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2019年06月25日 10:34:47    日报  参与评论()人

重庆市第一人民医院预约重庆市中医院祛疤多少钱重庆新桥医院专家微信 I#39;m here to tell you about the real search for alien life.我想告诉你们一些针对外星生命所展开的真实的探索行动。Not little green humanoids arriving in shiny UFOs, although that would be nice.不过不是那些通过UFO抵达这里的绿色小人儿,当然这样很不错。But it#39;s the search for planets orbiting stars far away.而是关于寻找外太空围绕恒星运行的行星。Every star in our sky is a sun.我们天空中的每一颗恒星都是太阳。And if our sun has planets -- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, etc.,如果说太阳有围绕它的行星--水星,金星,地球,火星,等等,surely those other stars should have planets also, and they do.当然其他的恒星周围也应该有行星,而且它们的确有。And in the last two decades, astronomers have found thousands of exoplanets.在过去的20多年中,天文学家已经找到了数千个系外行星。Our night sky is literally teeming with exoplanets.我们的夜空的确遍布着系外行星。We know, statistically speaking, that every star has at least one planet.从统计学的角度来说,我们知道每一个恒星都拥有至少一颗行星。And in the search for planets, and in the future, planets that might be like Earth,在搜索行星的过程中,在未来搜索像地球这样的行星,we#39;re able to help address some of the most amazing and mysterious questions that have faced humankind for centuries.可以帮助我们回答一些最不可思议又充满神秘的问题,这些问题已经困扰了全人类几个世纪。Why are we here? Why does our universe exist? How did Earth form and evolve?我们为什么会存在?为什么我们的宇宙会存在?地球是如何形成和演化的?How and why did life originate and populate our planet?生命如何以及为什么会诞生并在这个星球上繁衍?The second question that we often think about is: Are we alone?我们经常思考的第二个问题是:我们是唯一存在的生命吗?Is there life out there? Who is out there?外太空中还有其他生命吗?其他生命是什么样子呢?You know, this question has been around for thousands of years, since at least the time of the Greek philosophers.这个问题已经存在了几千年,至少在古希腊哲学家的时代就已经存在了。But I#39;m here to tell you just how close we#39;re getting to finding out the answer to this question.但是我今天想要告诉你们,我们已经非常接近这个问题的了。It#39;s the first time in human history that this really is within reach for us.这是人类历史上第一次对这个触手可及。Now when I think about the possibilities for life out there, I think of the fact that our sun is but one of many stars.当我想到外太空存在生命的可能性,我就想到了我们的太阳只是若干恒星中的一颗。This is a photograph of a real galaxy, we think our Milky Way looks like this galaxy.这是一个真实的星系的照片,我们认为我们的系差不多就是这一个样子。It#39;s a collection of bound stars.其中聚集了很多彼此紧密联系的恒星。But our is one of hundreds of billions of stars and our galaxy is one of upwards of hundreds of billions of galaxies.但我们的太阳只是千亿颗恒星中的一颗,我们的系也是千亿个星系中的一个。Knowing that small planets are very common, you can just do the math.小行星更是不计其数,可以做一下粗略的计算。And there are just so many stars and so many planets out there, that surely, there must be life somewhere out there.宇宙中的星球真的是太多太多了,一定还会有其他生命存在。Well, the biologists get furious with me for saying that, because we have absolutely no evidence for life beyond Earth yet.不过生物学家们极其不赞同这种说法,因为我们毕竟还没有任何相关的据。Well, if we were able to look at our galaxy from the outside and zoom in to where our sun is, we see a real map of the stars.假设能够从外太空观测我们所在的星系,并聚焦到太阳,我们就会看到一幅恒星的分布图。And the highlighted stars are those with known exoplanets. This is really just the tip of the iceberg.那些被突出标注的恒星都有已知的系外行星。这张图展现的仅仅是冰山一角而已。Here, this animation is zooming in onto our solar system.这个动画突出展示了我们的太阳系。And you#39;ll see here the planets as well as some spacecraft that are also orbiting our sun.你们可以看到一些行星和宇宙飞船,它们都在围绕着我们的太阳运行。Now if we can imagine going to the West Coast of North America,假设我们在北美洲的西海岸仰望夜空,and looking out at the night sky, here#39;s what we#39;d see on a spring night.这就是我们在一个春季的夜晚能够看到的景象。And you can see the constellations overlaid and again, so many stars with planets.