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2019年12月09日 17:11:07来源:华龙共享

  • Any dog owner would testify that dogs are just as prone to jealousy as humans.任何主人都能作,简直和人一样容易嫉妒。But can one really compare Othello’s agony to Roscoe’s pique?但真的有人能把罗斯科(Roscoe)的愤懑与奥赛罗(Othello)的痛苦相提并论吗?The answer, according to Christine Harris, a psychologist at the University of California, San Diego, is that if you are petting another dog, Roscoe is going to show something that Dr. Harris thinks is a form of jealousy, even if not as complex and twisted as the adult human form.加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)的心理学家克里斯蒂娜·哈里斯(Christine Harris)表示,是,如果你抚摸另一只,罗斯科会有某种表现。哈里斯士认为,这种表现是嫉妒的一种形式,尽管这种形式不像成年人类的嫉妒形式那么复杂、扭曲。Other scientists agree there is something going on, but not all are convinced it is jealousy. And Roscoe and the rest of his tribe were, without exception, unavailable for comment.其他一些科学家也认同这种情形下会出现某种情况,但并不都相信那是嫉妒。而罗斯科和他的同类,无一例外均不便发表。Dr. Harris had been studying human jealousy for years when she took this question on, inspired partly by the antics of her parents’ Border collies. When she petted them, “one would take his head and knock the other’s head away,” she said. It certainly looked like jealousy.在遇到这个问题时,哈里斯士已经对人类的嫉妒情绪进行了多年研究。当时,她部分是受了父母的边境牧羊犬表现出的怪异行为的启发。她说,当她抚摸他们时,“其中一只会用头把另外一只的头挤开”。这种情形看上去当然像嫉妒了。But having studied humans, she was aware of different schools of thought about jealousy. Some scientists argue that jealousy requires complex thinking about self and others, which seems beyond dogs’ abilities. Others think that although our descriptions of jealousy are complex, the emotion itself may not be that complex.但因为已经对人类进行了研究,她了解有关嫉妒的不同思想流派。一些科学家认为,嫉妒要求有能力对自身和他人进行复杂思考,这似乎超出了的能力。其他一些人则认为,尽管我们对嫉妒的描述颇为复杂,但这种情感本身或许并不复杂。Dog emotions, as owners perceive them, have been studied before. In one case, Alexandra Horowitz, a cognitive scientist who is an adjunct associate professor at Barnard College and the author of “Inside of a Dog,” found that the so-called guilty look that dogs exhibit seemed to be more related to fear of punishment.以前就有人研究过主人眼中的情感。在其中一项研究中,著有《一只的内心》(Inside of a Dog)的认知科学家、巴纳德学院(Barnard College)客座副教授亚历山德拉·霍罗威茨(Alexandra Horowitz)发现,表现出来的所谓的内疚表情似乎与害怕受到惩罚更相关。Dr. Harris ventured into the tricky turf of dog emotion by devising a test based on work done with infants.哈里斯士以针对孩子的研究工作为基础,设计了一个试验,大胆进入了的情感这个棘手领域。When dog owners petted and talked to a realistic stuffed dog that barked and whined, the people’s own dogs came over, pushed the person or the stuffed dog, and sometimes barked. After the experiment, many of the dogs sniffed the rear end of the stuffed dog, suggesting, Dr. Harris said, that the dogs thought it might be real.当主人抚摸一只逼真的、能吠叫并发出呜呜声的填充玩具,并与其说话时,他们自己的会走过来,推自己的主人或那只玩具,有时还会大叫。试验结束后,许多会嗅那只填充玩具的臀部。哈里斯士称,这表明,那些以为玩具可能是一只真。Dr. Harris also recorded what happened as the owners petted and talked to a jack-o’-lantern and a children’s book aloud, to see if any old distraction would provoke a reaction. The dogs paid little attention to the jack-o’-lantern and very little to the book.为了看看随便什么通常分散注意力的事情会不会让它们有所反应,哈里斯还记录了主人在抚摸南瓜灯笼并和它说话,以及大声朗读儿童读物时发生的情况。那些少有注意灯笼的,对那本书,的关注度则更小。