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湖州市中医院做祛疤手术多少钱京东分类湖州市康复医院隆胸多少钱

来源:中医新闻    发布时间:2019年11月12日 12:28:27    编辑:admin         

As a concierge at the elegant Pavillon de la Reine hotel in Paris, Arnaud Ilisca dresses in tails. His manner is elegant yet personable; his advice comes in flawless English with just enough of a French accent to lend legitimacy. On any given day, he can arrange a private cruise on the Seine or land a difficult reservation at a three-star Michelin restaurant. In other words, he is the kind of person I never run into in my frugal travels.阿诺·伊利斯卡(Arnaud Ilisca)是高雅的巴黎皇后亭酒店(Pavillon de la Reine)的礼宾员。他身穿燕尾,举止优雅,风度翩翩,以无可挑剔的英语向客人提供建议,只带有一点可资明权威性的法语口音。随便哪一天,他都能给你安排塞纳河上的私人游览,或者在米其林三星餐厅搞到难得的预订。换句话说,他是我在穷游旅行中永远遇不到的那种人。But there we sat, on a recent Thursday afternoon, in the Pavillon’s bar in a building off the Place des Vosges that was once a royal residence. Mr. Ilisca was formulating a perfect Paris day for a fictional well-heeled guest. Cost: about 1,000 euros (or a little more than ,100). I was sipping espresso, taking notes for the task ahead — creating the most similar day I could for one-tenth of the price.但是前不久的一个周四的下午,我们坐在皇后亭酒店的酒吧里。该酒店位于孚日广场(Place des Vosges)的一座建筑之中,那里曾是皇家宅邸。伊利斯卡在为一位想象中的富有宾客设计完美的巴黎一日游。费用约为1000欧元(约合1100多美元)。我一边喝着特浓咖啡,一边为自己的任务做笔记——我的任务是以十分之一的费用,设计出与他的规划最接近的版本。I commenced a deep dive into the online rabbit hole of Paris blogs and personal advice from Paris-based friends and colleagues (including Seth Sherwood and Pamela Druckerman, contributors to The New York Times, and Meg Zimbeck, the founder of the blog Paris by Mouth). I made one tweak to Mr. Ilisca’s itinerary: He had suggested an à la carte lunch and prix fixe dinner; I flipped those, since prix fixe lunch can be an excellent deal in Paris. And then I was off.然后我开始深入研究网上数不胜数的巴黎客,以及我在巴黎的朋友和同事们(包括《纽约时报》的撰稿人塞思·舍伍德[Seth Sherwood]和帕梅拉·德鲁克曼[Pamela Druckerman]以及客Paris by Mouth的创立者梅格·泽姆贝克[Meg Zimbeck])的私人建议。我对伊利斯卡设计的行程做了一点修改:他的建议是午餐按菜单点菜,晚餐选择固定价格套餐。我反了过来,因为在巴黎,午餐时选择固定价格套餐可能会很实惠。然后我就出发了。Breakfast早餐High富游The prix fixe petit déjeuner at Carette, a fancy patisserie with tables nestled beneath the arches that skirt the Place des Vosges, is 18.50 euros, or .64 at .12 to the euro.高档法式糕点店Carette的固定价格早餐套餐是18.50欧元,按照1欧元兑换1.12美元的价格计算,约合20.64美元。这家蛋糕店位于孚日广场边缘的拱门下,店里有餐桌。Low穷游I traded in the regal Place des Vosges for a sidewalk table across from the leafy Square Trousseau, the perfect spot to watch the 12th Arrondissement awaken. I was at Blé Sucré, a patisserie with a deceptively everyday look; it is run by Fabrice Le Bourdat, the former pastry chef at Le Bristol, the three-star Michelin restaurant that is now called Epicure. Along with my espresso, I had a kouign-amann, a caramelized cross between a palmier and a croissant that comes from Bretagne and has been positively compared with the Cronut. Blé Sucré’s decadent version costs just 1.76 euros.我把堂皇的孚日广场换成了绿树成荫的特鲁索广场(Square Trousseau)。这里是观看第12区苏醒的绝佳地点。广场对面的Blé Sucré糕点店其貌不扬,店主却是米其林三星餐厅Le Bristol(现名Epicure)的前任糕点大厨法布里斯·勒·布尔达(Fabrice Le Bourdat)。除了特浓咖啡,我还点了焦糖味的kouign-amann,它来自布列塔尼,像是蝴蝶酥和羊角面包的结合,经常被与羊角甜甜圈(Cronut)相提并论。Blé Sucré糕点店的这个低级版本的售价仅为1.76欧元。With an espresso, my breakfast was 3.26 euros, but I did miss the glass of fresh juice I knew was in the Carette prix fixe. Luckily, an elegantly dressed older woman eating alone at another table had been humoring my rusty French and directed me to the nearby Aligre Market, where the gorgeous produce made me wish for a kitchen. (I settled for an Instagram post.) A juicy orange was 65 cents.加上特浓咖啡,我的早餐总价为3.26欧元,不过我的确很想来一杯Carette糕点店固定价格套餐菜单上的鲜榨果汁(我知道它家的菜单上有这个)。幸运的是,在另一张桌子上单独就餐的一位穿着优雅的老妇人顾念我法语生疏,把我引到了附近的Aligre市场(Aligre Market),那里超棒的农产品让我有下厨的冲动(我在Instagram上发了张照片聊以慰藉)。我在那里花65分买了一个多汁的橙子。Shopping购物High富游Mr. Ilisca sends guests to the haute couture shops of the famed Golden Triangle: Champs-#201;lysées, Avenue Montaigne and Avenue George V. Let’s grant our fictional fat cat 300 euros for something modest from Gucci or Prada.伊利斯卡建议宾客们去著名的金三角(Golden Triangle)的高档装店购物:香榭丽舍大街、蒙田大道和乔治五世大道。让我们假定我们想象中的富翁花了300欧元从古驰(Gucci)或普拉达(Prada)买了一件普通的衣。