你们可以看到星座的交替,还有很多带有行星的恒星。There#39;s a special patch of the sky where we have thousands of planets.天空里有一个区域密布着数千颗行星。This is where the Kepler Space Telescope focused for many years.开普勒太空望远镜在这里聚焦了很多年。Let#39;s zoom in and look at one of the favorite exoplanets.我们再继续放大,看一下其中一个比较有名的系外行星。This star is called Kepler-186f. It#39;s a system of about five planets.这颗行星叫开普勒-186f。这个系统中有大约5个行星。And by the way, most of these exoplanets, we don#39;t know too much about.这里要提一下,这其中大多数的系外行星我们都不太了解。We know their size, and their orbit and things like that.我们只知道它们的大小,轨道之类的信息。But there#39;s a very special planet here called Kepler-186f.不过开普勒-186f非常特殊。This planet is in a zone that is not too far from the star, so that the temperature may be just right for life.它处在一个距离恒星并不太远的区域内,这就意味着那里的温度可能非常适宜物种生存。Here, the artist#39;s conception is just zooming in and showing you what that planet might be like.这里我们强化了艺术效果,想要给大家展示一下这个行星可能的形貌。So, many people have this romantic notion of astronomers going to the telescope on a lonely mountaintop或许很多人都会带着一种浪漫的想象,觉得天文学家们都是在孤寂的山顶,and looking at the spectacular night sky through a big telescope.通过巨大的望远镜来观察绚丽多的夜空的。But actually, we just work on our computers like everyone else,不过事实上,我们只是在计算机上操作,跟其他人没什么两样,and we get our data by email or downloading from a database.我们通过邮件或者数据库下载数据。So instead of coming here to tell you about the somewhat tedious nature of the data and data analysis所以,与其说我是来告诉大家数据本身和数据分析有多么枯燥,and the complex computer models we make,我们的计算机模型有多么复杂,I have a different way to try to explain to you some of the things that we#39;re thinking about exoplanets.不如说我想以一种不同的方式给大家展示我们对系外行星的一些看法和思考。Here#39;s a travel poster: ;Kepler-186f: Where the grass is always redder on the other side.;这里有一张旅行海报:“开普勒-186f:一边的草总是比另一边更红。”That#39;s because Kepler-186f orbits a red star, and we#39;re just speculating that perhaps the plants there,这是因为开普勒-186f围绕着一颗红色的恒星运行,我们只是猜测那上面的植物,if there is vegetation that does photosynthesis, it has different pigments and looks red.假设有可以进行光合作用的植物,那些植物就会含有不同的色素,让它们看起来是红色。;Enjoy the gravity on HD 40307g, a Super-Earth.;“享受HD 40307g上面的重力吧,这里是超级地球。”This planet is more massive than Earth and has a higher surface gravity.这颗行星比地球的质量要大,拥有更大的表面重力。;Relax on Kepler-16b, where your shadow always has company.;“来开普勒-16b上放松一下吧,你的影子永远不会孤单。”We know of a dozen planets that orbit two stars, and there#39;s likely many more out there.据我们所知,有数十个行星都是围绕着两颗恒星运行,估计还会有更多。If we could visit one of those planets, you literally would see two sunsets and have two shadows.如果我们可以探访其中一颗行星,你确实可以看到两次日落,并同时形成两个影子。So actually, science fiction got some things right. Tatooine from Star Wars.事实上,科幻小说中的一些描述是正确的。比如《星球大战》中的塔图因。And I have a couple of other favorite exoplanets to tell you about.还有一些其他的系外星球,我也想给大家介绍一下。This one is Kepler-10b, it#39;s a hot, hot planet.这个叫做开普勒-10b,它的温度极高。It orbits over 50 times closer to its star than our Earth does to our sun.它的运行轨道距离其围绕的恒星只有地球和太阳距离的五十分之一。And actually, it#39;s so hot, we can#39;t visit any of these planets, but if we could, we would melt long before we got there.正是因为它的温度太高,我们无法探访任何这样的行星,即便我们试图接近它,在到达那里之前也早就熔化了。We think the surface is hot enough to melt rock and has liquid lava lakes.我们认为它的地表温度足够熔化岩石,能够形成液态的岩浆湖。Gliese 1214b. This planet, we know the mass and the size and it has a fairly low density. It#39;s somewhat warm.格利泽1214b。我们已经知道了这颗行星的质量和体积,它的密度比较低,温度也不算太高。We actually don#39;t know really anything about this planet, but one possibility is that it#39;s a water world,但我们对它的了解也仅限于此,不过它上面可能有水存在,like a scaled-up version of one of Jupiter#39;s icy moons that might be 50 percent water by mass.