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来源:百姓大全    发布时间:2019年09月21日 11:28:10    编辑:admin         

Science and technology.科技。Animal cognition动物的认知Man#39;s best friend人类的挚友Can dogs really show empathy towards humans?真的能感受人类的情绪吗?DOGS quickly become part of the family. Tales abound of dogs celebrating joy in a household or commiserating when tragedy strikes. This may not seem surprising after 15,000 years of co-evolution. But what hard evidence is there of dogs#39; empathy with humans? A new experiment suggests that behind all the waggy tails there really is something deeper going on.很快成了人类家庭中的一员,它们庆祝家庭喜事,怜悯悲剧的发生,这种故事屡见不鲜。在人类与共同进化了一万五千年之后,这点或许并不稀奇。但有没有确凿的据能够明能体会人类的感受呢?最近一项新的实验表明,背后的确隐藏着更深的含义。Past experiments have hinted that animals can feel sympathy. Rats and monkeys had been found to forgo food to avoid delivering electric shocks to relatives. Similarly, apes have recently been documented consoling one another after conflicts. However, all these experiments and observations were demonstrating an animal#39;s sensitivity to distress in other members of the same species. Deborah Custance and Jennifer Mayer of Goldsmiths College, London, set out to see if dogs could detect the emotional state of humans.以往的一些实验已经间接地表明动物们也具有同情心。科学家发现,老鼠和猴子会放弃食物,以防自己受到电击而危害同伴。类似的还有大猩猩,它们会在发生争斗后彼此安慰。然而这些实验和观察都只能明同物种的动物相互之间拥有感受痛楚的能力。伦敦金史密斯大学的黛拉?科斯坦斯与詹妮弗?梅耶正在着手研究,看它们能否察觉人类的情绪状态。To do this, Dr Custance and Ms Mayer conducted an experiment to study the response of dogs when a nearby human suddenly began to cry. The researchers knew that interpreting responses would be difficult, since dogs tend to whine, nuzzle, lick, lay their heads in laps and fetch toys for people in distress. Although such actions hint at a dog wishing to offer comfort, they could also be signs of curiosity, or suggest that a dog is simply distressed by seeing its master upset.为了研究这个问题,科斯坦斯士与梅耶女士进行了一项试验。他们将安排在一个人身边,观察在此人突然开始哭泣时的反应。他们深知想要解读的反应是十分困难的,因为在这种条件下经常会发出呜呜声,把鼻子贴在人的大腿上并蹭蹭舔舔,还会在人类悲伤时叼来玩具哄人开心。尽管这样的行为暗示着它们想要给主人提供安慰,但同时也可能仅仅代表了它们的好奇心,又或者它们只是看到主人懊恼感到忧虑罢了。To work round this, the researchers presented 18 dogs of various breeds with four separate 20-second conditions. They included their owner crying, a stranger crying and both taking it in turns to hum ;Mary had a little lamb;. All four of these conditions were preceded by two minutes of mundane conversation between Ms Mayer, who filled the role of the stranger, and the dog#39;s owner.为了能够正确解读的反应,研究者在实验中采用了18条不同品种的并将它们分别置于时长均为20秒的四种不同的情境中,分别为主人在一旁哭泣、陌生人在一旁哭泣、主人与陌生人轮流对哼唱《玛丽有只小羊羔》。在每种情境开始前,梅耶女士都会充当陌生人的角色与的主人进行时长两分钟的常规交谈。Dr Custance and Ms Mayer suspected that if exposure to crying led dogs to feel distress, then regardless of who was crying, the dog would go to their master to seek comfort. They also theorised that if curiosity, rather than empathy, was the driving force, then the humming would cause dogs to engage with people.科斯坦斯士与梅耶女士猜想如果看到人类哭泣会感到悲伤的话,无论是其主人还是陌生人,都会去主人那里寻求安慰。他们还建立了一个理论,如果使接近人类的是它们好奇心而非感情上的共鸣,那么哼唱小曲同样会使跟人类进行互动。As they report in Animal Cognition, ;person-oriented behaviour; did sometimes take place when either the stranger or the owner hummed, but it was more than twice as likely to occur if someone was crying. This indicated that dogs were differentiating between odd behaviour and crying. And of the 15 dogs in the experiment that showed person-oriented responses when the stranger cried, all of them directed their attention towards the stranger rather than their owner.正如他们在《动物的认知》中描述的一样,不管是陌生人还是的主人哼唱小曲儿,有时候的确会对人类的这些活动作出一定回应,但哭泣的人吸引到注意的概率比唱歌的人要高出两倍以上。这表明能区分哭泣与其他一些奇怪的行为。在此次实验中有15条在看到陌生人哭泣时表现出了同情人类的行为,这些都把注意力转向了哭泣的陌生人而非它们的主人。These discoveries suggest that dogs do have the ability to express empathetic concern. But although the results are clear enough, Dr Custance argues that more work needs to be done to be sure that such behaviour is true empathy. It is possible, she points out, that the dogs were drawing on previous experiences in which they were rewarded for approaching distressed human companions. Dog-owners, however, are unlikely to need any more convincing.这些发现表明的确有表达关心的能力。科斯坦斯士说,尽管结论已经十分明确,我们仍需要更多做工来确定它们的行为是否真的因为它们能体会人类的感受。她指出,可能是出于以往获得的经验即靠近它们的人类同伴能获得奖励进而表现出这种行为。而对于能通人性这一点主人已经十分清楚了。 /201208/193541。


