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德州市中医院预约是不是真的山东省妇幼保健院无痛人流好吗Over the past few months, I’ve written a number of times on how nutrition recommendations are seldom supported by science. I’ve argued that what many people are telling you may be inaccurate. In response, many of you have asked me what nutrition recommendations should say.在过去几个月里,我多次在文章中提到,营养建议很少得到科学持。我的看法是,很多人对你们说的事情可能并不准确。对此,很多人问我有什么营养建议。It’s much easier, unfortunately, to tell you what not to do. But here at The Upshot, we don’t avoid the hard questions. So I’m going to put myself on the line. Below are the general rules I live by. They’re the ones I share with patients, with friends and with family. They’re the ones I support as a pediatrician and a health services researcher. But I acknowledge up front that they may apply only to healthy people without metabolic disorders (me, for instance, as far as I know).不幸的是,给出不建议的东西,要比给出建议容易的多。但在“结语”专栏(The Upshot),我们不回避难题。所以我来斗胆回答一下。以下是我的一般守则。我会把这些守则分享给病患、朋友和家人,作为一个儿科医生和卫生务研究人员,它们是我能够认可的。不过,我要预先承认,这些守则只适用于没有代谢障碍的健康人士(比如以我目前所知,我就算是一个)。These suggestions are also not supported by the scientific weight of rigorous randomized controlled trials, because little in nutrition is. I’ve inserted links to back them up with the available evidence. They are not “laws” and should not be treated as such. No specific nutrients will be demonized, and none will be held up as miracles. But these recommendations make sense to me, and they’ve helped me immensely.这些建议同样也没有通过严格的随机对照试验进行科学评估,因为营养学领域很少有这样的试验。我插入了链接,用现有据来持这些建议。这些建议不是“规范”,不应该被当成规范来执行。我不会把具体某个营养物妖魔化,也不会奉某个营养物为人间奇迹。但是我觉得这些建议是有道理的,而且对我帮助极大。Full disclosure: I did not invent most of these. I’ve developed them from ing the work of others, including what may be the most impressive “official” nutritional guidelines, those of Brazil, as well as from earlier suggestions from ers, as in this great NYT interactive graphic. It captures ers’ responses to food rules by Michael Pollan. He is, of course, the promulgator of the well-known advice: “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”需要声明:这些建议大多都不是我提出的,而是我通过阅读别人的作品得出的,包括一些格外出色的“官方”营养指南,巴西提出的那些,还有较早前读者提出的建议,比如时报的这份精的互动图文里列出的。这些是读者对迈克尔·波伦(Michael Pollan)提出的食物守则的回应。而波伦就无需多说了,他推广了一个著名的建议:“进食。不要太多。植物为主。”1. Get as much of your nutrition as possible from a variety of completely unprocessed foods. These include fruits and vegetables. But they also include meat, fish, poultry and eggs that haven’t been processed. In other words, when buying food at the market, focus on things that have not been been cooked, prepared or altered in any way. Brown rice over white rice. Whole grains over refined grains. You’re far better off eating two apples than drinking the same 27 grams of sugar in an eight-ounce glass of apple juice.1. 尽可能从各类完全未经加工的食物中获取营养。这些食物包括水果和蔬菜,也包括未经处理的肉、鱼、禽和蛋。换句话说,在市场里购买食物时,要注意选择尚未烹调、制备或以任何方式改变过的。糙米代替白米,全谷物代替精加工谷物。同样是摄入27克糖,吃两个苹果要比喝一杯8盎司的苹果汁好太多。1b. Eat lightly processed foods less often. You’re not going to make everything yourself. Pasta, for instance, is going to be bought aly prepared. You’re not going to grind your own flour or extract your own oil. These are meant to be eaten along with unprocessed foods, but try to eat less of them.1b. 少吃轻加工食品。不可能所有食物都自己做。比如意大利面会去买已经做好的。你不会自己磨面粉或提炼食油。这意味着要同时进食轻加工食物与未经加工食物,但要尽量少吃。