有点像木星的一颗放大版的遍布冰雪的卫星,其水含量可能占据了质量的50%。And in this case, it would have a thick steam atmosphere overlaying an ocean,在这种情况下,它就有可能覆盖了一层很厚的蒸汽大气层,就在海洋的上空,not of liquid water, but of an exotic form of water, a superfluid -- not quite a gas, not quite a liquid.不过海里不是液态水,而是一种奇特状态的水,一种超流体--不算是气体,也不算是液体。And under that wouldn#39;t be rock, but a form of high-pressure ice, like ice IX.其下遍布的也不是岩石,而是一种高压状态的冰,类似于冰IX。So out of all these planets out there, and the variety is just simply astonishing,除了这些多样性已经让我们感到惊讶的行星以外,we mostly want to find the planets that are Goldilocks planets, we call them.我们最想找到的是我们称作“古迪洛克行星”的星球。Not too big, not too small, not too hot, not too cold -- but just right for life.体积不大不小,温度不高不低--刚刚好适宜物种生存。But to do that, we#39;d have to be able to look at the planet#39;s atmosphere,不过要做到这一点,我们需要能够检测到这个行星的大气层,because the atmosphere acts like a blanket trapping heat -- the greenhouse effect.因为大气层就像一块保温毯--具有温室效应。We have to be able to assess the greenhouse gases on other planets.我们需要监测到其他行星上的温室气体。Well, science fiction got some things wrong.从这一点来说,科幻小说就显得不那么真实了。The Star Trek Enterprise had to travel vast distances at incredible speeds to orbit other planets《进取号》 需要以极高速度旅行很长的距离到达其它行星并环绕飞行,so that First Officer Spock could analyze the atmosphere to see if the planet was habitable or if there were lifeforms there.这样史波克大副才能分析大气层的成分,从而判断该行星是否适宜居住,或者那上面是否有生命存活。Well, we don#39;t need to travel at warp speeds to see other planet atmospheres,不过我们并不需要以极限高速行驶来获取其他行星上的大气数据,although I don#39;t want to dissuade any budding engineers from figuring out how to do that.当然我并不想打击那些跃跃欲试想要实现这项工作的工程师们的积极性。We actually can and do study planet atmospheres from here, from Earth orbit.我们其实可以直接在地球的轨道范围内研究那些大气层。This is a picture, a photograph of the Hubble Space Telescope taken by the shuttle Atlantis这是一张由亚特兰蒂斯航天飞机拍摄的哈勃太空望远镜的照片,as it was departing after the last human space flight to Hubble.这架航天飞机出发时,最后一次前往哈勃的载人太空飞行已经完成。They installed a new camera, actually, that we use for exoplanet atmospheres.他们在飞机上安装了一个新的照相机,可以采集系外行星的大气数据。And so far, we#39;ve been able to study dozens of exoplanet atmospheres, about six of them in great detail.目前,我们已经能够研究数十个系外行星的大气层,其中有6个我们可以得到非常详细的数据。But those are not small planets like Earth. They#39;re big, hot planets that are easy to see.不过那些都不是像地球这样的小行星。它们非常庞大,温度很高,很容易观测到。We#39;re not y, we don#39;t have the right technology yet to study small exoplanets.我们还没准备好,还不具备研究小型系外星球的技术。But nevertheless, I wanted to try to explain to you how we study exoplanet atmospheres.不过尽管如此,我还是想跟大家解释一下我们是 如何研究系外行星大气的。I want you to imagine, for a moment, a rainbow.大家可以想象一下虹。And if we could look at this rainbow closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing.如果我们可以近距离观察虹,就能发现一些暗色的线缺失了。And here#39;s our sun, the white light of our sun split up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph.这是我们的太阳,白色的光被分解了,不是被雨滴,而是被光谱仪分解了。And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are shaded at the edges.我们可以看到所有这些暗色的竖线。有的很窄,有的很宽,有的边缘很模糊。And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century.这实际上就是过去的一个多世纪以来,宇航员们研究太空物质的方式。So here, each different atom and molecule has a special set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will.在这张图中,每种原子和分子都有一组特殊的谱线,你们可以把它当做一种指纹信息。And that#39;s how we study exoplanet atmospheres.我们就是利用这些信息研究系外行星的大气成分的。And I#39;ll just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me,我永远也忘不了在20年前刚刚开始研究系外行星大气的时候,多少人告诉我,;This will never happen. We#39;ll never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?;“这根本行不通。