Dr. Harris concluded, in a paper in PLoS One written with Caroline Prouvost, also at the University of California, San Diego, that the dogs showed a “primordial” form of jealousy, not as complex as the human emotion, but similar in that there is a social triangle and the dog is trying to make sure it, not the rival, receives the attention.在与同在加州大学圣迭戈分校任职的卡罗琳·普鲁沃(Caroline Prouvost)共同撰写,并发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》(PLOS One)的一篇文章中,哈里斯得出结论称,那些表现出了一种“原始”形式的嫉妒,不像人类的嫉妒那么复杂。但它也是发生在一种社会三角关系之中,会尝试确定获得关注的是自己,而不是对手,因此这种情感与人类的嫉妒类似。Other scientists had mixed reactions to the work. Dr. Horowitz said she admired the goal but thought the researchers had not shown that the behaviors observed actually indicated jealousy.其他科研人员对这项研究的反响各异。霍罗威茨士说,她很欣赏该研究的目标,但她认为,研究者没能明,被观察到的行为真的代表嫉妒。“What can be shown is that dogs seem to want an owner’s attention when there is attention being given out,” she said. “This study confirms that.”“可以被明的是,当主人向外界给予关注的时候,似乎想要得到这种关注,”她说,“这项研究实了这一点。”Sybil Hart, at Texas Tech, who has studied jealousy in infants, said she thought the research was “very well done and makes a very compelling argument.”德克萨斯理工大学的西比尔·哈特(Sybil Hart)曾经研究过婴儿的嫉妒心理。哈特说,她认为这项研究“做得很出色,观点令人信”。If one sees jealousy in babies and dogs, she said, “to some degree, it’s innate,” which would be important to know for attempts to manage human jealousy.哈特说,如果人们发现了婴儿和的嫉妒之心,“在一定程度上,这是天生的”。了解这一点对于管理成人的嫉妒情绪十分重要。“Over all, trying to make it go away has not been very successful,” Dr. Hart said. “We are trying to eliminate jealousy, and scientists are saying maybe we should try to understand it better.”“总的来说,消除嫉妒心理的努力并不是非常成功,”哈特士说。“我们正努力消除嫉妒情绪,而科学家告诉我们,或许我们应该试着更好地理解它。”Jealousy, Dr. Harris wrote in the study, is “the third leading cause of nonaccidental homicide across cultures.”哈里斯在研究中写道,嫉妒“在许多文化中都是故意杀人案的第三大诱因”。Whatever the dogs’ behavior is called, said Brian Hare, a director of the Duke Canine Cognition Center at Duke University, there are practical implications for their owners.杜克大学杜克犬科动物认知研究中心(Duke Canine Cognition Center at Duke University)的主任布赖恩·黑尔(Brian Hare)说,无论犬类的这种行为被称作什么,对他们的主人而言,都会存在一些实实在在的影响。“Attention seeking can lead to jealousylike behavior in dogs that includes aggression in some cases,” he said. “So for dogs with suspected aggression problems, it may be important to avoid situations where they feel ignored.”“寻求关注可以引发类似于嫉妒的表现,比如有时候出现攻击性,”他说。“因此,对于可能有攻击性问题的来说,避免让他们感到被忽略也许十分重要。” /201407/315817。
  • Ditch your French and German textbooks and start learning Mandarin, David Cameron told the UK’s school pupils after his return from a visit to China last week.扔掉法语和德语课本,开始学习汉语吧。戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)最近从中国访问回来之后,这样对英国的小学生说。The UK prime minister should be happy with any language skills his young compatriots manage to pick up. But it is true that it would be useful if more people spoke the main language of the world’s soon-to-be largest economy.不管英国小同胞们学会什么语言技能,卡梅伦都应该感到高兴。但如果有更多的人会说即将成为世界最大经济体的国家的主要语言,确实大有裨益。