1c. Eat heavily processed foods even less often. There’s little high-quality evidence that even the most processed foods are dangerous. But keep your consumption of them to a minimum, because they can make it too easy to stuff in calories. Such foods include b, chips, cookies and cereals. In epidemiologic studies, heavily processed meats are often associated with worse health outcomes, but that evidence should be taken with a grain of salt (not literally), as I’ve written about before.1c. 更要少吃重度加工食品。即便是最重度加工的食品,也很少有高质量的据能够实它是危险的。但是你要尽量少吃这些食物,因为它们容易含高热量。这类食物包括面包、薯片、饼干和谷物。流行病学研究发现,重度加工过的肉类往往与健康状况恶化有关,但正如我之前所写,该据不能尽信。2. Eat as much home-cooked food as possible, which should be prepared according to Rule 1. Eating at home allows you to avoid processed ingredients more easily. It allows you full control over what you eat, and allows you to choose the flavors you prefer. You’re much less likely to stuff yourself silly if you eat home-cooked food. I’m not saying this is easy. Behavioral change takes repetition and practice. It also, unfortunately, takes time.2. 尽量在家吃,烹饪料理也应遵循守则1。在家里吃饭能让你更容易避开加工食材,全权控制自己所吃的东西,选择自己喜欢的口味。如果是吃自家制食物,你就不会那么稀里糊涂地填饱肚子。我知道这做起来并不容易。改变行为需要重复和实践。不幸的是还需要很多时间。3. Use salt and fats, including butter and oil, as needed in food preparation. Things like salt and fat aren’t the enemy. They are often necessary in the preparation of tasty, satisfying food. The key here is moderation. Use what you need. Seasoning is often what makes vegetables taste good. Don’t be afraid of them, but don’t go crazy with them either.3. 烹调过程中按需使用盐和油脂(包括黄油和油)。盐和油脂这类调味料并不是敌人。在烹调美味而令人满足的食品过程中,它们往往是必要的。其中的关键是适度。蔬菜往往是通过调味才变得好吃的。不要惧怕它们,但也不要过度使用。4. When you do eat out, try to eat at restaurants that follow the same rules. Ideally, you should eat at restaurants that are creating all of their items from completely unprocessed foods. Lots and lots of restaurants do. Follow Rule 1 even while out to dinner. Some processing is going to be fine, but try to keep it to a minimum.4. 在外面吃饭时,尽量到遵守这些规则的餐厅用餐。在理想的情况下,你应该在只使用未经加工的食材的餐厅吃饭。许多餐厅都符合此条件。即使是出外吃晚餐,亦应该遵从守则1。吃一些加工食材没有什么问题,可还是尽量少吃为妙。5. Drink mostly water, but some alcohol, coffee and other beverages are fine. As I’ve pointed out before, you can find a study to show that everything either prevents or causes cancer — alcohol and coffee included. But my take is that the preponderance of evidence supports the inclusion of a moderate consumption of most beverages.5. 以喝水为主,但偶尔喝一些酒、咖啡或其他饮料亦可。正如我之前所说,任何东西都能找到某个研究明它要么有助预防癌症要么导致癌症——酒和咖啡亦包括在内。但我的观点是,多数据持大部分饮料可适度饮用。6. Treat all beverages with calories in them as you would alcohol. This includes every drink with calories, including milk. They’re fine in moderation, but keep them to a minimum. You can have them because you like them, but you shouldn’t consume them as if you need them.6. 像对待酒精一样对待所有含热量的饮料。这包括了所有含热量的饮料,牛奶也在此列。它们可以适度饮用,但应保持在最低限度。你可以因为喜欢所以饮用,但不应该把它们当作必须摄入的东西。7. Eat with other people, especially people you care about, as often as possible. This has benefits even outside those of nutrition. It will make you more likely to cook. It will most likely make you eat more slowly. It will also make you happy.7. 和其他人一起吃饭,特别是你关心的人,而且次数越频密越好。这甚至有营养以外的益处。这会让你有更多下厨房的机会,很可能令你吃饭吃得更慢。这能让你快乐。