我们永远也不可能做到。干嘛白费功夫呢?”And that#39;s why I#39;m pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres studied now, and this is really a field of its own.这也是为什么我很高兴的告诉你们目前所有的关于大气的研究,已经完全自成体系了。So when it comes to other planets, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them,那么对于那些在将来我们可以观测到的其他行星,那些类地行星,what kind of gases would we be looking for?我们需要寻找哪些气体呢?Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. That#39;s a lot of oxygen.大家都知道,我们地球上的大气含有20%体积的氧气。这个含量是很高的。But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere.不过没有植物和其它光合生物,大气中就不会有氧气,事实上连一丁点儿都不会有。So oxygen is here because of life.所以氧气的出现是因为生命的存在。And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, gases that don#39;t belong,所以我们的目标就是要找到其他行星的大气中原本并不应该存在的气体,that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for?或许可以归功于生命的存在。那么哪些分子是我们需要寻找的呢?I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We expect that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.我已经告诉过你们系外行星的种类有多么繁杂了。在我们寻找类地行星的过程中,一定还会有更多种类的外行星出现。And that#39;s one of the main things I#39;m working on now, I have a theory about this.这就是我目前正在从事的主要工作之一,对此我有一番自己的理论。It reminds me that nearly every day,这倒是提醒我了,几乎每天,I receive an email or emails from someone with a crazy theory about physics of gravity or cosmology or some such.我都会收到一封或者很多封电子邮件,发件人都对重力或者宇宙物理学提出了自己疯狂的理论。So, please don#39;t email me one of your crazy theories.不过,在此还是想提醒大家,请不要再给我发这种邮件了。Well, I had my own crazy theory. But, who does the MIT professor go to?我有一套自己的疯狂理论。那么麻省理工的教授要跟谁探讨呢?Well, I emailed a Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine and he said, ;Sure, come and talk to me.;我曾经给一名诺贝尔生理学或医学的获奖者发过邮件,他说,“听上去还不错,过来我们讨论一下吧。”So I brought my two biochemistry friends and we went to talk to him about our crazy theory.于是我就带上了两个生物化学领域的朋友,跟他介绍了一下我们的疯狂理论。And that theory was that life produces all small molecules, so many molecules.那个理论就是,生命制造了所有的小分子,不计其数的小分子。Like, everything I could think of, but not being a chemist.几乎是作为一个非化学领域专家,我能想到的所有分子。Think about it: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, molecular hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, methane, methyl chloride -- so many gases.比方说:二氧化碳,一氧化碳,氢分子,氮分子,甲烷,氯甲烷--太多太多了。They also exist for other reasons, but just life even produces ozone.它们之所以存在也有很多其他的原因,不过单单是生命,甚至就可以产生臭氧。So we go to talk to him about this, and immediately, he shot down the theory. He found an example that didn#39;t exist.于是我们去跟他讨论了这套观点,结果很快就被他否决了。他找到了一个并不存在的气体的例子。So, we went back to the drawing board and we think we have found something very interesting in another field.于是我们只好回去继续推导,我们认为我们已经找到了一些在其他领域中很有意思的东西。But back to exoplanets, the point is that life produces so many different types of gases, literally thousands of gases.回到系外行星这个话题,重点是生命制造了这么多种气体,差不多几千种。And so what we#39;re doing now is just trying to figure out on which types of exoplanets, which gases could be attributed to life.我们现在的任务就是试图找出哪些种类的系外行星上的哪些气体可能是由生命制造出来的。And so when it comes time when we find gases in exoplanet atmospheres所以当我们在系外行星的大气中找到了那些气体,that we won#39;t know if they#39;re being produced by intelligent aliens or by trees,我们很难确定这些气体是怎么来的,是由外星人制造的,还是来自树木,or a swamp, or even just by simple, single-celled microbial life.或者沼泽地,或者仅仅是来源于简单的单细胞生物。So working on the models and thinking about biochemistry, it#39;s all well and good.所以建立一些模型,应用一些生物化学的知识,我们就会得到我们想要的。But a really big challenge ahead of us is: how? How are we going to find these planets?那么在实际过程中面临的最大挑战就是:要怎么做?