder makes extensive use of the principle of jiejing, or the borrowed view, in which the extended landscape is brought into view to create a provocative framing for each sculpture, from the micro-level in Zhang Ruyi’s Pause, where a stretch of woodland is studded with tiny electrical sockets, through to Cui Jie’s Pigeon’s House, in which the artist builds a tower out of architectural motifs from Beijing’s urban landscape, overlooking an English pastoral expanse.无序之美大量运用了借景的手法,把延伸的景观引入视野,为每座雕塑创建一个引人入胜的框架,无论是张如怡的作品《暂停》中的微观层面(微小的电源插座散布在一片林地)、还是崔洁的《鸽子的房子》(艺术家根据北京城市景观的建筑特色建造了一座塔楼,俯瞰着英格兰的无垠田园)。It also traces the ways in which Chinese sculpture and installation art often revolve around a sensation of boundaries becoming corrupted and twisted. 该展览还延续了中国雕塑和装置艺术往往围绕一种濒临颓废和扭曲的边缘感觉的方式。For the artist Cheng Ran, for example, the sculpture park’s patches of woodland offer possibilities for probing the edges of psychological states. 例如,对艺术家程然来说,雕塑公园内的林地提供了探索心理状态边缘的可能。Born in Inner Mongolia in 1981, Cheng is better known for his trance-like art, where he remixes Hollywood film and Korean soap operas. 程然1981年出生于内蒙古,他更为人熟知的是迷幻风格的视频制作艺术(对好莱坞影片和韩剧进行混编)。Yet he has always been fascinated by the natural world’s capacity for provoking hypnagogia — a state between dreaming and waking.不过,他总是着迷于自然界引发半梦半醒(hypnagogia ,一种介于做梦和清醒之间的状态)的能力。In his surreal 2009 The Sorrows of Young Werther, Cheng portrayed a midnight forest, which he then interrupted with explosions of colour using suspended mirrored spheres and disco balls. 在2009年制作的超现实主义视频《少年维特之烦恼》(The Sorrows of Young Werther)中,程然营造了一个午夜森林的环境,然后用悬挂的镜面球体和迪斯科球灯的强烈色打破了静谧。In his piece Crossroads here, Cheng has reversed the idea, after studying the pattern of sunlight and shade in the woodland. 在研究了树林中光和影的模式后,他在作品《十字路口》中逆转了那种创意。He uses scaffolding to hoist up a light which perpetually bathes the trees in artificial, dappled sunlight, creating another kind of dream-space.他用脚手架起一盏灯,使树木沐浴在斑驳的人造光线中,营造出另一种梦境。The development of contemporary art in mainland China can be distinguished from that of the west through what the University of Chicago art historian Wu Hung has called a pattern of rupture. 与西方当代艺术不同的是,中国内地当代艺术的发展被芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)的艺术史学家巫鸿(Wu Hung)称为隔断模式。He suggests that Chinese history has been subject to a series of violent political and ideological fractures, with the result that artists are in a state of constant reorientation.他认为,中国历史经历了一系列剧烈的政治和意识形态上的断裂,结果就是艺术家处于不断重新定位的状态。The potential of past ideologies to become strange and alien is taken up in Wang Yuyang’s Identity. 王郁洋在其作品《特性》中探索了昔日的意识形态变得奇怪而异化的可能。Wang has converted Karl Marx’s Capital into binary code, and then fed it into 3D rendering software which produced construction and material calculations for the artist. 他把卡尔#8226;马克思(Karl Marx)所著的《资本论》(Capital)转化为二进制代码,而后把代码输入三维渲染软件,由其生成结构和为这名艺术家进行材料计算。From that, Wang has produced a colossal fungus-like column of brass, steel and marble.在此基础上,王郁洋制作了一个由铜、钢和大理石构成的巨型菌状柱体。Song Ta’s performance-installation work Why do they never take colour photos? reflects even further on the mercurial qualities of China’s past. 宋拓的行为艺术装置作品《为什么他们从不拍色照片?》更深层次地表现了中国历史的剧变特点。An enormous white bust of Chairman Mao has been placed in a seemingly post-apocalyptic grove of trees coated in lime-wash grey, in which students from a local theatre school skulk and dance. 毛主席的巨型半身雕像被置于看似后世界末日的树林(林干均被刷成石灰色)中,来自当地话剧学校的学生或是鬼鬼祟祟地出没其中,或是翩翩起舞。The effect is of a profound rupture between past and present: gone are the images of workers and soldiers striding out from beneath the Chairman’s radiant gaze that used to adorn propaganda of the Maoist era.作品凸显了过去与现在之间的深层次隔断:在毛主席像(曾在毛泽东时代用来宣传主旋律)的凝视下大踏步走过的工人和士兵的画面已经成为过去。Until the turn of the millennium, the kinds of installation pieces hosted at Cass would have been relegated to the periphery by mainland China’s state-art system. 直到进入21世纪前,卡斯展出的装置作品一直被中国内地的国家艺术体系归为边缘艺术。The art scene is now vastly different, and a surging generation of Chinese artists is seeking a globalised, cosmopolitan identity for itself, in contrast with the dominant national allegories of the past.如今的艺术界风格迥异,与过去主导性的国家使命形成反差的是,新一代艺术家正在为自己寻找全球化、世界主义的身份认同。But Chinese installation art has always carried the traces of impermanence. 但是,中国装置艺术一直带有无常的痕迹。In a combination of shifting ink wash, the contours of the natural setting, and blockbuster installation artworks, A Beautiful Disorder teaches us to see these markers of displacement and transience even within the sedate confines of an English country estate.在水墨、自然环境以及大型装置艺术作品的结合中,无序之美教会我们观察到置换和转瞬即逝的记号——即使是在静谧的英国乡村庄园。 /201610/472542

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