Low穷游My first thought was the gargantuan Les Puces flea market at faraway Porte de Clignancourt, but a great web page directed me to smaller, more occasional markets by arrondissement. (Find the list at bit.ly/ParisFlea.) In fact, my shopping started after I finished my Aligre Market orange, at the flea market adjacent to the produce stands. For 1 euro, I bought a yellowed 1951 issue of Temps Modernes, the journal edited by Jean-Paul Sartre. (It listed a piece called “Is God Photogenic?,” and I had to know. It turned out that the article was actually about the state of religious films at the time; the headline was clearly a clever ploy aimed at American tourists 64 years in the future.) Three markets later, at Village St.-Paul, I’d fall for a small, lovely powder-blue wall-mounted coat rack. I bargained it down to 22 euros from 28 by claiming to be a “pauvre Américain.” (They didn’t believe me, but it got the conversation started.)我的第一个念头是去偏远、庞大的科里尼安古尔门(Porte de Clignancourt)跳蚤市场(Les Puces),但是一个很棒的网页按区列出了那些更小、更随意的市场(你可以在bit.ly/ParisFlea找到这个列表)。实际上,我吃完在Aligre市场买的橙子就开始在旁边的跳蚤市场购物了。我花一欧元买了1951年的一期泛黄的《新时代》(Temps Modernes)杂志(这期上有篇文章题为“上帝上相吗?”我很想知道这个问题的。结果发现,那篇文章实际上是谈论当时的宗教电影状况;那个标题显然是个聪明的计策,足以吸引64年后的美国游客),编辑是让-保罗·萨特(Jean-Paul Sartre)。逛完三个市场后,在圣保罗村(Village St.-Paul),我看上了一个可爱的粉蓝色小壁挂式衣帽架。我自称“贫穷的美国人”(卖家不相信,不过这么说算是起了个头),把价钱从28欧元砍到了22欧元。Lunch午餐High富游L’Arpège has three Michelin stars and a No. 25 spot on Restaurant magazine’s world rankings. Its chef, Alain Passard, is famous for his farm-to-obsessed-chef-to-table ingredients, especially vegetables. Tasting (remember, this was supposed to be dinner): 340 euros.L’Arpège是米其林三星餐厅,在《餐厅》杂志(Restaurant)的世界餐厅排行榜上排名第25位。它的大厨阿兰·帕萨尔(Alain Passard)以选用“从农场到痴迷大厨到餐桌”的食材而闻名,尤其是蔬菜。主厨精选菜单(注意,这个菜单本来是为晚餐准备的)的价格是340欧元。Low穷游I tried, really I did, to find a reasonably priced prix fixe at a contemporary, cool and vegetarian-friendly spot. No luck — vegetarians, beware. But a blog post about farm-to-table spots I had found during a search for L’Arpège also raved about Le Timbre, where Charles Danet’s three-course lunch fit the bill, literally, for 26 euros. That’s in part because everyone eats the exact same thing in this pleasantly cramped space the size of a postage stamp, which is what “timbre” means.我努力(我真的努力了)在一个现代时髦、适合素食者的餐厅寻找一个合理的固定价格套餐菜单。可惜我没找到。素食主义者,要当心哦。不过,我在搜索L’Arpège餐厅时找到了一个关于“从农场到餐桌”的餐厅的客帖子,它对Le Timbre餐厅也是赞美有加。该餐厅大厨查尔斯·达内(Charles Danet)的三道主菜午餐售价为26欧元,刚好符合条件。其中一个原因是这里的食客吃的东西是一模一样的。这个温馨的餐厅像邮票一样小巧,timbre就是邮票的意思。Seth joined me, and as the last lunch guests to arrive, we got a step-by-step preview of our meal from those seated (very) nearby. It turned out to be false advertising — the kitchen ran out of both the starter (hake) and the main course (duck filet). “On a mal compté le canard,” our very apologetic server said. But we enjoyed the cod starter substitute (as if I could tell the flaky, white difference), served with puréed celery root and lovage, and were impressed at how crunchy pine nuts and spicy bits of chorizo took to a moist cut of guinea fowl. When everyone started getting gorgeous dollops of chocolate mousse around us, I impishly asked, “On a mal compté le chocolat?” They had not. It was delicious. My share of the bill: 29 euros.塞思和我一起去那里用午餐。我们是午间的最后一批食客。我们一道菜一道菜地看了邻座(真的跟我们紧挨着坐)的午餐,相当于预览了自己的午餐。结果呢,看也是白看。开胃菜(鳕鱼)和主菜(鸭肉片)都卖光了。“我们算错了鸭肉的量,”务员满怀歉意地说。不过,我们很喜欢替换的开胃菜(好像我能辨别出这两种薄薄的白鱼片的区别似的),它配有芹菜根泥和拉维纪草。主菜换成了柔软多汁的珍珠鸡块,它配上松脆的松仁和西班牙辣香肠块,效果令人惊喜。当旁边的顾客纷纷开始享用诱人的巧克力慕斯时,我顽皮地用法语问道,“巧克力没算错吧?”没算错。很好吃。我们均分账单,我那部分是29欧元。Afternoon Stroll下午漫步High富游Mr. Ilisca’s guests often request a personal tour of the cobblestone streets of the shopping and art-packed Marais. Cost: 240 euros.伊利斯卡的客人们通常要求在充满商店和艺术画廊的玛莱区(Marais)的鹅卵石街道上来个私人向导游览。费用:240欧元。Low穷游There are reasonably priced walking tours of the Marais, but I opted out of being part of a group clogging its aly tourist-packed streets. Instead, I simply downloaded a very helpful self-guided version at Paris48.com, and ended up at Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, a gorgeously bright space where I got absorbed in the dreamily textured works of the Spanish painter Miquel Barceló. Free.玛莱区有一些价格合理的步行旅游团,但我决定不参团。那里的街道本来就挤满了游客,那些旅游团更是添堵。我在Paris48.com上下载了一个很有用的自助旅游向导。最后来到华丽明亮的Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac画廊,那里正在展出西班牙画家米克尔·巴尔塞洛(Miquel Barceló)的作品,我被它们梦幻般的质地迷住了。