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Linguistics语言学Argot bargy方言来袭Why urban teenagers speak the way they do城里的年轻人为什么那样说话Nov 2nd 2013 |From the print editionYou think my accent’s bonkers. Your kids speak like me你觉得我的口音弱爆了。但是你家孩子跟我一个德行。IN HER novel “White Teeth”, published in 2000, Zadie Smith noted that in London, “all kids, whatever their nationality”, seem to express scorn with a Jamaican accent. Since then linguistic researchers have gradually come to understand how and why so many teenagers sound like Dizzee Rascal, a rapper from Bow in east London (pictured). They call this sping, mutating argot Multicultural London English (MLE).扎迪史密斯在2000年发表过一部小说,名字叫《白牙》,在书中,她提到在伦敦,所有的孩子,不管他们来自哪里,似乎用牙买加口音表达自己的鄙视。从那时起,语言学研究者逐渐明白了如何以及为何那么多青少年口音听起来像来自东伦敦区说唱歌手迪兹瑞克斯(如图)了。研究者称这种正在蔓延以及变异的语言为多文化伦敦英语(MLE)。When MLE first emerged, linguists believed it was a ham version of the way West Indians speak English. In the early 1980s “West Indians who had spoken Cockney suddenly started to speak differently,” explains Paul Kerswill of York University. Young Afro-Caribbean men may have adopted a new style of speech as they sought to forge an identity in an often hostile society. Others were thought to have copied them.MLE首次出现的时候,语言学家认为这是西印度群岛人群讲英语的一种蹩脚方式。约克大学的保罗克苏威尔解释道,在上世纪80年代初,讲伦敦口音的西印度群岛人群突然开始讲不一样的口音了。年轻的加勒比黑人可能已经接受了一种新的口音,因为他们试图在一个充满歧视的社会里获得一种认可。其他人则被认为是在模仿他们。But far from being cod-Jamaican, MLE is now thought to be a hybrid dialect that emerged from the intermingling of West Indians, South Asians and speakers of Cockney and Estuary English. Though much of the slang is West Indian—from “bare” for “very” to “sick” meaning “good”—the pronunciation is often not. Its chief characteristic, an elongated “ah” sound in place of an “i” so that “like” is pronounced “lahke”, does not imitate a West Indian patois.但这绝不是牙买加人专属,MLE现在被认为是由西印度群岛口音,南亚裔口音和伦敦以及河湾区口音混合的方言。尽管大部分是西印度群岛俚语,比如说‘bare’等同于‘very’,还有‘sick’等同于‘good’,发音往往也不一样。MLE的主要特点是‘i’的发音像‘ah’,因此,‘like’听起来像‘lahke’,这一特征就不是效仿西印度群岛口音。Researchers have found that MLE alters from place to place. Variants have emerged in other cities with many immigrants, such as Birmingham and Manchester. Children tend to pick up MLE at secondary school. It is more common—and more strongly accented—among boys than among girls. The grammar that tends to accompany MLE is increasingly uniform: for example the use of ;we wasnt; in place of ;we werent;.研究者发现英国到处都有MLE的踪迹。其他城市的许多移民也出现了变种,比如伯明翰和曼城。孩子们一般是在初中开始接触MLE。这种口音在男孩之间更加普遍,口音也更明显。同时MLE的语法也正在变的规范起来,例如;we werent;代替了;we wasnt;。Linguists are most excited by what MLE is doing to the rhythm of speech. English is usually spoken with a stress-timed rhythm, in which syllables are stressed at regular intervals. Speakers of MLE speak with a syllable-timed rhythm, in which all syllables are accorded roughly the same time and stress, as in French or Japanese. Syllable-timed speech is a characteristic of languages that have come into contact with other languages. Versions of it may have existed in multicultural places such as Hackney for centuries, thinks Mr Kerswill.语言学家对MLE对语调带来的变化更感兴趣。英语一般是由重音引导的,就是音节按照时间规律重读。MLE的使用者则按照音节停顿,所有音节的语调基本一致,跟法语和日语大致相同。