I asked China-based colleagues if they knew of any foreign business leaders who spoke Mandarin. The list was short and limited to executives working in China. Roland Decorvet, the Swiss head of Nestlé in China, speaks fluent Mandarin. Peter Humphrey, the British fraud investigator who did work for GlaxoSmithKline and who has been detained by the Chinese authorities, also speaks excellent Mandarin.我曾问在中国的同事,知不知道哪些外国公司高层会说汉语。列出来的人非常少,并且仅限于在中国工作的高管。雀巢(Nestlé)大中华区的瑞士总裁狄可为(Roland Decorvet)汉语说得很流利。英国反欺诈调查员、曾为葛兰素史克(GlaxoSmithKline)效力、已被中国有关当局拘留的韩飞龙(Peter Humphrey)的汉语也说得很好。No doubt there are others, but there don’t appear to be many. A colleague who travelled with Mr Cameron and his large business delegation says he did not hear any of them make a speech in Mandarin.当然也有其他人会说汉语,但显然不多。我的一名同事随同卡梅伦及其大型商务代表团访华,他说,他们没有一个人讲过汉语。If they are to make progress, children should start learning early. But Mandarin is very different from European languages and harder for an English speaker to learn than French or German. Also, in the race to learn other languages, the Chinese are way ahead in learning English. Although the English-language component of the Chinese university entrance exam has been reduced, there are 50,000 English-language teaching companies in the country. Internationally-minded companies regard English as important. Lenovo, the Chinese computer company, has made it its official language.如果要取得进步的话,孩子们应该尽早学习汉语。但汉语与欧洲语言非常不同,对于一个说英语的人来说,汉语比法语和德语要更难学。此外,在学习外语的竞争中,中国人在学习英语方面遥遥领先。尽管英语在中国高考中的比重有所下降,这个国家还是有五万个英语培训机构。具有国际视角的公司非常重视英语。中国电脑制造商联想(Lenovo)就将英语列为官方语言。Throughout Europe, English is now essential for anyone wanting to reach a senior corporate position. It is a given, a background skill like knowing how to create a PowerPoint presentation or find your way to the office.在整个欧洲,英语对于任何想要晋升到公司高层位置的人都很关键。它是一种默认的基础技能,就像知道如何制作PPT或者是找到去办公室的路。That will be the case in China too. Foreign Mandarin speakers may establish better contacts and win business. But if China follows the European pattern, its future young executives will listen as their anglophone counterparts struggle a while in their school-learnt Mandarin and they will then switch to English because it wastes less time.在中国也是这样。会说汉语的外国人可能建立更好的人脉并赢得业务。但如果中国像欧洲对待英语那样对待 汉语,其未来的年轻高管将会听到,与他们对话的以英语为母语的高管们,磕磕绊绊地讲着学校里学来的汉语,于是他们会转而说英语,因为这样可以少浪费时间。The problem, when international business discussions take place in English, is that many English speakers are not much better at using it than they are at foreign languages. Many don’t know how to adjust their English for an international audience.在用英语开展国际商务讨论的时候,问题则在于,许多说英语的人运用英语的能力并不比运用外语好多少。很多人不知道如何面向国际听众调整他们的英文。Here are a few phrases I heard a UK manager use in a speech to some Brazilians: “it’s level pegging”; “the second myth I’d like to debunk”; “we have a stopgap with that”. Some of the Brazilians had chosen to listen to a Portuguese translation through headphones; those who had thought their English was good enough to manage without looked as if they were regretting their choice.下面是我听一名英国经理对一些巴西人说的话:“这势均力敌”;“这是我想揭穿的第二个谎言”;“我们有应急措施”。其中一些巴西人选择戴上耳机听葡萄牙语翻译,而那些认为自己英语很好、不用戴耳机的人,看上去则非常后悔自己的选择。For an English speaker, mastering foreign languages is excellent; being able to speak the international business tongue so that you can be understood is just as important.对一个说英语的人来说,掌握外语是非常棒的;而能够操一口国际商务通用的语言并且能够让人理解也非常重要。