全部免费。Dinner晚餐High富游Mr. Ilisca recommended a meal of veal sweetbs (52 euros) from Allard, a classic bistro owned by Alain Ducasse. Full meal, about 100 euros.伊利斯卡推荐的是Allard餐馆的牛羊杂碎(52欧元)。Allard是一家典型的法式小餐馆,店主是阿兰·迪卡斯(Alain Ducasse)。一顿丰盛的晚餐总共约需100欧元。Low穷游Seth may not wear tails, but he was right on in taking me to Le Bistrot du Peintre, near his home in the Bastille. If it hadn’t been around since 1902, I’d say the Art Nouveau décor was overdone. Everything is dreamily wavy, from the massive wood mirrors to the vines painted along the tops of the walls, even the precariously twisting stairs that lead to the kitchen. For dinner, we split a 17-euro bottle of fruity 2013 Gamay from the Loire Valley, and a very generous bone-marrow starter. To make up for my duck-less lunch, I had the duck breast, seared in an oil-free pan, baked and served with raspberry sauce; Seth had a tender braised paleron of beef, loaded with tomatoes and olives, Mediterranean style. My half of the bill was 32.50 euros.塞思也许不穿燕尾,但他的建议不逊于伊利斯卡。他把我带到巴士底他家附近的Le Bistrot du Peintre餐馆。要不是这家餐馆始创于1902年,我会觉得这里的新艺术装潢太多了。所有的东西都充满梦幻般的曲线,从巨大的木镜子到墙顶绘制的葡萄藤,甚至包括通往厨房的扭曲摇晃的楼梯。我们分享了一瓶来自卢瓦尔河谷的2013年果味佳美葡萄酒(Gamay,17欧元)以及一份份量很大的骨髓开胃菜。为了弥补中午没吃上鸭肉的遗憾,我点了一份鸭胸肉,它是在没抹油的煎锅上煎出来的,配有树莓酱。塞思点的是地中海风味的嫩炖牛排,里面有很多番茄和橄榄。我那一半账单的费用是32.50欧元。Nightcap睡前小酒High富游Where else would a concierge send a classy guy like our stand-in jet-setter but the H#244;tel Costes, the ultrachic hotel lounge where a cocktail runs you north of 15 euros.豪华酒店的礼宾员在给我们想象中的富豪推荐睡前小酒时,肯定会推荐H#244;tel Costes。在这个超级时髦的酒店雅座酒吧里,一杯鸡尾酒的价格在15欧元以上。Low穷游Hotel + bar cheap? In travel-writer math class, that’s what we call a false equation. So why does the lively young crowd at H#244;tel du Nord pay just 5 euros to drink a glass of Bordeaux along the Canal St.-Martin? Answer: Because it’s not actually a hotel, but a restaurant named after a 1938 film. Did I mention the 5-euro wine?酒店+酒吧便宜?在旅游作家的数学课上,这样的等式是错误的。那么,为什么北方旅馆(H#244;tel du Nord)活跃的年轻人们花五欧元就能在圣马丁运河(Canal St.-Martin)边上喝一杯波尔多葡萄酒?是:因为北方旅馆不是酒店,而是以1938年的一部电影命名的餐馆。我刚才说了吗?那里的一杯葡萄酒售价仅为五欧元。 /201506/378899。

After 70 years, why aren’t we better at developing flu vaccines?今年的流感疫情非常严峻。从去年秋天至今,已经有数千美国人死于流感,其中包括56名儿童。美国疾病控制与预防中心已经发布了流感预警,而现在我们才刚刚进入二月,也就是流感疫情通常会集中爆发的月份。This year’s influenza season is a serious one. Thousands of Americans — including 56 children — have died from the flu since last fall. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has labeled the outbreak an epidemic, and we’re barely into February, the month that typically brings the peak of the season.流感疫情如此严重的部分原因是,今年的流感疫苗注射效果是近十年来最弱的一次。这或许也可以解释今年的流感疫情为什么如此早地就达到流行病级别。美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,今年的流感疫苗有效率只有23%,远低于往年50%到60%的水平。Part of the problem is this year’s flu shot has been one of the least effective in a decade, and it may account for why we are seeing the flu reach epidemic levels so early this season. The current flu vaccine is only 23% effective, compared to between 50% and 60% efficacy for a typical seasonal flu vaccine, according to the CDC.流感疫苗并不是一项高新技术,早在1935年,人类就测试了第一流感疫苗。仅仅7年后,也就是1942年,美国就开始在美军基地里进行大规模的流感疫苗研究。那么经过了70多年的研究,为什么我们还没有创造出一种持续有效的流感疫苗呢?The flu vaccine isn’t a newfangled technology. The first human influenza vaccines were tested as early as 1935, and extensive flu vaccine studies were started on U.S. army bases in 1942. So, after more than 70 years of research, why aren’t we better at creating a consistently effective seasonal flu vaccine?分析流感变种Analyzing the strains每年2月,世界卫生组织都会召集全球流感专家进行研讨,以确定下一季流感疫苗所使用的病毒株。全球科学家和医生都在努力收集和分析当前流行的病毒株,希望找到那些有可能演化为新流感的病毒变种。The answer to that question begins in February of every year, when global flu experts and the World Health Organization meet as part of an annual consortium to peg the influenza strains for the following season’s flu vaccine美国疾病控制与预防中心的世卫合作中心负责人杰基o卡茨表示:“这是一个持续不断的过程。一个病毒的变种会衍生出一系列变种。它是一种持续不断的线性进化,但也是很难预测的。想获得一精确的流感疫苗,关键就在于及时获得病毒样本,这样我们才能及时分析,准备下一年的疫苗。”Scientists and doctors from around the world work diligently to collect and analyze the flu strains currently in circulation, looking to pinpoint mutations that could become ground zero for a new epidemic.