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Buckminster Fuller, 1895-1983: Building Designer, Engineer, Inventor, Thinker, Poet He was one of the most unusual thinkers of the twentieth century. VOICE ONE:I'm Phoebe Zimmermann.VOICE TWO: And I'm Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program People in America. Today we tell about an unusual man who had many abilities. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE: R. Buckminster Fuller Building designer. Engineer. Inventor. Thinker. Poet. Not five people. Just one: Richard Buckminster Fuller. "Bucky" Fuller, as he was known, was one of the most unusual thinkers of the twentieth century. His aim in life was to make the human race a success in the universe. Bucky Fuller spent most of his life searching for new ideas. He also searched for unusual connections between existing ideas. He described himself in these words: "A complete, future-thinking design-science explorer."Fuller believed deeply in technology. Through technology, he said, people can do anything they need to do. VOICE TWO: R. Buckminster Fuller died in nineteen eighty-three at the age of eighty-seven. During his long life, he discussed his idea about technology and human survival. He called his idea "dymaxion." It came from three words. Dynamic, meaning a force. Maximum, meaning the most. And ion, which is an atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge. Fuller explained the word dymaxion as a method of doing more with less. Everything he did was guided by this idea. He designed a dymaxion car, a dymaxion house, and a dymaxion map of the world. But he probably is known best for another invention -- the geodesic dome. A geodesic dome is a round building made of many straight-sided pieces. Talking about R. Buckminster Fuller means using strange words. This is because Fuller himself invented words to describe his ideas and designs. His designs were way ahead of his time. They still are. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:R. Buckminster Fuller was born in Milton, Massachusetts, in eighteen ninety-five. Bucky could not see clearly, because his eyes did not point straight ahead. So, his world was filled with masses of color without clear shapes. When he was four years old, he got eyeglasses to correct the problem. Suddenly, he could see the shapes of people's faces. He could see stars in the sky and leaves on the trees. He never lost his joy at the beauty he discovered in the world. As a child, Bucky Fuller questioned everything. He was a very independent thinker at an early age. His refusal to accept other people's ideas and rules continued as he grew older. One result was that he never completed his university studies. He was expelled two times from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He thought his time was better spent having fun than studying. Yet Bucky Fuller was very serious about learning. He proved this when he joined the American navy during World War One. VOICE TWO:In the navy, he learned all about navigation, mathematics, mechanics, communications and electronics engineering. He loved this world of modern technology. Soon after he joined the navy, he designed new rescue equipment. It helped save the lives of some pilots during training. Fuller's good navy record won him a short-term appointment to the ed States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. It was there he first developed two ideas that were important for the rest of his life. While studying warships, Fuller realized that they weighed much less than buildings, yet were able to do much more. He decided better designs could also help humans do more, using fewer materials. VOICE ONE:In nineteen seventeen, Bucky Fuller married Anne Hewlett. Their daughter, Alexandra, was born about a year later. Bucky was a very emotional man, as well as an intellectual one. He loved his little daughter. She was the wonder of his world. Then Alexandra became very sick. The medicine to cure her had not been invented yet. She died at the age of four. Bucky Fuller blamed himself, although he had done everything he could to save her. His sorrow overcame him. He began to drink too much alcohol. Yet he continued to work hard. Fuller was head of a company that made a light-weight building material. He was not a successful businessman, however. And the company began to fail. He was dismissed by the owners. It was nineteen twenty-seven. His wife had just given birth to another baby girl. They were living in Chicago, Illinois. He had no job and no money. He felt he was a complete failure. VOICE TWO:Bucky Fuller walked through the streets of Chicago along lake Michigan. He stood silently on the shore. He considered killing himself. Then, as he explained later, he realized he did not have the right to kill himself. He said he had felt something inside him that day. He called it the Greater Intelligence or God. It told him he belonged to the universe. So Bucky Fuller decided to live. And he would live the way he thought best. He promised to spend his remaining years in search of designs that could make human existence on Earth easier. This began his great creative period. