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2020年01月20日 10:06:37来源:百家分享

探索世界奥秘之The Ghost In Your Genes(基因外遗传现象) 10Our studies had really convinced me that it were the later experiences of the child as the child was growing up bombarded with years and years of, em, symptoms from the parents that accounted for the effect that we observed. However, in Edinburgh, Jonathan Seckl was interested in stress exposure in pregnant women and wondered if stress effects could be transmitted to their children. He started some experiments with pregnant rats to see if exposing them to stress hormones had any effect on their offspring. And we found the next generation for the rest of the life span those animals themselves had altered stress responses and showed behavior that looked like anxiety. To see if this was affecting the genes themselves, he decided to breed them and see if the stress effects could be found in generations never exposed to the stress hormone.And their daughters and sons also got the propensity for abnormal stress responses.For Seckl the only explanation was that a stressful event was throwing a switch on a gene which was then being inherited. Oh! Come on! Let's go! Let's go! Come on! Come on!His work might have stopped there until world events took a hand. When on 9/11 the planes crashed and the towers came down, Yehuda and Seckl were critically aware of the potential for the impact to be far reaching, even affecting generations yet to be born. Ailsa Gilliam was working in a building next to the towers. As I left my building, coming out through the doors, there was a lot of ash floating through the air and some office papers. I knew that if I looked up, I may see something I didn't wanna see. Just the thought that people had died close to me. I pulled it down. I got very upset. I wanted to get out of the environment. Being pregnant, I did not want to open myself up to more emotional uncertainty and emotional distress. After the events of 9/11 unfolded, Yehuda and Seckl teamed up to study women like Ailsa who were pregnant at the time.There were a lot of different opportunities to examine what the effects of 9/11 would be on the children who might be born to parents who developed post-traumatic stress disorder in response to 9/11, and particularly those who had been exposed in uteri.When exposed to a stressful event, a person produces cortisol---- a hormone that helps regulate the body's response to that stress. If cortisol levels are too low a person finds coping with stress very difficult and are prone to PTSD: post-traumatic stress disorder.New Words amp; Phrases:bombard: If you bombard someone with something, you make them face a great deal of it. For example, if you bombard them with questions or criticism, you keep asking them a lot of questions or you keep criticizing them. 不断攻击;向...连续提出问题[(+with)]cortisol: Cortisol is a hormone which is active in the brain while people are stressed. 【生化】考的索,皮质醇200807/45047。

  • I'd like to make an announcement, Hogwarts Castle will not only be your home this year, but home of some very special guests as well. Please welcome our friends from the North, the proud sons of Durmstrang, and now the lovely ladies of Beauxbatons. Daniel Radcliffe(Harry Potter): I was more sort of excited about it than nervous, I mean there's always sort of notes about doing...I...I suppose you get notes about specific things like I was nervous about the Voldermort and then about taking Cedric's body back, and that's, cause that's more...more enchanting than I have ever had to do before.Emma Watson(Hermione Granger): I have to say I was brain nervous acutaly ...em...more so than I have been in any other film. Em...I had a new challenge. Em...you know, before, I never really had to...I mean, this whole introduction of romance.Rupert Grint(Ron Wesley): Yes. It's good acts, someone, something so solved of Halix or growing up. It's like sort of teenagers now and we'll see Ron, he has this sort of, sort of moody moments like a really...has a few arguments and the...yeh, he's good at control. Yeah. he's so different..Hogwarts has been chosen to host a legendary event-the Tri-Wizard/ Tournament. And now the champion selection! Viktor Krum! Fleur Delacour! Cedric Diggory!...Harry Potter!!!How did you do it? I didn't put my name in that cup. I don't want eternal glory!Daniel Radcliffe(Harry Potter): I think it's partly , the...cause it is quite an escapist thing, the magic. But I mean in this one...that doesn't apply so much because it shows you what evil things magic can lead to. So I mean, I...simply I just I don't know, I think they're just great stories.Emma Watson(Hermione Granger): It's amazing you think that after four years you'll kind of get a bit complacent, a bit bored thing, OK, now the Harry Potter film. Here we go again. Let's get get up. But no. No no no. em...there's a new director and there's always, always new challenges.I was just wondering if maybe you want to go to the ball with me...Mr. Weasley, place your right hand on my waist.Where?Rupert Grint(Ron Wesley): I...I actually got out for the proper safe pool and a choreographer to take Cheff(可能是个人名) around and set to dance and I got out that somehow, cause er...cause Ron throughout the ball always is supposed to be sort of pit off and I'm not dance till so, you know, hope pleased with that. Is that Hermione Granger? With Viktor Krum?No, absolutely not.Emma Watson(Hermione Granger): It's meant to be em...in Pretty Woman, Julia Roberts kind of turns around in a store, and you see her. Or like, well dress-up everything, I think,( She looks beautiful.) (Yes, she does.)the way that she's bring in the way that Mike sees Dase that...it is... you know, a really magical moment where she's barely recoganizable from what she was before and what she is now.Daniel Radcliffe(Harry Potter): The dancing you see, my parents were both fantastic competition winning dancers, the genes, however, have skipped a generation: I am not blessed with the dance.Eeverything is going to change in Ausenten) 200807/45045。