一旦这些病毒株被确定,专家就会针对其中的三到四种,来研制下一年的疫苗。这些病毒株会被大量生产,然后交给葛兰素史克、诺华和赛诺菲等生产厂家来生产和销售——这个过程需要显著的提前期,才能保疫苗在10月初到达各地的医院。“It’s a constant process,” said Jackie Katz, the head of the CDC’s WHO collaborating center. “One set of mutations will build on another. It’s a constant sort of linear evolution, but it’s one that is very hard to predict. One of the key features to get an accurate vaccine is having the viruses arrive in time, so we can characterize and analyze these viruses for the coming season.”去年二月中旬开始的疫苗研制过程,也和往年没有什么差别。来自美国疾病控制与预防中心、美国食品药品监督(FDA)、美国国家卫生研究院和世界卫生组织和其他国际机构的官员在瑞士日内瓦召开会议,确定了下一年度可能在北半球流行的流感病毒株,然后将它们交给生产厂商。(为了给南半球研制流感疫苗,去年9月也召开了另一场类似的峰会。)Once those strains are identified, the experts choose three to four to include in the next season’s vaccine. Those strains are then produced and handed off to manufacturers, such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Sanofi, to produce and distribute — a process that requires significant lead time to ensure the doses reach doctor offices by early October.到了去年三月,一种流感病毒的变种突然出现了,科学家们知道它有肆虐的可能,但为时已晚。卡茨表示:“时间是我们研制流感疫苗最大的敌人。”This same process happened in mid-February last year. Officials from the CDC, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Health, WHO, and other international bodies, met in Geneva, Switzerland, to pinpoint the strains that would be prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere then handed those off to manufacturers. (A separate but similar summit happens for the Southern Hemisphere in September.)疫苗是如何生产的The problem came in March when a mutation showed up that scientists knew would wreak havoc, but it was too late. “Time is one of our biggest enemies for the flu vaccine,” said Katz.据葛兰素史克公司介绍,最普通的流感疫苗生产方法往往会使用鸡蛋,这个过程会持续5个月。几百万只受精的鸡蛋会被用作流感病毒的培养基,然后病毒会被收集、提纯并装进药瓶。在疫苗正式投放全国之前,生产厂家和FDA会测试它们的效能和安全性。How vaccines are made这个方法从上世纪50年代就开始采用。这是一个缓慢且冗长的过程,尤其是考虑到它面临的挑战。首先,生产过程依赖足够的受精鸡蛋。如果鸡蛋的供给不足,那就会影响免疫血清的产量。其次,有些病毒变种在鸡蛋里成长得并不好,有的还会发生意想不到的变异,从而影响疫苗的效能。The most common vaccine production method useschicken eggs. This process takes about five months, according to GlaxoSmithKline. Millions of fertilized eggs are used as a culture to grow influenza viruses, which are then harvested, purified and packaged into vials. Manufacturers and the FDA then test for potency and safety before shipping the lot releases around the country.约翰霍普金斯大学布隆伯格公共卫生学院教授安德鲁o皮克兹表示:“问题的关键在于要改变疫苗的生产方式,它是制约疫苗精确性的一个重要因素。其实,我们确定这些病毒株的速度是非常快的,尤其考虑到它对细节的要求。”This method has been in practice since the 1950s. It’s slow and tedious, especially given the challenges. Firstly, manufacturing relies on the availability of enough fertilized eggs. If egg supplies were ever compromised it would affect our ability to produce enough serum. Second, some flu strains don’t grow that well in chicken eggs and undergo undesirable mutations that affect the potency of a seasonal vaccine.从2013年1月起,一种新的疫苗生产方式开始进入市场。它的生产速度更快,不需要用鸡蛋作为培养基,而且它的效能可能会更高。这种疫苗被称作“重组蛋白疫苗”,它采用了一种流感病毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质是通过改变一种感染昆虫细胞的病毒的基因而合成的。它可以引发人体的免疫反应,生成保护性抗体。“The question is about changing the way these vaccines are made. It’s the real factor limiting the accuracy,” said Andrew Pekosz, a professor at Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health. “The speed at which we can identify these strains, especially given the level of detail, is very rapid.”FluBlok是第一也是首获得FDA认的重组蛋白疫苗。其制造商Protein Sciences公司的女发言人雷切尔o菲尔伯鲍姆指出:“生产出疫苗只需要几个星期,而不是几个月。另外它还含有三倍的抗原,能起到更好的保护效果。有了这项技术,我们基本上避免了时间上的拖延。”As of January 2013, a new vaccine production method hit the market. It’s faster, egg-free and potentially more effective. It’s called a recombinant protein vaccine and uses an influenza virus protein that’s made by genetically altering a virus that infects insect cells. The resulting protein is what triggers the immune response in humans to make protective antibodies.重组蛋白疫苗通常需要6到12周的生产时间。在发生流感大爆发的情况下,Protein Sciences只需要3到6个月的时间,就能向全美提供5000万流感疫苗。而用鸡蛋培养的疫苗要想达到这样的应急产量,则至少需要6个月的时间。“It takes only weeks versus months to produce,” said Rachel Felberbaum, a spokeswoman for Protein Sciences, the maker of FluBlok, the first and only FDA approved recombinant influenza vaccine. “It also has three times the antigens, which helps protect better. We can do that without a time lag because of the technology.”