When I suggested a while back that English speakers avoid figurative language and phrasal verbs such as “put out”, some ers took issue with me. “Most idioms are intuitive and you can guess#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;from the context, for example “pin hopes on” or “shrug off” are pretty easy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I actually enjoy learning a new colourful phrase from a Brit and being able to deduce its meaning,” one er wrote. Indeed, at a conference in Brussels recently, I heard non-native English speakers nonchalantly using phrasal verbs and idioms such as “he touched upon that”, “we’ve laid down detailed rules” and “our ideas in a nutshell”.不久前我建议说英语的人避免使用比喻和“put out”等动词短语时,一些读者就与我争论了。一位读者写道,“大多数习语都是凭直觉就能懂的,可以通过上下文来猜,比如说‘寄希望于’或者‘耸耸肩’都非常简单。实际上,从英国人那学习新的、丰富多的短语并且能够推断其意思,让我觉得很有趣。”最近在布鲁塞尔召开的一次会议上,我听到非英语母语人士非常自然地使用一些动词短语和习语,比如“他提到那点”,“我们制定了具体的规则”以及“简要谈谈我们的想法”。These largely came from speakers of Germanic languages, which have their own phrasal verbs, but it also became clear that they were highly competent English speakers and I had to adjust my English accordingly. Patronising your audience is as bad as losing them through being too colloquial.这些主要是日耳曼语族的人,日耳曼语族有自己的动词短语。但同样明显的是,他们的英语能力很强,而我也必须调整我的英语。以高人一等的态度对待听众,与太口语化而失去听众一样糟糕。How can English speakers find the appropriate way to speak their language to non-native speakers? Learning a foreign language, any language, is useful in helping you understand what it is like to work in your non-native tongue. But so is understanding the structure and idiosyncrasies of your own language so you can adjust your use of it to the situation.说英语的人如何找到恰当的方式对非英语母语者说英语呢?学习一门外语,任何一门外语,对于帮助你理解运用非母语是什么一种状态都是有用的。但理解英语本身的结构和特点也很有用,因为这样你就可以根据情境来调整你的英语。Yes, English-speaking children should learn Mandarin. But they need a more sophisticated command of English too.诚然,以英语为母语的孩子应该学习汉语,但他们也需要在英语上有更高的造诣。 /201312/268918。
  • Date:日期:Source:来源:American Society ofClinical Oncology (ASCO)美国临床肿瘤协会(ASCO)New, large cohortanalysis from the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO)Cancer Screening Trial, indicates that men who had moderate baldness affectingboth the front and the crown of their head at age 45 were at a 40% increasedrisk of developing aggressive prostate cancer (usually indicates a fastergrowing tumor resulting in poorer prognosis relative to non-aggressive prostatecancer) later in life, compared to men with no baldness. There was nosignificant link between other patterns of baldness and prostate cancer risk.The study, published September 15 inthe Journal of Clinical Oncology, supports earlier research suggesting thatmale pattern baldness and prostate cancer may be linked.一个新的,大型的潜在前列腺癌、肺癌、大肠癌和卵巢癌临床试验筛选断代分析表明,前额和头顶头发在46岁时不断掉落的男性与没有脱发的男性相比,以后患有侵略性前列腺癌的可能性增加40%(通常意味着没有很好地诊断出非侵略性前列腺癌而造成的肿瘤的快速扩张),而别的部位脱发则与患前列腺癌的风险没有太大的关联。这篇发表在9月15出版的《临床肿瘤学》上的文章实了之前的研究结果,认为男性某种类型脱发可能与前列腺癌有关。