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE: A dymaxion house Fuller's first design was the dymaxion house. It was not built at the place it would stand. It was built in a factory, then moved. It did not cost much to build. And it did not look like a traditional house in America. Its roof hung from a huge stick in the center. Its walls were made of glass. It contained everything needed for people to live. Power came from the sun. Water was cleaned and re-used. Fuller then designed and built the dymaxion car. It looked a little like the body of an airplane. It had three wheels instead of four. It could go as fast as one hundred eighty kilometers an hour. It carried up to twelve passengers. Several companies were interested in building and selling Fuller's house and car. But his designs were so different, so extreme, that banks were not willing to lend money for the projects. So the dymaxion house -- which could have provided low-cost housing for everyone -- was never built. And the dymaxion car -- which could have provided safe, pollution-free transportation using little gasoline -- was never produced. VOICE TWO:Bucky Fuller did not give up his idea of doing more with less. He had an idea for another building design. It would provide the most strength with the least amount of material. He began looking for the perfect shape. Fuller found it in nature. It appeared in the shapes of organic compounds and metals. The main part of his design is a four-sided pyramid. To create a building, many pyramids are connected to each other. The connecting piece has eight sides. Together, these two shapes create a very strong, light-weight rounded structure. The structure can be covered with any kind of material. And it can stand without any supports inside. Fuller named this structure the geodesic dome. It covers more space with less material than any other building ever designed. VOICE ONE:A geodesic dome in Montreal, Canada After a number of experimental geodesic domes were built, industry began to understand the value of the design. Today, there are about one hundred thousand different large and small geodesic domes in use around the world. However, no one yet has acted on one of Fuller's ideas for the geodesic dome. There are no limits to the size of a geodesic dome. So Fuller proposed using them over cities or over areas that had severe weather. A geodesic dome that size would make it possible to have complete control over the environment inside it. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Most of Bucky Fuller's inventions did not earn him much money. A lot of what he did earn he spent travelling around the world. He told anyone who would listen about his ideas for human life on this planet. He called the planet "Spaceship Earth." Humans, he said, are astronauts on Spaceship Earth. They are travelling one hundred thousand kilometers an hour around the sun. He said the Earth is like a large mechanical device that will survive only if people living on it know how to operate it correctly. People must live on Earth just as astronauts live in a spaceship. They must use their supplies wisely, and re-use them. Buckminster Fuller said humans are able, through planning and wise use of natural supplies, to feed and house themselves forever. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:This VOA Special English program, People in America, was written by Marilyn Rice Christiano. It was produced by Lawan Davis. Our studio engineer was Sulaiman Tarawaley. I'm Phoebe Zimmerman.VOICE TWO:And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for another People in America program on the Voice of America. Article/200803/32044

Time isn't on my side. Another year has passed, and the completion of my junior year is the essence of my thought. What a year it has been.I ritually write a column summarizing the new theories of each of my years. Now I'm a 20-year-old college student, bittersweet at having one year remaining. I have 10 points to share on my latest stop on my journey to commencement. #8226;The navigating one. Why can college be so utopian, so realistic, but so unrealistic? I've been fortunate this year to get most things my way. But my encouragement to freshmen is stick to the fight. The race is given to the swift, but you must see the goal before you take off running. Find your niche on campus, and maximize your potential in that domain.#8226;The prodigious two: Academic and extra-curricular achievement is important, but communication skills and personality are a must! Personality is everything. Look at the world's most famous celebrities—they have talent, but personality is the driving force in their success. If you don't have it, you won't make it—plain and simple.