I’ve avoided treating any food like the devil. Many nutrition experts do, and it may turn out they’re right, but at this point I think the jury is still out. I’ve therefore tried not to tell you to avoid anything completely. My experience tells me that total abstinence rarely works, although anecdotes exist to support that practice. I think you’ll find that many other diets and recommendations work under these rules. These are much more flexible and, I hope, reasonable than what some might prescribe.我一向避免视任何饮食如魔鬼。很多营养专家这样做,而人们最终可能会发现他们是对的,但目前我觉得还没有盖棺定论。因此,我一直尽量不说你应该完全避开某个东西。尽管现时传闻持相反做法,但经验告诉我,彻底戒绝很少是有效的。我想你会发现,有很多其他饮食和建议都适用于这些规则之下。它们更具灵活性,我希望相比有些人开出的方法,它们会是更加合理的。All of these rules are subtly trying to get you to be more conscious of what you’re eating. It’s far too easy these days to consume more than you think you are, or more than you really need, especially when eating out. I’ve found that it’s impossible to tell any one person how much they should be eating. People have varying requirements, and it’s important for all of them to listen to their bodies to know when they should eat, and when they should stop.所有这些规则都透过微妙的方式,试图让你对自己所吃的东西有更多的意识。现如今,你很容易就会摄取超过自己所想、或是自己所需的分量,出外用餐时情况更尤为严重。我发现,要告诉任何一个人该吃多少食物都是不可能的。人们均有不同的需求,而重要的是所有人都该听从自己的身体,从而了解何时进食,何时停止。One other thing: Don’t judge what others eat. One of my closest friends has been avoiding carbohydrates for months, and has seen remarkable results. Another was a pescatarian — a person whose only meat dishes are fish — for a year and was very happy with that. I, on the other hand, avoid no food groups in particular.还有一件事:不要妄论他人的饮食。我的一个好朋友已经连续数月不沾碳水化合物,效果非常好。还有一个坚持鱼素食——只接受鱼肉这一种肉食——已经有一年,感觉良好。而我呢,不避食任何食物种类。People are very different. Some may have real problems consuming even the smallest amount of carbohydrates. Others may be intolerant of certain foods because of allergies or sensitivities. It will most likely take a bit of experimentation, on an individual level, to find the actual diet within these recommendations that works for you. But the above rules should allow for a wide variety of foods and for remaining healthy. At least, I hope so.每个人都是不同的。有的哪怕只是摄入一丁点碳水化合物都会有麻烦。有的由于过敏或敏感而不能接受某种食物。每个人往往都需要自己去实验,在这些建议中找到适合自己的膳食。不过,以上的守则是包容各种食物的,并且是用于保持健康的。至少我是这样希望的。I’m curious what ers think of these. I welcome your comments to this column, as well as tweets to me in response.我对读者的想法很好奇。欢迎你们这篇专栏,也可以发推给我。 /201601/419984山东第三医院的qq号是多少 With the holiday season in full swing, Indians are flocking to the online marketplace in droves. But there#39;s one unusual item flying off the virtual shelves: Online retailers say cow dung patties are selling like hot cakes.随着假日季的到来, 印度人开始大量地网上购物。但网上出现了一样非常奇特的商品:牛粪饼。在线零售商说牛粪饼像热烤饼一样畅销。The patties -- cow poop mixed with hay and dried in the sun, made mainly by women in rural areas and used to fuel fires -- have long been available in India#39;s villages. But online retailers including Amazon and eBay are now reaching out to the country#39;s ever-increasing urban population.将牛粪与干草混合后,在阳光下晒干即可制成这种饼,它们大多是由农村妇女制作的,主要用来生火,长期以来在印度农村地区一直有售。但是包括亚马逊(Amazon)和易趣(eBay)在内的在线零售商如今面向的消费群体是印度不断增长的城市人口。Some retailers say they#39;re offering discounts for large orders. Some customers are asking for gift wrapping.一些零售商说他们对大订单都有优惠,有些顾客还会要求礼品包装。;Cow dung cakes have been listed by multiple sellers on our platform since October and we have received several customer orders; since then, said Madhavi Kochar, an Amazon India spokeswoman.亚马逊印度区女发言人麦德哈维·可切儿说:“自10月份以来,许多卖家开始销售牛粪饼,也接到了几个客户订单。”The orders come mostly from cities where it would be difficult to buy dung cakes, she said.