与时间赛跑The recombinant vaccine typically takes between six to 12 weeks to manufacture, and in the case of a pandemic Protein Sciences is y to provide 50 million doses to the U.S. government in as quickly as three to six months. Egg-based vaccines would require at least six months for similar emergency output.重组技术通过基因手段在成长速度更快的昆虫细胞中孵化流感蛋白质,从而可以为科学家节省更多宝贵的时间,更精确地确定下一季可能爆发的流感病毒变种。它必定能够帮助科学家更好地研制今年的疫苗。Vying for time皮克兹表示:“我们只需要花四五个星期的时间,就能信心十足地抓住即将流行的流感病毒变种的长尾巴。”Recombinant technology — which uses genetic modification to incubate the flu proteins in faster-growing insect cells — could help carve out the vital time that scientists need to more accurately target influenza strains that will circulate during the upcoming season. It certainly would have helped scientists better target this year’s vaccine.该技术有可能为我们节省宝贵的时间,但它仍是一项新技术。为了应对今年的流感季节,葛兰素史克公司生产了约2400万基于鸡蛋培养基生产的流感疫苗,在美国还有其他四家公司也在使用鸡蛋培养基技术。相比之下,Protein Sciences公司今年只推出了30万FluBlok流感疫苗。“All we need is to buy four to five weeks to have a high level confidence of catching the long tail of emerging variants,” said Pekosz.目前整个行业都在大力投资重组技术,其中也包括葛兰素史克。不过菲尔伯鲍姆表示,大多数厂商在这项技术上都落后了10到15年。Protein Sciences计划明年将FluBlok疫苗的产量提高到120万,不过对于美国总体的流感疫苗需求量来说,这还只是一个很小的比例。The technology has potential to buy that extra time, but it’s still new. For this year’s flu season, GlaxoSmithKline produced about 24 million vaccine doses using the egg-based method, and it is one of five companies producing traditional egg-based flu vaccines in the U.S. In comparison, Protein Sciences released 300,000 FluBlok doses this season.科学家的终极目标是研制一种能够治愈所有流感变种的疫苗。《财富》记者埃里卡o弗莱正在深入研究科学家们将如何在接下来的大约10年内实现这个目标。The industry as a whole is investing in this recombinant technology, including GlaxoSmithKline GSK -0.09% . However, most manufacturers are still about 10 to 15 years behind, said Felberbaum. Protein Sciences plans to scale up to 1.2 million FluBlok doses for the next flu season, though that’s still a small portion of the overall vaccine quantity needed for the U.S.直到现在,全球科学家还在认真准备今年二月的流感峰会,他们希望在会上精确地确定明年的流感变种——这可能会拯救几万人的生命。Ultimately, scientists hope for a universal vaccine — one shot that would cure all influenza strains.Fortune’s Erika Fry delved into how scientists are working toward that end goal, which remains nearly 10 years off.皮克兹表示:“在大多数年份里,我们的匹配工作都做得很好,这也是我们能够获得进展的情形之一,但这项工作需要各方齐心协力,不只是科学家,生产和监管环节也必须及时跟上才行。”(财富中文网)Until then, scientists around the world are working diligently to be prepared for this February’s influenza summit when they hope to accurately pinpoint next season’s strains — potentially saving tens of thousands of lives.译者:朴成奎“In most years, we have a pretty good match,” said Pekosz. “It’s one of those situations where we could improve, but it takes a really concerted effort. It’s not just science, but manufacturing and regulations.”审校:任文科 /201502/359899。

In the last few months we#39;ve seen owl cocktail bars, porridge cafes and even a micropig picnic, and the trend of bizarre pop-ups doesn#39;t seem to be stopping anytime soon.还记得前几个月的猫头鹰主题鸡尾酒吧、DIY麦片粥咖啡屋和迷你猪野餐吗?这种稀奇古怪的主题餐饮似乎仍旧是潮流。The latest one? A fox cafe.比如最新出现的:狐狸咖啡馆。Stevie the Fox will be open for three weeks at a ;secret location; from May 25th from 9-6 pm each day.5月25日起,“史蒂夫和狐狸”主题咖啡馆将营业三周,营业时间是早九点到晚六点。Dining with foxes isn#39;t something most people would be eager to do, but organisers hope the cafe will change the way people think about the animal.或许与狐狸共同进餐并非人们最想做的事,但主办者希望通过这个咖啡馆改变人们对狐狸的看法。On their website, they state ;foxes often receive a lot of bad press due to nuisance they cause in urban areas from destroying bin bags, digging gardens, fouling on the street and making noises throughout the night.在这家咖啡馆的网站上,他们声明:在城市里,由于狐狸们老是破坏箱子,在花园里刨土,弄脏街道,还在晚上吵吵闹闹,所以大家对狐狸的印象都不太好,认为它们是讨厌鬼。;Our aim is to change that perception and show you how foxes are playful gentle creatures.;而我们的目标就是,改变这种看法,让大家看到狐狸机灵温柔的一面。For #163;15 customers will be allowed an hour and a half in the cafe which serves hot drinks, Fox#39;s Biscuits and Fox#39;s Glacier Mints.每位顾客花费15英镑,就可在这家咖啡馆享用热饮、狐狸点心和狐狸冰薄荷糖。With an array of animal-related cafes and restaurants under our belt aly, who knows what the next one will be - tortoise cafe, anyone?如今,各种动物主题的咖啡馆和餐馆层出不穷,谁知道下一个出现的会是什么主题呢,可能是乌龟咖啡馆? /201504/371848。