#8226;The third eye. Know your value. You don't have to be arrogant or overly cocky. Never settle for less—in relationships, jobs or grades. A man must know his value in a world where he is constantly marketing himself. But don't value yourself so highly you are unable to learn from others.#8226;The sniping four: Don't let your college experience overshadow your family. Fall semester, I realized my college career was taking up so much of my life that I was neglecting my family. I quickly fixed the problem. Habitat my need your help building a house, but don't let your family's framework fall apart at home.#8226;The oracle five: This is for those who make the laws and regulations we live by. Please don't be naive. Just because it's illegal doesn't mean students are not doing it! Students, dont’be naive and think Crimewatch won't discover you. We're not immune to anything.#8226;Nostradamus six. Things may change, but we still have room to grow. Downtown has finally opened up to the black students. We can have parties and events comfortably at a few of the downtown clubs—which has been lacking. All downtown clubs don't have a welcome mat. They claim their insurance policy doesn't cover "hip-hop parties."#8226;The turbulent seven: Never date anyone you couln't see marrying or being in a long-lasting relationship with. The older you get, the more tiring relationship games are.#8226;Ethereal eight: Just trust the process! Things in life happen for a reason. We've all had situations we didn't enderstand. I'm beginning to see why god allowed certain things in my life to occur: they have made me a better, stronger, realer person.#8226;The illmatic nine: Have fun here and everwhere! Lately, I've had this desire to road trip. I realized this year that clasees are gonna be hard—so let's roll down to Atlanta for a party on a Thursday night or jump over to South Carolina for a weekend.#8226;The talented tenth: Nothing in life is guaranteed—a college degree, financial aid, nothing. Sometimes we think we're giving 100 percent to a cause and we'll fall short of the talented tenth needed to obtain what we want. Article/200909/85512

但是他的朋友达西却立刻引起全场的注意,因为他身材魁伟,眉清目秀,举止高贵,于是他进场不到五分钟,大家都纷纷传说他每年有一万磅的收入。男宾们都称赞他的一表人才,女宾们都说他比彬格莱先生漂亮得多。Mr. Bingley was good-looking and gentlemanlike; he had a pleasant countenance, and easy, unaffected manners. His sisters were fine women, with an air of decided fashion. His brother-in-law, Mr. Hurst, merely looked the gentleman; but his friend Mr. Darcy soon drew the attention of the room by his fine, tall person, handsome features, noble mien, and the report which was in general circulation within five minutes after his entrance, of his having ten thousand a year. The gentlemen pronounced him to be a fine figure of a man, the ladies declared he was much handsomer than Mr. Bingley, and he was looked at with great admiration for about half the evening, till his manners gave a disgust which turned the tide of his popularity; for he was discovered to be proud; to be above his company, and above being pleased; and not all his large estate in Derbyshire could then save him from having a most forbidding, disagreeable countenance, and being unworthy to be compared with his friend.Mr. Bingley had soon made himself acquainted with all the principal people in the room; he was lively and unreserved, danced every dance, was angry that the ball closed so early, and talked of giving one himself at Netherfield. Such amiable qualities must speak for themselves.What a contrast between him and his friend! Mr. Darcy danced only once with Mrs. Hurst and once with Miss Bingley, declined being introduced to any other lady, and spent the rest of the evening in walking about the room, speaking occasionally to one of his own party.His character was decided. He was the proudest, most disagreeable man in the world, and everybody hoped that he would never come there again. Amongst the most violent against him was Mrs. Bennet, whose dislike of his general behaviour was sharpened into particular resentment by his having slighted one of her daughters.Elizabeth Bennet had been obliged, by the scarcity of gentlemen, to sit down for two dances; and during part of that time, Mr. Darcy had been standing near enough for her to hear a conversation between him and Mr. Bingley, who came from the dance for a few minutes, to press his friend to join it.;Come, Darcy, ; said he, ;I must have you dance. I hate to see you standing about by yourself in this stupid manner. You had much better dance. ;;I certainly shall not. You know how I detest it, unless I am particularly acquainted with my partner. At such an assembly as this it would be insupportable. Your sisters are engaged, and there is not another woman in the room whom it would not be a punishment to me to stand up with. ; Article/201105/137700

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