要怎么找到这些行星?There are actually many ways to find planets, several different ways.其实可以通过很多方式来寻找,各种不同的方式。But the one that I#39;m most focused on is how can we open a gateway so that in the future, we can find hundreds of Earths.不过我重点在研究的是要如何实现这样一个途径,在未来可以让我们找到数百个类地行星。We have a real shot at finding signs of life.我们事实上已经开始行动了。And actually, I just finished leading a two-year project in this very special phase of a concept we call the starshade.我刚刚完成了一个由我负责的两年项目,在这个特殊的项目中,我们提出了”遮星板“的概念。And the starshade is a very specially shaped screen and the goal is to fly that starshade遮星板是一个形状非常特殊的屏障,我们想要将它送入太空,遮挡恒星的光线,so it blocks out the light of a star so that the telescope can see the planets directly.这样就可以通过望远镜直接观测那些行星了。Here, you can see myself and two team members holding up one small part of the starshade.这张图上你们可以看到我和两名项目成员,正在展示遮星板的一块很小的局部。It#39;s shaped like a giant flower, and this is one of the prototype petals.它的形状就像一个巨大的花朵,这是一片花瓣的雏形。The concept is that a starshade and telescope could launch together, with the petals unfurling from the stowed position.这个过程就是把遮星板和望远镜一同送入太空,遮星板的花瓣会从运载器上打开。The central truss would expand, with the petals snapping into place.中心的桁架会展开,花瓣也会迅速延展到位。Now, this has to be made very precisely, literally, the petals to microns and they have to deploy to millimeters.这个过程需要做到非常精准,也就是说花瓣的精度要达到微米级,定位的精准度要达到毫米级。And this whole structure would have to fly tens of thousands of kilometers away from the telescope.这一整个部件需要移动至距离望远镜数万公里的距离。It#39;s about tens of meters in diameter.它的直径大概有几十米。And the goal is to block out the starlight to incredible precision so that we#39;d be able to see the planets directly.它能够以难以置信的精度实现对恒星光线的遮挡,这样我们就能直接观测行星了。And it has to be a very special shape, because of the physics of defraction.它的形状必须十分特殊,这是由物理学中的衍射现象决定的。Now this is a real project that we worked on, literally, you would not believe how hard.这是我们从事的一项实际的项目,说真的,你们想象不出这有多难。Just so you believe it#39;s not just in movie format,为了明这并不只是一种假想,here#39;s a real photograph of a second-generation starshade deployment test bed in the lab.给你们展示一个真实的照片,这是实验室中的第二代遮星板调试试验台。And in this case, I just wanted you to know that that central truss has heritage left over from large radio deployables in space.在这个项目中,我只是想让你们知道中心桁架装有太空大范围无线电部署的一部分。So after all of that hard work where we try to think of all the crazy gases that might be out there,那么,在这一系列我们试图寻找那些外行星中的神秘气体,and we build the very complicated space telescopes that might be out there, what are we going to find?以及建造了极其复杂的太空望远镜之类的艰难任务之后,我们会有什么收获呢?Well, in the best case, we will find an image of another exo-Earth. Here is Earth as a pale blue dot.最好的情况是,我们会获得另一个类地行星的图像。这张图上的地球是一个淡蓝色的小点。And this is actually a real photograph of Earth taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft, four billion miles away.这是一张地球的真实照片,由旅行者1号航天飞机从40亿英里外的距离拍摄的。And that red light is just scattered light in the camera optics.那条红色的光线只是相机的 光学部件散射出的光。But what#39;s so awesome to consider is that if there are intelligent aliens orbiting on a planet around a star near to us想象一下,如果存在着高智慧的外星生物,正绕着我们附近恒星的行星运转,and they build complicated space telescopes of the kind that we#39;re trying to build,它们搭建出了我们正在建造的复杂的太空望远镜,all they#39;ll see is this pale blue dot, a pinprick of light.它们能看到的也仅仅是一个淡蓝色的小点,极其微小的光点,这该有多酷啊!And so sometimes, when I pause to think about my professional struggle and huge ambition,有时候,当我停下来思考我所面临的难题和我远大的理想,it#39;s hard to think about that in contrast to the vastness of the universe.这跟浩瀚的宇宙相比真的不算什么。But nonetheless, I am devoting the rest of my life to finding another Earth.不过尽管如此,我还是打算奉献我的一生来寻找另一个地球。