和其他语言相比,按音节停顿是其特点。这种语音特色可能已经在诸如哈克尼这种多元文化区存在数个世纪了。Helped along by the exodus of old-fashioned Cockney speakers to London’s suburbs and commuter towns, MLE is replacing London’s traditional vernacular. That worries some. Caroline Goyder, a former teacher who now coaches politicians and lawyers in the art of public speaking, says she sees increasing numbers of school leavers who fear they are incomprehensible in job interviews. For one young Cambridge graduate working in Paris, that rings true. His MLE accent is proving as much of a problem as his imperfect French. “I know it’s incongruous”, he says, “but it’s hard to lose, y’get me?”随着操伦敦口音的居民搬到郊区以及周边通勤城镇,MLE正在取代当地的传统语言。这让一些人感到担忧。曾任教师的卡洛琳葛依德现在是一名政客律师演讲指导教练,她表示她看到很多毕业生害怕在工作面试中不能被理解。对一个在巴黎工作的剑桥毕业生来说,这是真的。他的MLE口音跟他磕磕绊绊的法语一样。他说,我知道这不对,但是很难改,你懂吗?201311/264377。

  • Business商业报道Broadcasting in Australia澳大利亚广播业The news on Nine九公司近况A networks IPO shows investors are nervous about broadcasters prospects这家网络公司的IPO显示出投资者们对于广播公司前景的担忧。DAVID GYNGELLS first child was born the night after he helped to arrange a recapitalisation of Nine Entertainment.David Gyngell的第一个孩子正好出生在他协助安排的Nine Entertainment资本重整的隔天晚上。The deal saved Australias second most popular free-to-air television network from administration.这笔交易拯救了澳大利亚第二大免费直播电视广播公司免于重组。A year on, Nines chief executive is about to see his corporate baby toddle onto the stock exchange.一年之后,这位九的首席执行官将要看着他的公司婴儿蹒跚着走向股票市场。Nine is due to re-list on December 6th with an expected market capitalisation of about A billion.九将在12月6日得到大约20亿澳元的市场融资。Nines controlling shareholders, Oaktree Capital Management and Apollo Global Management, two American hedge funds, will reduce their combined stakes from 53% to 36%.九的控股股东,两家美国的对冲基金橡树资本管理公司和阿波罗全球管理公司一共持有的股份将从53%减少到36%。They are taking advantage of a rising equity market, of Nines rising ratings and of its growing share of the metropolitan free-to-air advertising market.他们打算好好利用资本市场的上升势头,也是好好利用第九不断上升的评级和它不断上升的大城市地区广告市场占有率。The share issue, however, is not being underwritten by its joint lead managers—two global banks, UBS and Morgan Stanley, and two local ones, Commonwealth and Macquarie.然而这次发售股份却不被他的共同管理公司—UBS和根斯坦利两大国际以及Commonwealth和Macquarie两大本国所认可。This suggests that some investors may be wary about backing a free-to-air broadcaster when digital advertising is growing apace and the government is rolling out a national broadband network.这说明,在电子广告业稳步发展而且政府正在全国推广宽带网络之时,投资者们在投资一家免费收视的广播公司时会小心谨慎一些。The free float will be limited to one-third of the new shares.公众持股量将会被限制在新发行股票的三分之一以内。Nine has endured as much drama as an episode of Hostages.九曲折离奇的经历如同《人质》中一样。Late last year the broadcaster was facing bankruptcy until a proposal by Oaktree and Apollo to convert its more than A billion of debt into equity was finally accepted by other lenders.去年下半年,这家广播公司曾濒临破产。直到橡树和阿波罗把30亿澳元的债务转变为股权的提议被其他借贷方接受后,这次危机才化解。The hedge funds then took control of Nine from CVC, a private-equity group which had bought the company for A.6 billion in stages between 2006 and 2008, at the height of the bull market.两家对冲基金接着又从CVC手中接过了九的控制权。CVC是一家私募投资集团,于2006至2008年,也就是牛市顶峰时,分阶段以56亿澳元买下了这个公司。