她说大部分买家是城里人,因为城里的市面上很难买到牛粪饼。In India, where Hindus have long worshipped cows as sacred, cow dung cakes have been used for centuries for fires, whether for heating, cooking or Hindu rituals. Across rural India, piles of drying cow dung are ubiquitous.在印度,印度教徒长期以来都将牛视为圣物,在长达几个世纪的时间里,不论是取暖、做饭或是举行宗教仪式,都要用到牛粪饼。整个印度农村地区,干牛粪堆随处可见。Radhika Agarwal of ShopClues, a major online retailer in India, said demand for the cow dung cakes spiked during the recent Diwali season, a time when Hindus conduct prayer ceremonies at their homes, factories and offices. On a recent day, ShopClues#39; website showed that the patties had sold out.印度主要电商“店踪”(ShopClues)的拉迪卡·阿加瓦尔说,最近随着排灯节(Diwali)的到来,人们要在家中、工厂、或办公室里举行祈祷仪式,这使得牛粪饼的需求量激增。最近某一天,“店踪”网站显示那天的牛粪饼销售告罄。;Around Diwali, when people do a lot of pujas in their homes and workplaces, there is a lot of demand for cow dung cakes,; said Agarwal, referring to rituals performed during the popular festival.提到这个盛大节日的宗教仪式时,阿加瓦尔说:“排灯节期间,人们要在家中或工作地点做多次礼拜,对牛粪饼的需求量很大。”;Increasingly, in the cold weather, people are keeping themselves warm by lighting fires; using them, she said, adding that people who grew up in rural areas find the peaty smell of dung fires pleasant.“天变冷了,人们也要需要更多的牛粪饼来点火取暖。”她还说道农村长大的人更喜欢闻牛粪燃烧时那种泥煤似的味道。;It reminds them of the old days,; she said.“这让他们回想起以前的时光。”她说。The cakes are sold in packages that contain two to eight pieces weighing 200 grams (7 ounces) each. Prices range from 100 to 400 rupees (.50 to ) per package.牛粪饼以包装形式出售,每包装有两到八个重200克(7盎司)的粪块儿,价钱从100到400卢比(1.50到6美元)不等。Dung cakes are also used as organic manure, and some sellers are marketing them for use in kitchen gardens.牛粪饼还可以当有机化肥使用,有些商家把它作为厨房菜园用品营销。 /201512/418821平阴县第二人民医院妇科

济南医院做无痛人流怎样Photos of two 16-year-olds in a wedding gown and suit at what seems to be a wedding have triggered heated discussion on Chinese social media.两个身穿结婚礼和西装的孩子似乎在举办婚礼的照片引起了中国社交媒体的热议。The two teens, who were first reported to be a 13-year-old groom and a 16-year-old bride, have made clarification online that they both reached 16 years old, and their marriage has won the blessing and support of their parents, despite the legal marriageable age in China being 22 for males and 20 for females.媒体首次报道这两个青少年时表示,新郎今年13岁,而新娘则是16岁。但是随后他们在网上澄清,双方都已经16岁。尽管中国法定结婚年龄是男方22岁,女方20岁,他们的婚姻得到了双方父母的祝福和持。The couple, from a small town in south China#39;s Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, claimed to have known each other for over a year. Both have dropped out of school. Aside from clarifying their ages in the online statement, the two also refuted netizens#39; speculation that the marriage is due to the bride#39;s pregnancy.这对夫妇来自中国南部的广西壮族自治区,声称已相识一年有余,两人都已经辍学。除了在网络声明中澄清了自己的年龄以外,他们还反驳了网友关于新娘怀结婚的推测。;The marriage between us is just inevitable after knowing each other for over a year. So we just held the ceremony and will get a marriage certificate after we reach our legal age,; said the 16-year-old bride.16岁的新娘表示:“相识一年以后结婚是必然的。所以我们举办了婚礼,等到了法定年龄,就领取结婚。”The fact that the groom quit in the second year of junior high school sparked debate. According to Chinese law, a teenager has to receive nine years of compulsory education, namely six years of primary school education and three years in junior high school.新郎在初中二年级辍学这一事件引发了争议。根据中国法律,青少年必须接受九年义务制教育,即六年小学教育和三年初中教育。