Sleep is essential if you want to live a healthy and happy life. But what happens if you live a hectic life which prevents you from getting your 8 hours? That#39;s when sleep quality over quantity comes into play。如果你想过一种健康幸福的生活,睡个好觉是必不可少的。如果繁忙的生活不能让你睡足8小时,那要怎么办?在这个时候,相比睡眠时间长短,睡眠质量就更为重要了。To make up for lost hours of sleep you must improve your sleep quality in the following ways:为了弥补失去的睡眠时间,你必须要在以下方面提高你的睡眠质量:1. Do Some Light Reading Instead Of Watching TV做一些轻松阅读而不是看电视Over 50% of America switch on the TV before they go to bed. TV disturbs your natural sleep habits by making you stay up longer than you usually would, especially if you are watching something of a violent or exciting nature。超过50%的美国人在上床睡觉前会打开电视。在夜里看电视会让你睡得比平时晚,于是影响了你的自然睡眠习惯,特别是如果你观看的是暴力或惊心动魄的场面。TV also disrupts the natural release of melatonin in the body, melatonin is responsible for regulating sleep cycles and helping you fall asleep at night. The human body is naturally accustomed to feel drowsy when the sun goes down and when it starts to get dark. By switching on the TV you fool your body into thinking it#39;s still daytime, this is caused by the huge backlight in the TV。电视也会扰乱体内褪黑激素的自然释放,褪黑激素具有调节睡眠周期及在晚上助你入眠的作用。当太阳落下,天色开始变暗,人体自然而然会昏昏欲睡。打开电视,你会让你的身体误以为仍然是白天,这是由电视里的巨大背光造成的。Instead of switching on the TV a book, but make sure it#39;s a hard copy not an ebook, as most e-ers have strong backlights. Light ing before bed can help you fall into a deep sleep quickly。选择看书而不是打开电视,但一定要是纸质书,不是电子书,因为大多数电子阅读器有强烈的背光。睡觉前的放松阅读可以帮助你快速进入深度睡眠。2. Avoid Caffeine 6 Hours Before You Sleep睡觉前6小时内避开咖啡因的摄入Having a cup of coffee within a few hours of bed time can have you tossing and turning for hours when your trying to sleep. Coffee isn#39;t the only caffeine containing product, avoid chocolate, tea, pre-workout supplements and soda。在睡前几小时内喝一杯咖啡会在你想入睡时让你辗转反侧数小时。咖啡并不是唯一含咖啡因的产品,请避免喝巧克力、茶、运动前补充饮料和汽水。3. Create A Sleep Inducing Environment创造一个有助睡眠的环境Turn your bedroom into a sleep inducing chamber, turn the temperature down, install proper curtains which block out the light, and if noise is a problem use earplugs. Don#39;t keep pets in the bedroom if they tend to wake you up during the night。把你的卧室装饰成有助睡眠的环境,调低温度,安装合适的窗帘以遮挡光线,如果还有噪音,就戴上耳塞。如果宠物常在夜间吵醒你,那就不要把宠物留在卧室里。You can help your brain associate your bedroom with sleep by using your bedroom solely for sleep and sex. Doing work and watching TV in your bedroom can lead to a non-sleep association with your bedroom and you may find it difficult to fall asleep。你的卧室只作为睡眠和性爱的房间,这可以帮助你的大脑把卧室和睡眠联系起来。在你的卧室工作和看电视,会让你无法把睡眠和卧室联系起来,你会发现很难入睡。4. Meditate冥想Clear your mind by meditating 15-20 minutes before you hit the sack. Mediation helps reduce stress and may even reduce cortisol levels. The main cause of long sleepless nights is stress, so get 15-20 minutes of meditation before your head hits the pillow。在你一头扎进枕头前,通过冥想15到20分钟来清空你的大脑。冥想可以帮助减少压力,甚至可以降低皮质醇水平。造成夜里长时间无法入睡的主要原因是压力,所以在一头扎进枕头之前,冥想15到20分钟。5. Train Hard amp; Train Early刻苦锻炼和早作锻炼The easiest way to feel tired at night is to physically exhaust your body, hence training hard. A 45-90 minute workout consisting of resistance and cardio should be enough to exhaust your system。让身体感到疲惫的最简单的方法是在晚上耗尽你的体能,因此要刻苦锻炼。45到90分钟的包括耐力和有氧运动的锻炼足够耗尽你的体能。