  • Doctor Robi Ludwig is a psychotherapist. Steve Santagati is an author, Good to see both of you. Thank you! Now there're according to a vaulting corporate career...career information website, 58% of employees say they had an office romance, that's up from 46% in 2003 . So why are more people having office romances? There are more women in the workplace. It is really the modern day dating service. You have a lot of opportunity to work. A lot of people work so much, they don't have time to socialize. So you are gonna look around at the good-looking people around you and say hey. You have a lot of possibilities. So what are the drawbacks, though? The drawbacks though, obviously if it begets complicated and everybody knows, and that's the big thing at the beginning of an office romance, you wanna really keep it quiet. When it ends people can get vicious. And so then you have a different memory about how the relationship started. That's when sexual harassment charges can take place. That's why companies get so upset. Yeah, but if you don't want to start / right away. . . the thing, the thing is, look, Start right away what? No, start right away and what(inaudible), What're you starting yet? She's getting you! (Inaudible)You wanna, you wannaYou wanna make su(re). . . Well, you don't start dating somebody at work if you think he or she is gonna set a sexual harassment case against you. But how do you know? But probably you don't know it's no because people can get vengeful and even violent in worst case scenarios. Yeah. But an office , an office roman(ce ). . yeah, they can get violent? They can get violent. Man, where are you working? (inaudible)I used to work in a psych(o)-hospital, so don't ask me. You are working on a oil rig, ok? The thing is that you want, the nice thing about an office romance is a lot of romances , a lot of relationships happen really quickly. But because of the mystery and you have to be really quiet about it, the relationship will actually take a little bit longer to begin and unfold. There's some truth that you do get a sense of who you are dating because you get(because you've aly seen them), you get to see them, you get to know them as a person, you get to see how they think and how they operate, and, and in a lot of cases, you are with people who have similar values, and similar mindsets which is why according to many surveys, a lot of these relationships end up turning into long term relationships and even marriage. In fact you're speaking from experience. That's right. I married my husband and we met at work and it worked out fine, so. It makes sense you are spending 40, 50 hours a week at work, (Yeah. Right. ) and even though office romance, or any kind of thing, even if you are dating somebody in your building, for example, it's a bad idea, in general, but if you're gonna do it, you gotta be covert about it. In my, in my view. . . (Inaudible), keep it on the down low You gonna, it's gonna happen. It's natural. There is an older woman that we had, comment, and she said it's chemistry, if you see with someone at work, and no matter where you meet them, you're gonna have to be with them. It is part of life that you are gonna be attracted to people that you know and you are sharing confidences with. It's just normal. Are there any, anything you shouldn't do like dating the boss? No paper trail. . , well, date, don't date the boss. Yeah. That's why it gets a little bit tricky, because then it's very hard to say are you saying "yes" to the person, because they are more powerful than you. Is it hard to say no, because you're afraid of retaliation(Right. ). That's when it gets a little bit tricky, and you have to be smart about it, you have to think about worst case scenario , what's gonna happen if it doesn't work out, and you have to face this person every day. It's gonna be hard to be thought of as professionals . It's gonna be hard to stay at the workplace. What's more important, love or work? So it sounds there's, there's really no hard and fast rule. Right. No one size fits all. Yet, they want. . . No paper trails, don't e-mail each other and don't touch each other in the office and make sure you hang out in areas where no one is gonna see you outside of work, and the office Christmas party is all coming up too. (That's aly another story) That's a big, big, big deal, so anybody has been looking at you all year, all of the sudden if. . . . . . . fluorescent light and set the moonlight, it might be more romantic. . . . start like . . . but, that's a, don't do it. (yeah) Be accurate. ok, and for a note that Today Show's Christmas party takes place next week, just in case you want it. Anyway. . . .200808/46187。