CVC had in turn purchased Nine from James Packer, whose father, Kerry, controlled the network until his death in 2005.CVC则是从James Packer,2005年去世前一直掌管公司的Kerry之子手中买下的九。James Packer wanted to redeploy the familys wealth from media into casinos.James Packer当时想把家族的资金从媒体业转投业。Earlier this year Nine bought stations in Adelaide and Perth from WIN, another broadcaster.今年早些时候,九从另一家广播公司WIN买下了阿德莱德和珀斯的广播频道。With these and its existing operations in Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney, Nine has a national metropolitan network for the first time.这两个频道,再加上它已有的在布里斯班,墨尔本和悉尼的运营部门。Nines share of the metropolitan broadcast-advertising market has risen to within three percentage points of that of Seven Network, the leader, if Nines newly acquired stations are included.九第一次建立了一个全国性的大都市广播网络。如果加上新近得到的广播频道九在主要城市电视广告市场占有的份额和行业领头羊七广播公司的差距已经不到3个百分点。Third-placed Ten, chaired by Lachlan Murdoch, has been struggling. By investing in Adelaide and Perth, Nine hopes to push up its ratings and advertising revenues by even more.Lachlan Murdoch领导的位于第三位的十公司则业绩惨淡。九希望能通过投资阿德莱德和珀斯进一步提高它的评级和广告盈利。However, Nine remains exposed to the ad cycle.然而,九容易受到广告周期的影响。Four-fifths of the groups revenue comes from television.该集团五分之四的盈利来自于电视业和企业活动。Digital media and events businesses bring in the rest.其余部分来自于电子媒体和商业。Moreover, online advertising is expected to overtake free-to-air TV as the leading ad category in Australia this year.此外,在线广告被认为将会在今年内取代免费电视成为澳大利亚的主要广告类型。For Mr Gyngell, Nine is a family affair.对于Gyngekk来说,九好像是家庭成员一样。His wife is a presenter and his late father, Bruce, was an executive there under Kerry Packer.他的妻子是一位主持人,而他的继父Bruce则曾在Kerry Packer时代任职执行官。Mr Gyngell may have ensured its survival for another generation.Gyngell希望能使公司继续存活,并传给下一代。 /201312/267324。
  • Leaders社论The European Commission欧盟委员会Lagarde for president拉加德或将成为欧盟委员会掌门人If ever Europe needed a competent reformer with new ideas, it is now如果欧盟需要一个有想法的领导者,就趁现在吧CHANCES for a new beginning in Europe are rare and should be seized.对于欧洲来说,重新开始的机会不多,一旦出现,就该紧紧抓住。In the coming months, after five can-kicking years of crisis and austerity, the European Union will clean out its executive suite and appoint new presidents of the European Commission, as well as a new foreign-policy chief.在危机中过了5年艰苦的日子后,再过几个月,欧盟将迎来一次大换血,届时目前的行政人员将陆续离职,欧盟委员会和欧洲理事会将有新的首脑走马上任,同时欧盟外交政策负责人也会出现新的面孔。The EU desperately needs a fresh vision.如今,欧盟急需注入新的血液。Its citizens are disenchanted with the remote machinations inside Brussels.欧盟成员国公民已对布鲁塞尔的种种政策不抱任何幻想,Insurgent political parties, many of them anti-EU, are snapping at the heels of the centrists.许多反欧盟政党纷纷开始争取中间派的持。If the EU were a company, its board would have been sacked: if it were a football team, it would have been relegated. It needs new leadership.如果欧盟是个公司,它的董事会早就被炒鱿鱼了;如果欧盟是个足球队,它也早就该被降级了。如今,欧盟需要的是全新的领导班子。Unfortunately, Europes leaders have not got the message.遗憾的是,欧洲各国的首脑们还没意识到这些。The names being canvassed for commission president include two former prime ministers of smallish countries, Jean-Claude Juncker and Guy Verhofstadt, an assortment of obscure European commissioners and the president of the dysfunctional European Parliament, Martin Schulz of Germany.目前,欧洲委员会主席的候选人包括来自欧洲小国卢森堡的卢前首相让克洛德·容克和比利时前首相付思达。