Training at night has its drawbacks, elevating your heart rate prior to sleeping can cause restlessness in most people. It#39;s common to feel too awake and alert after a good workout, so it would not be wise to workout at night if you aly have trouble sleeping. Avoid training 4 hours prior to sleeping。在晚上锻炼也有其缺陷,在睡觉前提高你的心率对大多数人来说会引起不适。在经过锻炼之后,常见的症状是会保持清醒和警觉,因此如果在晚上你已经有睡眠困难,那么在晚上锻炼是不明智的。避免在睡觉前4小时内锻炼。6. Eat Light At Night晚上要吃得少It#39;s common tradition to have the biggest meal of the day at night in the form of dinner. But for athletes, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts it should be the complete opposite. The first meal and the post-workout meal should be the largest, with dinner being the smallest. As the day progresses you should taper down carbohydrates and increase protein。传统说法是在一天当中吃的最丰盛的一顿是晚餐。但对于运动员、健美运动员和健身爱好者来说应该是完全相反的。一天中的第一顿和运动后的那一餐饭应该说最丰盛的,晚餐应该要最简单。随着夜幕降临,要减少碳水化合物的摄入,而要增加蛋白质的摄入。Eating late at night is a surefire way to cause insomnia. Consuming a large meal prior to sleeping may cause indigestion and stomach aches during sleep. If your feeling hungry late at night have a casein protein shake or a bowl of cottage cheese。晚上吃夜宵是一定会引起失眠的。在睡觉之前饱餐一顿可能会在睡眠过程中引发消化不良和胃疼。如果你夜里感觉饿了,喝点酪素蛋白奶昔或泡一碗奶酪。7. Don#39;t Drink Too Much Water/Fluids不要喝太多的水或液体Drinking too much water/fluids late at night negatively impacts sleep quality. Excess fluids at night can cause you to wake up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom, disturbing your sleep cycle. Taper down your fluids as the day progresses。在夜里喝太多的水或液体会有负面作用,影响睡眠质量。在夜里喝得过多会使你在半夜三更醒来去上洗手间,扰乱你的睡眠周期。随着夜幕降临,要减少液体摄入量。8. Avoid Alcohol避免酒精Even though alcohol is very effective at making you feel drowsy and tired, it#39;s horrible for sleep quality. Alcohol is a natural diuretic, which means it causes your body to excrete excess water, so you may find yourself waking up multiple times during the night to go to the bathroom。即使酒精能有效地让你昏昏欲睡和疲倦,但对于睡眠质量而言,这是很不好的。酒精是一种天然的利尿剂,这意味着它会让你排出体内过多的水分,那么你会发现自己在夜里醒来好几次要去上洗手间。Alcohol induced sleep is not a restful sleep by any means, alcohol disrupts your body#39;s natural sleep cycles, leading to an unrefreshed feeling upon waking。因为酒精作用而入睡绝对得不到宁静的睡眠,酒精扰乱你体内的自然睡眠周期,从而造成醒来时还有宿醉的感觉。9. Go To Sleep When You Are Really Tired当你真的很累时再去睡觉We have all had days where we tried to go to sleep early thinking we will get a nice 9 or 10 hours sleep. 4 hours of tossing and turning later, combined with constant staring at the clock we realize it#39;s not going to happen. Go to sleep only when you start to feel sleepy instead of wasting your time staring at the clock。我们都有过这样的经历,当我们试图早点睡觉时,想着我们能睡个9或10个小时的好觉。在辗转反侧4个小时之后,还盯着时钟 看,我们这才意识到肯定是睡不着了。只有当你开始昏昏欲睡时再上床睡觉,而不是浪费你的时间盯着时钟看。10. Don#39;t Stare At The Clock不要盯着时钟看Being a clock-watcher can actually increase stress and make it harder to fall asleep. Make sure the clock is not visible while your sleeping, if it#39;s a digital one, cover it with a cloth or towel。盯着闹钟看实际上会增加压力,入睡会变得更难。当你睡觉时,一定要把闹钟放在你看不到的地方。如果是一个数码闹钟,要用布或毛巾把它盖住。11. Have A Consistent Sleep Routine坚持稳定的睡眠作息Studies show that people who sleep and wake up at the same time everyday are more rested than those who have erratic irregular sleep patterns. Set your alarm to the same time everyday including weekends。研究表明比起每天睡眠不规律的那些人,每天在同一时间睡觉和起床的人休息的会更好。每天设置同一时间点,包括周末。Studies also show that binge sleeping on the weekend to make up for lost sleep is counterproductive, you should aim to get the same amount of sleep everyday, whether that#39;s 8 or 6 hours。研究还表明,周末沉睡以求弥补睡眠不足是适得其反,应该是每天有相同的睡眠时间,不管是8还是6小时。12. Limit Napping限制打盹时间Napping during the day might seem like the right thing to do when you feel tired, but if you plan on sleeping well at night think again. Napping during the day will interfere with your natural sleep patterns, if you do choose to nap, limit it to 30 minutes per day。当你觉得累了,白天打个盹似乎是可以的,但如果你想要晚上睡得好,请三思。白天打盹会影响到你的自然睡眠模式,如果你选择打个盹,每天限制在30分钟以内。 /201508/390202。