;Our study found anincreased risk for aggressive prostate cancer only in men with a very specificpattern of hair loss, baldness at the front and moderate hair-thinning on thecrown of the head, at the age of 45. But we saw no increased risk for any formof prostate cancer in men with other hair-loss patterns,; said seniorstudy author Michael B. Cook, PhD, an investigator in the Division of CancerEpidemiology and Genetics at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD.;While our data show a strong possibility for a link between thedevelopment of baldness and aggressive prostate cancer, it#39;s too soon to applythese findings to patient care.;“我们的研究发现,只有某些特性类型的脱发,头前面和头顶的头发在45岁时开始脱落,患侵略性前列腺癌的可能性增加。而其他类型的脱发则与患前列腺癌的风险关系不大,”位于马里兰州贝塞斯达的美国国家癌症研究所肿瘤流行病学和遗传学部门的高级研究员、本文作者迈克尔·b·库克士说。“虽然我们的数据表明持续脱发很可能与侵略性前列腺癌有关联,但将这个发现应用于病人护理还为时尚早。”Prostate cancer is thesecond most common cancer among men. Emerging evidence suggests that prostatecancer and male pattern baldness -- progressive scalp hair-loss in a distinctpattern -- are both connected to increased levels of male sex hormones(androgens) and androgen receptors, supporting the idea of a biological linkbetween baldness and prostate cancer development and progression.前列腺癌是男性第二大常见癌症。新出现的据表明前列腺癌和男性某种类型的脱发—以一种特定的模式持续掉发—与男性性激素(androgens)和性激素受体的水平增加都有关联,表明脱发与前列腺癌的发展和恶化存在着生物关联。Researchers analyzed malepattern baldness in relation to prostate cancer risk in a cohort of 39,070 menfrom the U.S. PLCO Cancer Screening Trial, aged 55-74 years at enrollment. Themen received a questionnaire that asked them to recall what their hair-losspatterns were at age 45 using a pictorial tool.研究人员对进行了美国前列腺癌临床试验筛选的,登记在册的,55到74岁的3万9070名男性进行了男性某种类型脱发与患前列腺癌的关联进行了分析。这些男性接受了问卷调查,通过图形工具回忆他们在45岁时的脱发类型。During follow-up, 1,138prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 51% of which were aggressive (Gleasonscore equal to or greater than 7, stage III or IV, or prostate cancer as thecause of death). The mean age at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis was 72.接下来的随访表明,前列腺癌的确诊病例的1138例,其中51%为侵略性的(格里森评分等于或大于7,III期或IV期,或因前列腺癌病死)。诊断出前列腺癌的平均年龄为72岁。Men who had a specificpattern of baldness, frontal and moderate crown (vertex), were 40% more likelyto develop aggressive prostate cancer, compared to men who had no baldness.There was no association between male pattern baldness and risk ofnon-aggressive prostate cancer.前额和头顶头发在46岁时不断掉落的男性与没有脱发的男性相比,以后患有侵略性前列腺癌的可能性增加40%。而别的部位脱发则与患前列腺癌的风险没有太大的关联Dr. Cook stated that ifthese findings are confirmed by further studies, medical assessment of baldnesscould possibly be used to help identify men who may be at increased risk ofaggressive prostate cancer. His research team is currently conducting twoadditional cohort analyses exploring the relationship between male patternbaldness and risk of developing and dying from prostate cancer. One of thestudies includes a baseline dermatologic assessment of male pattern baldness,which may be more reliable than the recall method, which was used in thepresent study. This research was supported by the intramural program of theU.S. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.库克士认为如果这个发现被进一步的研究所实,那么脱发医疗审定可用来帮助识别患前列腺癌可能性增加的男性。他的研究团队目前正在实施两个补充的断代分析,探索男性某种类型的脱发与前列腺癌发展和恶化之间的联系。其中一个研究包括模式脱发的头皮层发根评估,这比目前研究中使用的依靠回忆要可靠地多。此研究得到了美国国立卫生研究院、美国国家肿瘤研究所内部项目的资助。 /201409/331635。
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