此外,欧盟委员会专员,欧洲议会议长,德国人马丁·舒尔茨或也会参选。It is an uninspiring list of Eurocrats, still mouthing nostrums about ever-closer union.这份竞选名单对欧洲官僚来说并无甚新意,仍旧在唠叨着那些欧洲一体化的老话。One person—who is not a declared candidate—would be far better: Christine Lagarde, head of the IMF.而有这么一个人,虽然没有宣布参选,却不失为一个更好的人选:国际货币基金组织总裁拉加德。She is a French former finance minister, yet her years in Washington dealing with the euro crisis, as well as running a huge law firm in Chicago, give her the clarity of an outsiders view about what is wrong with the EU.这位女士曾出任法国财长,她在华盛顿任职期间也曾参与应对欧元危机,此外,她还是芝加哥一个大型律所的老板,这些都使她能从一个旁观者的角度看待欧盟现在面临的问题。A liberal, she would be keen to complete the single market, promote free trade and cut the burden of regulation.作为一个自由主义者,她或许会热衷于建成单一市场,促进自由贸易,减少管制负担。She is also a persuasive saleswoman in both French and English, a bonus given her own countrys sour view of the EU and Britains possible referendum on whether to leave.此外,鉴于法国目前对欧盟酸话颇多,而英国或许也会发起全民公投脱离欧盟,此刻的她也不失为一位法语英语皆能的推销员。One supposed mark against Ms Lagarde is that, unlike the present commission president, Jose Manuel Barroso, and his two predecessors, she has never been elected.对拉加德来说,她的不足之处也许在于,与现任主席巴罗佐和在他之前的两任欧盟委员会主席不同,拉加德还未参加过任何选举。But the most effective recent commission president was not a former prime minister, but Jacques Delors, another French former finance minister, who—although for a while a member of the European Parliament—was also a technocrat.但近年来欧盟委员会最出色的主席并不是某国的前总统,而是德洛尔,他也曾是法国财长,担任过一阵子欧洲专员,此外还是一个专家政治论者。And the job now needs the skills of a technocrat as much as of a politician.而如今,欧洲委员会主席一职正需要一个同样是专家政治论者的政客来担任。The bigger obstacle to Ms Lagarde becoming commission president lies in the Lisbon treaty.而拉加德竞选道路上最大的阻碍则来自里斯本条约。This says that the European Council, mindful of European elections, must nominate a candidate whom the European Parliament then “elects” as president.条约规定,负责欧盟选举的欧洲理事会,必须提名欧洲议会会“选举”为主席的人为候选人。Political groups in the parliament are exploiting this to put forward their preferred choices now—Mr Schulz for the centre-left Socialists, Mr Verhofstadt for the centrist Liberals and, next month, a front-runner for the centre-right European Peoples Party who seems likely to be Mr Juncker.现在,欧洲议会中各政治团体正利用这一规定来兜售他们中意的候选人—中间偏左的社会党人推选舒尔茨,而中间派自由主义者倾向于付思达,下个月,中间偏右的欧洲人民党也将推出自己的实力选手,极有可能就是让-克洛德·容克。The claim is that this process will seem more democratic to ordinary Europeans.对于此次的竞选,目前的说法是对于普通欧洲人来说将会更加民主。Dream on.但这都是政客们的白日梦。Most European voters neither know nor care who any of these people are or what they stand for.大多数欧洲选民既不关心这些人是谁,也不关心他们都代表着谁的利益。The suggestion that EU leaders should accept the candidate of whichever political group gets most seats in May is a recipe not just for ending up with the wrong person, but also for making the commission even more beholden to the parliament.有人建议欧盟领导人,无论五月那个党派在欧洲议会获得多数席位,选择该政党的候选人总不会错。这样做不仅能选对人,还能密切欧盟委员会和议会的关系。Dont let the parliament decide千万别让议会做主There is a way through this muddle.走出泥塘的路只有一条。As it happens, Ms Lagarde comes from the centre-right EPP, which is likely to remain the biggest group in the parliament.拉加德所代表的中间偏右的欧洲人民党很可能保持其议会第一大党的地位,The open support of Europes three main leaders would probably get her the job.