And I can guarantee that in the next generation of space telescopes, in the second generation,而且我可以保,用下一代的太空望远镜,也就是第二代,we will have the capability to find and identity other Earths.我们将会有能力找到并识别出其他的类地行星。And the capability to split up the starlight so that we can look for gases我们也将能够分解恒星发出的光线,能够找到那些气体,and assess the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, estimate the surface temperature, and look for signs of life.获得那些大气中的温室气体成分信息,估算星球表面的温度,并寻找生命的迹象。But there#39;s more. In this case of searching for other planets like Earth,不过我们还有更长远的打算。在寻找其他类地行星的同时,we are making a new kind of map of the nearby stars and of the planets orbiting them, including that actually might be inhabitable by humans.我们还在制作一幅展示附近恒星及其行星的新太空地图,包括有可能适宜人类居住的行星。And so I envision that our descendants, hundreds of years from now, will embark on an interstellar journey to other worlds.我能够想像我们的后代,在几百年之后,能够通过星际旅行到达其他的星球。And they will look back at all of us as the generation who first found the Earth-like worlds. Thank you.他们能够回首我们这一代,第一个发现类地新世界的一代。谢谢大家。And I give you, for a question, Rosetta Mission Manager Fred Jansen.你先来提问吧,有请罗塞塔任务的负责人,Fred Jansen。You mentioned halfway through that the technology to actually look at the spectrum of an exoplanet like Earth is not there yet.你部分提到了可以分析类地行星光谱的技术还尚未实现。When do you expect this will be there, and what#39;s needed?你认为什么时候可以实现,要如何实现呢?Actually, what we expect is what we call our next-generation Hubble telescope.事实上,我们打算依靠下一代的哈勃望远镜。And this is called the James Webb Space Telescope, and that will launch in 2018,我们叫它詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜,会在2018年把它送上太空,and that#39;s what we#39;re going to do, we#39;re going to look at a special kind of planet called transient exoplanets,整个计划大概是这样的,我们会观测一种特殊的行星,叫做过渡系外行星,and that will be our first shot at studying small planets for gases that might indicate the planet is habitable.那将是我们研究小行星上可能预示着生命迹象的气体的第一次尝试。I#39;m going to ask you one follow-up question, too, Sara, as the generalist.莎拉,我还有个大众一点的问题要问一下你。So I am really struck by the notion in your career of the opposition you faced,我真的对你的职业生涯中所面临的反对声音感到很震惊,that when you began thinking about exoplanets,也就是当你开始思考系外行星,there was extreme skepticism in the scientific community that they existed, and you proved them wrong.科学领域对它们是否存在持有极端怀疑的态度,你明了他们是错的。What did it take to take that on?你是如何承受这些的呢?Well, the thing is that as scientists, we#39;re supposed to be skeptical,作为科学家,我们理应持怀疑态度,because our job to make sure that what the other person is saying actually makes sense or not.因为我们的工作就是要确认其他人的观点是否是合理的。But being a scientist, I think you#39;ve seen it from this session, it#39;s like being an explorer.但是作为一名科学家,我觉得你们可能已经在这段演讲中看到,我的职责更像是探索者。You have this immense curiosity, this stubbornness, this sort of resolute will that you will go forward no matter what other people say.这需要极大的好奇心,固执,还需要坚定不移的意志,无论其他人说什么,都不能动摇。I love that. Thank you, Sara.说的太好了。非常感谢你,莎拉。 Article/201706/513809You have to be able to take risk.你需要冒险You can#39;t have greatness in anything without putting it on the line. Otherwise, everybody would have it.不冒风险是不可能取得伟大成就的 要不然 所有人不都会成功吗If there was no apparent loss, if there was no chance of tremendous failure or tremendous setback, you can#39;t have the upside.没有损失的可能 没有惨痛失败的可能 你就不可能获得利益To what do I owe the pleasure, Mr. Morgan?有什么意见吗 根先生There#39;s a noise in the basement. It#39;s upsetting my wife.地下室有些噪音 我夫人很不喜欢It#39;s the generator.那是发电机I#39;ll send someone around to soundproof it.我会派人去进行隔音的You just disappoint me, Pierpont.