;My parents are farmers, and since I am not good at schooling, why waste the time and tuition fees? ; said the groom. Since two years ago, after he quit school, he has been working in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi.但是新郎却说:“我的父母都是农民,我书念得不好,干嘛还浪费时间和学费?”自两年前退学以后,他就一直在广西省省会城市南宁工作。Some web users questioned the meaning of this wedding, since it is not legal. ;Is it possible that their families arranged this wedding, invited friends to the wedding banquet so as to collect gift money? The #39;marriage#39; is not protected by law anyway,; Weibo user Ajiaojiao said.因为婚礼不合法,一些网民质疑其举办的意义。微用户Ajiaojiao说:“有没有可能是他们的父母安排了这场婚礼,邀请朋友参加婚宴,借机收钱?无论如何,这场婚姻不会被任何法律保护。” /201602/428335济南妇科检查 山东妇幼保健院是公立的吗

济南妇保医院生殖科A Chilean architect who has focused his career on building low-cost social housing and reconstructing cities after natural disasters has been named the winner of architecture’s highest prize, the Pritzker.今年的普利兹克奖(Pritzker)由一位智利建筑师获得,他的职业生涯致力于建造低成本社会福利房,以及自然灾害后的城市重建。The architect, Alejandro Aravena, the first Pritzker laureate from Chile, received the honor at a time when his fellow architects have been recognized for designing distinctive buildings with regional materials. They include Pedro Alonso and Hugo Palmarola, who in 2014 won the Silver Lion award at the Venice Architecture Biennale, and Smiljan Radic, who that same year designed the annual pavilion at the Serpentine Gallery in London.这位建筑师便是亚历杭德罗·阿拉维纳(Alejandro Aravena),他是首位获得普利兹克奖的智利人,与此同时,不少其他智利建筑师亦因采用本地材料建造独特的建筑而受到赞赏,其中佩德罗·阿隆索(Pedro Alonso)和雨果·帕马洛拉(Hugo Palmarola)两人2014年在建筑双年展上获得银狮奖;斯米尔耶·拉蒂克(Smiljan Radic)同年为伦敦蛇形画廊(Serpentine Gallery)设计了年度展馆。Mr. Aravena’s work “gives economic opportunity to the less privileged, mitigates the effects of natural disasters, reduces energy consumption, and provides welcoming public space,” Tom Pritzker, chairman and president of the Hyatt Foundation, which sponsors the prize, said in a statement. “Innovative and inspiring, he shows how architecture at its best can improve people’s lives.”阿拉维纳的作品“为穷人和自然灾害的受害者提供了经济机会,减少了能源损耗,提供了友好的公共空间”, 赞助普利兹克奖的凯悦基金会(Hyatt Foundation)主席兼董事长汤姆·普利兹克(Tom Pritzker)在声明中说。“他的作品充满创新,极具启发性,展现了建筑如何最大程度地改善人们的生活。”Indeed, Mr. Aravena, 48, in an interview, described his architecture as being fueled more by public service than by aesthetic design. While many architects aim to create iconic buildings, Mr. Aravena said he was mostly concerned with a project’s underlying purpose.48岁的阿拉维纳在采访中说,自己的建筑更多是从公共务的目的,而不是务于美学设计。很多建筑师的目标是设计标志性的建筑,而阿拉维纳却说,自己最关心的是项目的基本目的。“Sometimes the solution to the forces at play is an economic building; sometimes you need to focus people’s imagination with architecture,” he said, adding that the challenge is “to analyze in a coldblooded way what particular equation is required.”“有时候,对于各种现存因素的解决方案是一栋经济实惠的建筑;有时候,你需要去关注人们对建筑的想像。”他还补充说,挑战在于“以一种冷血的方式阐述眼下需要哪一种等式”。He added: “The success, in conventional terms, is less guaranteed — you have less control over the project. But that’s thinking in artistic terms, if you consider your building a piece of art.”他说:“用老话来说,你对项目的控制越少,成功越没有把握。但是,如果你认为自己的的建筑是一件艺术品,那就要以艺术的方式去思考。”Though not a “starchitect,” Mr. Aravena has gained prominence in the profession: He’s this year’s director of the Venice Architecture Biennale and a former member of the Pritzker jury. He also gave a TED talk in 2014.阿拉维纳尽管不是“明星设计师”,但也在行业内获得了声望:他是今年建筑双年展的总监,亦是普利兹克奖评审委员会的前成员。