  • 国家地理:Blood Diamond: Africa 血钻There's a disturbing side to the diamond trade--- the traffic of conflict diamonds, otherwise known as blood diamonds. This is Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone on the West African coast, a country still emerging from ten years of war. During that war, it was held by rebel forces--- rebels who use diamonds to finance their rebellion. The war started with rebel forces trying to overthrow a corrupt government, but quickly descended into a terror campaign with amputation used as a weapon--- thousands of people were killed and maimed as the rebels maintained their tenacious hold on the diamond fields, using the gems to buy more guns. Rebels forced men, women and children to dig for diamonds at gunpoint. These diamonds were then smuggled into the world markets. There, they were cut and polished, disappearing into the legal supply, sold like any other gem to consumers who had no idea they'd been paid for originally in blood. Diamonds from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo joined the illegal exodus. It doesn't look like much, but this is the Sierra Leone's government diamond office--- the new frontline of the fight against blood diamonds. Every gem in this room is supposed to be legal. Lawrence Myers who runs this office understands the danger blood diamonds posed to the industry. Thousands of diamonds pass through this office every week and every so often, a spectacular one shows up, like the stone that came through yesterday. "That stone would vary from 1 million to 1.5 million."It's aly on its way to Belgium--- the largest diamond exported from Sierra Leone in ten years at least legally. Weighing in at 110 carats, it's the size of a golf ball and worth about a million dollars in its rough state. After it's been cut and polished, it will be sold for about five times that amount. But for the government of Sierra Leone, the diamond will earn a mere 30,000 dollars in export taxes. That's not very much. But many diamond traders in the country choose not to pay any taxes at all. About 40% go through the official channels. 60% of diamonds are smuggled--- 70 to 75 million. This untamed jungle shelters a rich and fertile land, but there's almost no sign of agriculture. Farmers abandoned these fields long ago--- many to dig for diamonds, no fences, no guards, no industrial machinery. Twenty feet beneath these men is a diamond-rich gravel bed. To get to it, tons of earth have to be moved, a shovelful at a time. Ex-rebels work side by side with the civilians they once terrorized. Most of these men dig all day, every day, 365 days a year."Century ago, diamonds have been part of their life. They dream diamonds, they eat diamonds, they think diamonds. Wherever you go, you talk about diamonds.""I buy house. I buy motorcar. I do the job for my people." Whether they are large or small, diamonds from these mines feed the same pipeline that once trafficked the blood diamonds. There are up to a million miners in Sierra Leone, and only a thousand of them have licenses. It's like the Wild West, a place that obeys its own laws, because all it takes is one big stone to change a person's life, for better or for worse. 200708/16995。
  • 探索世界奥秘之The Ghost In Your Genes(基因外遗传现象) 05It showed that there was clearly more to inheritance than simply the coded sequence of DNA. We then realized that we were dealing with what is now known as genomic imprinting. What genomic imprinting means is, in a nutshell, that genes have a memory of where they came from.Something other than just the DNA was capable of moving between generations. It was a tantalizing glimpse into this unknown and unexpected world. A hidden layer acting on and able to directly control how our genes function. It meant that inheritance was not simply about which genes you inherited, but whether those genes were silenced, switched on or off.And you can think of it as a, as a light switch. Switch on the gene, the light is shining, the gene is active, makes, makes a cell do a certain thing. Or the light switch is off, everything is dark, that gene is off. The switches remain on or remain off, and that gives the cells their identity. The activity of genes was being controlled by a switch--the attachment of a simple chemical which dictated whether the gene was switched on or off.Whether those genes are turned on or off is called epigenetics. Epigenetics, er, you know, up on the genes. Not only is the sequence important for the DNA, which we've studied for a long time in the past few decades, but we now understand that in addition to that there is this overlying epigenetic phenomenon that allows the genes to get turned on or off.Epigenetics could explain how a human could be created with less than 30,000 genes and why the Genome Project didn't provide all the answers. Now if we actually put epigenetics on top of it, where makes it much more complicated on whether genes get activated and to a certain level and so forth. Then you have a complexity that can start to explain biology much more effectively than the simple sequence of the DNA.So clearly we have additional levels of complexity that we now need to understand that are beyond the DNA.The next huge challenge for modern biology is to now decipher the epigenetic code and understand all the combinations of switches that exist. An accurate chemical map of the human genome tells us surprisingly little about how it actually works. Transcribing the code of the genes, the Genome Project is not an end, but simply a beginning.words to memorize1. genomic imprinting:基因记忆genomic correlation 基因相关genomic exclusion 基因排斥2.in a nutshell:简单说来3.epigenetics:实验胚胎学epigenetic:后天生成的,外遗传的200807/44895。
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