你让我失望了 皮尔庞特I thought you knew better.我想你比我更清楚This is the future.这是未来This is the stuff of carnivals and fairs.这只是嘉年华和展览会的花哨玩意And you#39;ve been played for a fool.你被当傻子一样耍了How much competition do you have, Edison?你有多少竞争 爱迪生Nothing worthy of note.不值一提You know, if you could help me raise money to install a central power station, there#39;d be no need to have a generator in your basement.如果你能帮我筹钱建立一座中央发电站 地下室的发电机就没必要了I could power anything within a half-mile radius.半英里半径内都能通过它来发电What would it take to light all the homes in New York City?为纽约市所有家庭照明需要什么I#39;d need a network of power stations.我需要一个发电站网络What would the cost be?成本是多少I#39;ll have to go through my figures.我需要算一下Bring them to me Monday morning.周一早上给我That model train set-- powered by electricity?这个模型火车是由电提供动力的吗Yes.是I want one for my daughter#39;s birthday next week.下周我女儿生日时 给她做一个For Morgan, the potential reward is too great.在根看来 潜在回报太过诱人Against his father#39;s advice, he invests everything in electricity, determined to create his own legacy, even if it means going against everything he#39;s ever been taught.他没听父亲的建议 而是将一切都投资给了电 决心创造自己的伟大财富 哪怕这同他一直所受的教诲背道而驰 Article/201605/443604重庆中医院整形美容

巴南区妇幼保健医院医生介绍新东方英语900句 Lesson 4:Identify ObjectsCore Sentences1. What is this?2. It's a cocktakl.3. Pardon?4. It's a mixed alcoholic drink.5. Whose notebook is that?6. It is not mine. It may belongs to Jessie.7. Up to now, nobody has cleaned the suitcase.8. Where is your umbrella?9. It's behind the door.10. I looked for my wallet everywhere. But I couldn't find it.11. You must have left it in your office.12. Please look for it in the hotel lost and found office.13. Can you describe your blouse?14. It is a green one with a high neck.15. Do you remember where you misplaced it?Dialog Exercises.Number one Your rooms are mess.A. Tide, it's time to get up. You are going to be late for school.B. Mum, where is my white shirt?A. It's in the wash machine.B. Dammit, I can only have have the blue shirt on. Where my new tier and belt?A. On the chair.B. Where is cap?A. Behide the door.B. I looked for but cannot find it.A. Isn't this black cap yours?B. This is not mine. Mine is blue. This might be Michael's.A. You must have left it in your classroom.B. I'll go have a look. Mum, where is my overcoat?A. Tide, it is on your bed. Look, your room is mess.Number two, At the lost and found office of a hotel.A. Good morning, Sir?B. Good morning, Miss! I'm worry because I have lost my suitcase this morning.A. Where did you lose it?B. I still had it when I got off the taxi. And I just couldn't remember where I misplaced it.A. Can you describe it?B. Sure, it is brown medium size suitcase on wheels.A. M.., I'm afraid we've got nothing like that, sorry.B. Oh, I made a mistake. I carried the black one today. It must be very like because there is nothing but a Cousu in it.A. A cousu?B. Where, a cousu is a sort of toy music instrument like flute. I will play at night at the Halloween parade.A. Let me see.Yeh, we do have a black suitcase. Do you have the key?The customer hands over the key, and the clerk opens the suitcase.A. You are right, Sir. This is your cousu.The clerk takes out a notebook.A. Please sign your name here, Sir.B. Ok, thank you for you help.A. Welcome, enjoy yourself tonight. /200604/5849忠县固体硅胶隆鼻价格 重庆星宸整形美容医院激光脱毛怎么样

重庆彩光嫩肤一次要多少钱价格多少钱TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201606/447656 TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201606/447653重庆市星宸整形医院位置重庆第二医院开双眼皮手术多少钱



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