2014年,他还做过TED演讲。Mr. Arevena’s Santiago-based firm, Elemental, has spearheaded a participatory design-build process it calls “half of a good house,” which allows residents to complete the work themselves later and play an active role in raising their own standard of living.阿拉维纳的公司“Elemental”曾经倡导一种分享式设计建筑程序,名为“半座好房子”,它令居民可以自行完成这栋建筑,发挥积极性,努力提高自己的生活水平。“We transform the lack of resources into a principle of incrementality,” Mr. Aravena said. “Let’s do now what is more difficult. Let families take care of the rest through their own means.”“我们把资源短缺变成了一种边际原则,”阿拉维纳说。“我们先做比较困难的部分,让家庭自己来按照自己的方法,做完剩下的部分。”The firm developed this approach in northern Chile in 2003, building housing for 100 families with just ,500 per family in government subsidies to cover the land and construction. For inspiration, Mr. Aravena drew on favelas and slums, building small housing units that can be easily expanded, while working closely with local residents.2003年,他的公司在智利北部推广了这种方式,靠着平均每个家庭7500美元的政府土地与建设津贴,为100个家庭建造了房屋。阿拉维纳从贫民区中寻找灵感,与本地居民密切合作,建造容易扩展的小型居住单元。He applied this same strategy in 2010, when, after Chile’s earthquake and tsunami, Elemental was given 100 days to come up with a master plan for the city of Constitución — including infrastructure, public space and buildings — by working with the population on solutions.2010年,智利地震与海啸灾害之后,有关部门就给了Elemental公司100天时间,为孔斯蒂图西翁市设计一项城市规划的专家方案,包括基础建设、公共空间和建筑。阿拉维纳也采取了同样的策略,与全体市民合作,完成解决方案。“We asked the community to identify not the answer, but what was the question,” Mr. Aravena said. This, it turned out, was how to manage rainfall, so the firm designed a forest that could help prevent flooding.“我们让人们寻找问题,而不是,”阿拉维纳说。最后,最大的问题就是如何应对暴雨,于是公司设计了一片森林,可以防止洪水。Elemental has also completed its share of public buildings, including several for Mr. Aravena’s alma mater, the Universidad Católica de Chile.Elemental公司还参与建造了许多公共建筑,包括阿拉维纳的母校,智利天主教大学。His office building for the health care company Novartis in Shanghai is under construction. And Mr. Aravena designed dormitories at St. Edward’s University in Austin, Tex.阿拉维纳为药企诺华(Novartis)在上海设计的办公楼正在建设之中。他还为得克萨斯州奥斯汀的圣爱德华大学设计了宿舍楼。For the Venice Biennale, Mr. Aravena plans to focus on the challenges ahead in the built environment, such as migration and climate change.在双年展上,阿拉维纳准备关注建筑环境所面临的挑战,包括移民和气候变迁。His buildings are often modest and understated. They do not necessarily command attention or grab headlines.他的建筑通常是平易近人、容易理解的。它们并不一定能够吸引关注或是登上报纸头条。“He understands materials and construction,” the Pritzker jury said in its citation, “but also the importance of poetry and the power of architecture to communicate on many levels.”“他理解材料与建设,”普利兹克奖评审团在颁奖词中说,“而且他理解诗歌的重要性,以及建筑在很多层面上所发挥的沟通力量。”Mr. Aravena’s unorthodox approach started with his unconventional introduction to the profession in the late 1980s, the final years of Augusto Pinochet’s repressive dictatorship, when information was limited.阿拉维纳非传统的工作方式始于20世纪80年代末,他亦是以非传统的方式进入这个行业,当时正值奥古斯托·皮诺切特(Augusto Pinochet)的压迫独裁统治末期,信息非常有限。Mr. Aravena said that he began by “looking at pictures of buildings that were supposed to be important,” and then went to Italy with a sketchbook and measuring tape “to learn from the buildings themselves.”阿拉维纳说,他靠着“研究那些可能非常重要的建筑的照片”起步,之后带着一个速写本和一个卷尺去了意大利,“向那些建筑本身学习”。“By drawing, you build the buildings again,” he said. “Measuring — you’re in front of a blank page again.”“通过素描,你可以重新搭建起那些建筑,”他说。