而欧洲三位主要国家领导人的公开持很可能使她得到这个职位。Frances president, Franois Hollande, is a Socialist, but he would surely welcome a French president.法国总统奥朗德虽是社会党人,但他肯定乐于见到一位来自法国的欧洲委员会主席。David Cameron knows he is far more likely to win a referendum with a reformer like Ms Lagarde as the face of Europe.卡梅隆也应该晓得,有这样一位改革派领导人在,他将更可能赢得公投。Angela Merkel also wants a more open Europe, and her policy of appointing dull unknowns to EU posts has hardly been a resounding success.默克尔也希望欧洲更加开放,而她将沉闷的无名小卒送往欧盟的政策也少有成功。The argument for Ms Lagarde is similar to that two years ago for making Mario Draghi president of the European Central Bank: he brought outside experience, market knowledge and good ideas.目前,拉加德出任欧盟委员会主席的优势与两年前德拉吉出任欧洲央行总裁的优势十分相似:他带来了国外经验、市场知识和先进想法。To many then he seemed tainted by his link to an American investment bank, Goldman Sachs, but he is now the most respected Eurocrat of all.当时许多人认为他在美国高盛工作的经历会是他竞选路上的减分项,但如今他却是欧盟中最受尊敬的官员。So ignore the parliament, Mrs Merkel, and pick the best woman for the job.默克尔女士,别管什么议会,为这一职务选择正确的人选吧。 /201402/275665。
  • Serbias foreign policy塞尔维亚的外交政策Divided loyalties分裂的忠诚Serbia is torn between its old ally, Russia, and the European Union塞尔维亚在欧盟和俄罗斯两位老盟友间举棋不定,不知何去何从A NICE summing-up of Serbias foreign-policy dilemmas was shown in a recent drawing by Corax, the countrys leading political cartoonist. Aleksandar Vucic, Serbias prime minister, is shown playing two pianos at once, with Angela Merkel, Germanys chancellor, conducting on one side, and Vladimir Putin, Russias president, conducting on the other. The Serbian government is finding the Ukraine crisis is only adding to the political cacophony.近期,塞尔维亚首席政治漫画家科拉克斯发布了一组全新的关于塞尔维亚外交窘境的漫画。塞尔维亚总理亚历山大·希奇一直在德国总理安格尔·默克尔和俄罗斯总统弗拉德·普京之间打着不算优雅的“太极拳”。并且,塞尔维亚政府发现,乌克兰危机非但不是一个缓和点,反而让形势变得更加扑朔迷离。In March Serbia abstained in a UN vote reaffirming the territorial integrity of Ukraine after Russias annexation of Crimea. As a candidate for European Union membership, it was heavily criticised for this by its partners. Officially the reason was that Serbia had only a caretaker government. But the real reason was that it did not want to annoy its traditional ally, Russia.今天三月俄罗斯吞并克里米亚之后,在欧盟关于重新划分乌克兰边界线的会议上,塞政府投了弃权票。作为申请成为欧盟成员的候选人,它的这一行为引起它的同伴们的强烈批判。官方理由说塞尔维亚政府只是临时过渡政府。但实际原因则是它不愿意因此得罪自己的传统盟友—俄罗斯。Since then Serbia has desperately tried to please both sides. Now its government is clear that, just as Kosovo should be part of Serbia, so Crimea should be part of Ukraine. But much of the press and many Russophile Serbs disagree. A website with contacts for those who want to fight with pro-Russian rebels in eastern Ukraine says that the “liberation” of Kosovo is not possible without the liberation of Novorossiya, as the rebels call their territory.从那以后,塞政府不得不绝望地开始两边讨好。现在他们的政府清楚地意识到,就如科索沃是塞尔维亚不可分割的一部分一样,克里米亚也应该是乌克兰的领土。但是媒体界的很多人和一些亲俄派塞尔维亚人并不这样认为。某网站试图与乌克兰东部那些亲俄反政府势力保持联系,他们声称“解放”科索沃就像解放新罗希克斯一样不可能。