People younger than 25 are more than four times as likely as older people to use a cellphone while driving, a new study reports, and a driver talking on a phone is about 63 percent more likely to be a woman than a man.一项新研究报告,25岁以下的年轻人在驾驶时使用手机的可能性是较年长者的4倍还多,而且,女性在驾驶时打电话的可能性比男性高63%。Researchers in Texas estimated driver age and recorded driver and passenger characteristics and cellphone use for 1,280 drivers as they stopped at busy intersections near medical centers in Houston, Dallas, Austin, El Paso, San Antonio and Brownsville. The study, in Preventive Medicine Reports, gathered data from 2011 to 2013.得克萨斯的研究人员分别对在美国休斯敦、达拉斯、奥斯汀、埃尔帕索、圣安东尼奥和布朗斯维尔等市的医疗中心附近繁忙的十字路口处停车的1280名司机的年龄进行了估计,并记录了司机和乘客的特征和使用手机的情况。该研究发表在《预防医学报告》杂志(Preventive Medicine Reports)上,其中收集了2011年至2013年的数据。During that time, the percentage of drivers talking on the phone decreased, to 16.4 percent from 20.5 percent. But texting increased, to 8.4 percent from 6.4 percent.在此期间,司机打电话的比例从20.5%下降到了16.4%。但发短信的比例从6.4%增加到了8.4%。Lone drivers were more than four times as likely to be talking on the phone as drivers carrying passengers, and women were more than twice as likely to be texting as men.司机独自驾车时打电话的可能性是搭载乘客时的4倍以上,而女性发短信的可能性是男性的两倍多。“Areas of high-density car and pedestrian traffic really need to be considered for prohibition,” said the lead author, R. Sue Day, an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health. “And it may be helpful to concentrate future interventions on females and younger drivers.”“在交通繁忙,车辆和行人流量较大的地方确实需要考虑禁止(司机使用手机),”该研究的主要作者,得克萨斯大学休斯顿公共卫生学院健康科学中心(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health)的流行病学副教授R·休·戴(R. Sue Day)说。“而且,将未来干预的重点放在女性和年轻司机身上可能会更有帮助。”Texas has no statewide laws prohibiting driving while using a cellphone.得克萨斯州的法律并未禁止在驾驶时使用手机。 /201505/373178。

11-year-old child prodigy Tanishq Abraham is in the news for graduating from college with not one, not two, but three different degrees. The talented kid from California made headlines last year as well, for completing high school at the age of ten and earning a congratulatory letter from President Barack Obama. And now, just a year later, he#39;s finished college with three associate degrees.11岁神童塔尼奇·亚拉伯罕成了新闻热点,因为他小小年纪就大学毕业,还拿了不只一个,也不是两个,而是三个学位。这位来自加州的小神童在去年也上了头条,因其10岁就高中毕业,还获得了总统奥巴马的祝贺信。而今,仅仅过了一年,他就拿了三个学位毕业了。Last week#39;s graduation ceremony at the American River College in Sacramento was attended by Tanishq#39;s parents – his mother Taji, a vet, and his father Bijou, a software engineer. His sister Tiara, also a child prodigy, was present as well. They cheered for Tanishq as he was awarded associate degrees in math and physical sciences, general science, and language studies. He wore a rainbow colored scarf that his grandmother had knit specially for the occasion, and a cap with his favorite Toy Story-e: #39;To Infinity and Beyond.”上周在萨克拉门托(Sacramento)美国河流学院 (American River College)举行的毕业典礼上,塔尼奇的父母也来到现场——他的母亲塔吉(Taji)是一位兽医,而父亲比茹(Bijou)是一位软件工程师。他的提亚娜(Tiara)也是个小神童,她也来了。塔尼奇被授予了数学及物理科学,自然科学,和语言学的副学士学位,家人们都为他鼓掌欢呼。他戴着祖母特地为他织的条围巾,帽子上写着他最喜欢的玩具总动员中的名言:“飞向无限。”“The assumption is that he#39;s the all-time youngest,” said college spokesman Scott Crow. “But we don#39;t have all the archives to completely confirm. He was definitely the youngest this year.”“据说他是史上年纪最小的毕业生,”学校发言人斯科特·克劳人(Scott Crow)说,“可我们并没有完整的记录来实这件事,但他绝对是今年毕业生中年纪最小的。”Tanishq said that he wasn#39;t intimidated by the fact that his classmates were all twice his age, especially because he was well-received. “A lot were really happy that there was a kid in their class,” he said. And his parents were pretty low-key about the whole affair, being used to all his accomplishments since a young age. “Even in kindergarten, he was a few years ahead,” Taji said. “It just went from there.”塔尼奇说,他的同学年纪都是他两倍,可他并不感到恐慌,不仅如此,他在班级里还很受欢迎。“许多同学都很高兴班里有个小孩。”他说。他的父母对于他的这些成就也很低调,因为他们早就习惯了。“早在幼儿园,他就超出同龄人不少,”塔吉说,“接下来一直都这样。”“The way my brain works is that when you give me something, information about that topic comes into my mind. #39;I don#39;t know what it is,” Tanishq revealed.