“通过测量——你又要面对空白的纸页了。”Mr. Aravena graduated in 1992 and two years later established his own practice.1992年,阿拉维纳从学校毕业,两年后开始执业。In 2000, as a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, Mr. Aravena examined how to redefine quality in social architecture, which made him realize, “we had to create a company to go beyond the academic realm.”2000年,作为哈佛设计学院的教授,阿拉维纳开始研究如何改进社会福利建筑的质量,他发现,“我们得开个公司,超出学术的范畴。”A year later, Mr. Aravena and Andrés Iacobelli — a transport engineer who has since gone his own way — started Elemental, a so-called do tank (rather than a think tank), with the mandate “Let’s make a company that is able to prove that things can be better.”一年后,阿拉维纳与交通工程师安德雷斯·亚科贝利斯(Andrés Iacobelli,他后来离开了)开创了Elemental公司,这是一个实干机构(do tank),而不是一个智库机构(think tank),他们的想法是,“让我们开个公司,明事情可以变得更好。”“If we believe we’re good designers, why not try to apply our skills to issues that matter?” Mr. Aravena said. “Social housing is a difficult question and it deserves professional quality, not professional charity.”“如果我们相信我们自己是好的设计师,为什么不试着把我们的本领施展到重要的事情上面?”阿拉维纳说。“社会福利房屋是一个棘手的问题,值得拥有专业品质,而不是依靠专业的慈善。”While such socially conscious work is often done in the margins of a firm, Mr. Aravena said he considered it the primary focus, worthy of top talent’s attention. “We need the best people in the entire chain of production, from the politicians to the social worker to the designer.” He added: “What we’ve been trying to do is communicate that architecture, instead of an extra cost, is an added value.”这类具有社会意识的设计在其他公司通常处于边缘地位,但阿拉维纳说,他把这类工作视为重点,认为它值得一流人才关注。“整个生产链上,都需要最好的人才,从政治家到社会工作者再到设计师。”他补充说:“我们努力表明,建筑是一种附加的价值,而不是额外的成本。”Mr. Arevena’s current partners in Elemental are all his former students: Gonzalo Arteaga, Juan Cerda, Víctor Oddó and Diego Torres. “Architecture is a collective discipline,” he said.目前,Elemental公司的其他合伙人都是阿拉维纳以前的学生,包括冈佐拉·阿特亚加(Gonzalo Arteaga)、胡安·瑟尔达(Juan Cerda)、维克多·奥多(Víctor Oddó)和迭戈·托雷斯(Diego Torres)。“建筑是一门合作的学问,”他说。He said he was particularly proud to be working in Chile at a time of critical mass in quality architecture, adding that he “could name maybe 10 architects — and 10 is quite a lot” of whose work he is “envious.”他说,目前智利有大量优秀建筑,让他感到特别骄傲,他还说,“我或许可以说出十个建筑师——这个数字可不小,”他们的作品让他感到“嫉妒”。And Mr. Aravena said he was content to continue working in the relative obscurity of Chile, with its population of about 18 million.阿拉维纳说,他满足于继续在相对偏僻的智利默默无闻地工作,这个国家的人口只有1800万。“We’re very O.K. to be here in the corner of the world,” he said. “We can concentrate and produce, and we’re not missing anything.”“我们安于呆在这里,呆在世界的角落,”他说。“我们可以集中精力,努力创作,我们什么也没错过。”With the Pritzker, however, Mr. Arevena is bound to become the subject of more attention.然而,获得普利兹克奖肯定会令阿拉维纳获得更多关注。But winning the prize does not come with pressure to produce, Mr. Aravena said; instead, it gives him the freedom to experiment. “I guess from now on, we don’t have to prove anything to anybody,” he said. “Now we feel more encouraged to enter fields with an even higher risk of failure.”但是,他说,获奖并没有给他带来创作上的压力,相反却给了他实验的自由。“我想,从现在开始,我们不用再向任何人明任何东西了,”他说。“现在我们觉得更受鼓舞,可以进入更有风险的领域。”“Rather than the responsibility or weight that such a prize could mean, I feel now lighter,” he added, “to be able to start running.”“我并没有被这样一个大奖所带来的责任或者沉甸甸的分量压住,而是感觉更轻盈了,”他补充说。“我可以开跑了。” /201601/423718 长清区中心医院门诊正规吗泰安市四维彩超费用

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