The number of Serbs fighting in Ukraine may be no more than 100, but their alleged exploits are widely reported. Mr Vucic calls them mercenaries who are “harmful” to Serbia. Legislation is being drawn up making it illegal to fight in foreign wars. That would also cover Serbian citizens who are ethnic Albanians or Bosniaks and have become jihadists in Syria and Iraq. Yet Serbian soldiers still train with both Russian and NATO troops (Serbia is in NATOs “partnership for peace”, but is not a candidate for membership).事实上真正参与了乌克兰冲突的塞尔维亚人可能不到100人,但他们对冲突的影响却被大大扩散了。希奇声称那些雇佣军已经“损害了”塞尔维亚的利益。立法机构也正在立法让参与境外战争变成非法行为。这一法例涵盖了所有塞尔维亚人,包括那些阿尔巴尼亚人和波什尼亚人以及正在叙利亚和伊拉克参与“伊斯兰圣战”的人。然而,塞尔维亚士兵依然同时和俄罗斯以及北约军队一起训练。Candidates to join the EU are supposed to align their foreign policy with it. Thus Montenegro has imposed sanctions on Russia. But Serbia has refused to do so: it would cause enormous damage, growls Russias ambassador in Belgrade. Now Brussels is telling the Serbian government it must not profit from Russias ban on imports of certain agricultural and dairy products from the EU. Croatian companies hit by the ban are reportedly investigating if they can relabel their products as Serbian.如果塞尔维亚希望加入欧盟,那么它必须调整自己的外交政策,使其与之一致。因此,黑山共和国已经开始对俄罗斯进行制裁措施。但是塞尔维亚拒绝这样做—极有可能是因为俄罗斯大使在贝尔格莱德威胁称那将带来毁灭性的的灾难。现在欧盟明确告知塞政府,他们必然不能从禁止俄罗斯进口欧盟农业产品以及日常用品的禁令中获益。该禁令的受害者—克罗地亚的一些公司据说正在进行调查,看能否像塞尔维亚那样对商品进行二次贴商标。Energy is another source of tension. For years the prospect of South Stream, a pipeline to export Russian gas that would pass through Serbia, has shimmered like a mirage ahead. It would bring jobs and cash as well as gas to parts of the country that need them. Now it is unclear if it will ever happen. Under pressure from the European Commission, the Bulgarian government has just suspended its part of the project.能源是加剧紧张气氛的另一要素。南溪计划经过多年勘探,一条用于出口俄罗斯天然气的输油管道会通过塞尔维亚境内,而现在看来这条管道莫过于海市蜃楼一般虚无缥缈。如果这条管道建成,必将给塞尔维亚带来同天然气一样重要的工作机会和金钱。但现在,这个项目能否实现已经画上了问号。保加利亚政府因为欧盟议会的重压,已经宣布暂停该计划。If EU leaders are irritated by Serbia, so are the Russians. Russias Gazprom Neft has a 51% stake in NIS, Serbias main oil company. On August 11th it was revealed that the police were investigating the 2008 privatisation of NIS. Mr Vucic has implied that the Russians understand that this is domestic political score-settling. Yet the Russians are clearly furious. They were said to have got fantastic terms for the deal after siding with Serbia over Kosovo.如果说,欧盟已经对塞尔维亚忍无可忍,俄罗斯也是这样。俄罗斯天然气工业股份有限公司持有塞尔维亚主要石油公司NIS 51%的股份。8月11日,有报道含蓄地指出警方正在调查NIS公司2008年私有化事件。希奇宣称俄方已经理解该事件是塞尔维亚的家务事。然而,很明显俄罗斯已经极度暴怒了。自从他们在科索沃问题上持塞尔维亚政府之后,他们一直在这项交易中占据极为有利的位置。Mr Vucic will go on trying to satisfy both conductors. As long as he causes no problems in Kosovo, says Dimitar Bechev of the London School of Economics, the West will forgive him. He adds that it is hard to be tough on Serbia for selling Russia raspberries when France is selling it warships. Yet Serbia must eventually lean the EUs way to protect its candidacy.伦敦经济学院的达米塔·贝什表示,只要科索沃地区不出差池,希奇必将继续尝试同时讨好双方,同时,西方也将原谅他。他还表示,在塞尔维亚,人们很难在法国正在推销他的军舰时叫卖来自俄罗斯的木梅。然而,塞尔维亚人为了保住候选人的位置,最终必将倾向欧盟。Meanwhile in Kosovo, whose security is provided by a NATO-led force, most of Ukraines 160 troops are pulling out. They have more urgent business than helping to protect Kosovos Serbs.同时,在由北约军队担任安防事务的科索沃地区,来自乌克兰的160人大多数已经离开。相比保护科索沃的塞尔维亚人,他们现在有更急切的任务。 /201408/324480。
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