“我的大脑工作方式是这样的,你给我一个话题,有关信息就自动在我脑海里出现。我也不知道怎么回事。”塔尼奇说。Interestingly, Tanishq has been home-schooled by his mother, who put her own career on hold to teach him. He#39;s also been taking classes at the American River College since he was seven years old. He joined Mensa International – a group of people whose IQ is in the top two percent of the population – at the age of four. His sister also joined Mensa at the age of 4, making them the youngest siblings to join the high-IQ society.有趣的是,塔尼奇曾有两年是在家上学,他的妈妈把工作放到一边,负责在家教他。自他七岁起,便在美国河流学院旁听。他还加入门萨国际——一个IQ最高的2%人群组成的俱乐部——而这是在他四岁的时候。他的也在四岁时加入,这让他们成为高智商俱乐部里年纪最小的兄。In order to join Mensa, one needs to score in or above the 98 percentile on a Mensa-approved standardized IQ test. Tanishq scored 99.9 percentile and Tiara scored 99 percentile on the test.想要加入门萨,你必须在门萨指定的标准智商测试中得98分以上。而塔尼奇得了99.9分,提亚娜得了99分。You#39;d think that Tanishq is probably done with books for his life, but he actually has no plans to stop learning. “I want to become a doctor,” he said after the ceremony. “But I also want to become a medical researcher, and also the president of the ed States.” In a tweet, he revealed that he hopes to win the Nobel Prize some day in medicine or research. In the meantime, he plans to spend his summer on a family vacation and a Calculus II course.你可能认为塔尼奇已经完成学业,但是他可没想过要就此止步。“我想成为一名医生,”他在毕业典礼结束后说,“我还想成为医学研究员,我还想当美国总统。”在一条推特上他说,他希望将来在医疗或研究方面获得诺贝尔奖。同时,在毕业的这个夏天,他打算和家人一起度假,还有学习微积分二的课程。 /201506/378227。

Eating porridge, brown rice or corn each day could protect the heart against disease, Harvard University has found哈佛大学发现每天食用麦片粥、糙米或谷物能预防心脏疾病。A small bowl of porridge each day could be the key to a long and healthy life, after a major study by Harvard University found that whole grains reduce the risk of dying from heart disease.哈佛大学一项主要研究调查发现,每天食用一小碗麦片粥是健康长寿的关键。全谷物能降低患心脏疾病死亡的风险。Although whole grains are widely believed to be beneficial for health it is the first research to look at whether they have a long-term impact on lifespan.尽管人们普遍认为全谷物有益健康,该项研究还是首次调查全谷物对人的寿命是否有长期影响。Researchers followed more than 100,000 people for more than 14 years monitoring their diets and health outcomes.花费超过14年的时间,研究人员跟踪调查了10万以上志愿者的饮食和健康状况。Everyone involved in the study was healthy in 1984 when they enrolled, but when they were followed up in 2010 more than 26,000 had died.所有志愿者1984年加入该项研究时健康状况良好。但是在2010年的跟踪调查中,研究人员发现已有2,600人死亡。However those who ate the most whole grains, such as porridge, brown rice, corn and quinoa seemed protected from many illnesses and particularly heart disease.然而,那些食用较多全谷物的志愿者,如食用麦片粥、糙米、谷物和藜麦,似乎免受很多疾病,特别是心脏疾病的侵害。Oats are aly the breakfast of choice for many athletes and also for dieters, who find the high fibre levels give them energy for longer.燕麦,研究人员发现其含有的高纤维素能给人们提供更持久的能量,已经成为很多运动员的早餐选择,也是节食者的不二之选。But scientists found that for each ounce (28g) of whole grains eaten a day – the equivalent of a small bowl of porridge – the risk of all death was reduced by five per cent and heart deaths by 9 per cent.科学家发现每天食用每盎司(28g)全谷物—相当于一小碗麦片粥—将死亡风险降低了5%,心脏疾病造成的死亡风险降低了9%。“These findings further support current dietary guidelines that recommend increasing whole-grain consumption,” said lead author Dr Hongyu Wu of Harvard School of Public Health.“这些发现进一步持当前的饮食指南,建议多食用全谷物食品,”哈佛大学公众健康主笔作者吴宏宇士说到。“They also provide promising evidence that suggests a diet enriched with whole grains may confer benefits towards extended life expectancy.”“研究发现也提供可靠据,表明全谷物饮食可能利于健康长寿。”The findings remained even when allowing for different ages, smoking, body mass index and physical activity.甚至考虑年龄,吸烟、体质指数及物理运动因素时,该研究发现仍旧有效。Whole grains, where the bran and germ remain, contain 25 per cent more protein than refined grains, such as those that make white flour, pasta and white rice.保有原来的麸皮和胚芽的全谷物,比起用于制作白面、意大利面食和白饭的细粮,蛋白质要多出25%。Previous studies have shown that whole grains can boost bone mineral density, lower blood pressure, promote healthy gut bacteria and reduce the risk of diabetes. One particular fibre found only in oats – called beta-glucan – has been found to lower cholesterol which can help to protect against heart disease. A bioactive compound called avenanthramide is also thought to stop fat forming in the arteries, preventing heart attacks and strokes.当前研究显示全谷物能促进骨骼生长,降低血压,增加益生菌,降低患糖尿病的风险。只能在燕麦中找到的纤维素—β-葡聚糖—能降低胆固醇,预防心脏疾病。燕麦中抗氧化物,被称为avenanthramide,能防止动脉脂肪形成,减少心脏病和中风的威胁。Whole grains are also widely recommended in many dietary guidelines because they contain high levels of nutrients like zinc, copper, manganese, iron and thiamine. They are also believed to boost levels of antioxidants which combat free-radicals.全谷物营养价值高,富含锌、铜、锰、铁和维生素B1元素,能增加抗氧化物质来对抗自由基,很多饮食指南都极力推荐。The new research suggests that if more people switched to whole grains, thousands of lives could be saved each year. Coronary heart disease is Britain’s biggest killer, responsible for around 73,000 deaths in the UK each year. Around 2.3 million people are living with the condition and one in six men and one in 10 women will die from the disease.新项研究表明,如果更多的人转食全谷物,每年可能拯救成千上万的生命。冠状动脉(心脏疾病)病是英国的头号杀手,每年近7,300人死于心脏病。近2,300,000患有心冠状动脉疾病的人群中,每6名男性,每10名女性中,就有1人死于心脏疾病。Health experts said the study proved that whole grains were beneficial to health健康专家称研究明了全谷物有利健康。Victoria Taylor, Senior Dietician at the British Heart Foundation, said: “This is an interesting study and reinforces existing dietary recommendations to eat more foods high in fibre.Victoria Taylor,英国心脏协会的高级营养师称:“这是一项有趣的研究,它建议人们多食用高纤维素食品。”“People with a higher intake of whole grains also tended to have a healthier overall lifestyle and diet so it might not be the whole grains alone that are having the benefit in relation to cardiovascular disease.“摄入更多全谷物的人也趋于拥有更加健康的生活方式和饮食习惯,因此在抵御心血管疾病方面,可能不只是全谷物在做贡献。”“But at this time of year when we are all making resolutions to eat better, switching to whole-grain versions of b, breakfast cereals, pasta and rice is a simple change to make.”“此时此刻当你下决心吃好吃健康时,只需一个小小的转变,吃全谷物的面包、谷类早餐、全谷物意大利面食和米饭即可。”The research is published in the journal JAMA: Internal Medicine.该项研究发表被刊登在JAMA: Internal Medicine上。 /201501/356819。

To be a billionaire, the first thing you need is a personality disorder.要成为亿万富翁,你需要的第一样东西就是人格障碍。That is what I had always assumed, based on my own experience of having interviewed a few of them. Now I have corroboration from someone who knows what she is talking about. Justine Musk, who spent eight years married to the man behind PayPal, SpaceX and now Tesla Motors, has taken it upon herself to share with the world her view that those who achieve great things are mostly “freaks and misfits”.我一直是这样想的,依据就是我自己以前采访几个亿万富翁的经历。现在,我的猜想得到了一位懂行人士的实。曾与埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)夫妻8年的贾丝廷#8226;马斯克(Justine Musk),主动与世界分享了她的看法。在她看来,那些取得了非凡成就的人,大多都“古怪、不合群”。埃隆#8226;马斯克创办了PayPal、SpaceX和特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)。Her remarks were in response to an earnest question recently posted on Quora: How can I be as great as Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Elon Musk or Sir Richard Branson? The short answer, she wrote, is you can’t.贾丝廷#8226;马斯克的话,是为了回答Quara上最近贴出的一个严肃问题:我如何能像比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)、史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)、埃隆#8226;马斯克或理查德#8226;布兰森爵士(Sir Richard Branson)那样伟大?她的回答用一句话来概括就是,你不能。The longer answer amounts to one of the best explanations of success I have ever . According to her it comes in two types: normal success — involving hard work, talent etc — and extreme success — as enjoyed by her ex. The normal variety she recommends; the extreme version is only available to those who are born that way. “They are dyslexic, they are autistic, they have ADD, they are square pegs in round holes, they piss people off, get into arguments, rock the boat.”她的详细回答则是我读过的关于成功的最佳解释之一。在她看来,成功分为两种:普通的成功(靠勤奋工作、天赋等等)和非凡的成功(如她的前夫实现的那种成功)。她推崇普通的成功;非凡的成功则只属于那些天生如此的人。“他们有读写障碍,他们有孤独症,他们有注意力缺失症(ADD),他们是圆孔里的方头钉,他们把别人惹毛,跟人吵架,把平静的地方搅得鸡犬不宁。”So they find something bigger than themselves to obsess over and work insanely hard, she explains. It is their way of coping.于是,他们找到某种超越自身的东西去痴迷,并疯狂地工作,她解释道。这是他们与这个世界的相处之道。At a stroke Ms Musk has destroyed the whole self help industry. Seen like this, there is absolutely no point in studying extreme success. If you aren’t born like that, you will never achieve it. And you would not want to anyway.贾丝廷#8226;马斯克一下子就摧毁了整个励志行业。照她的观点来看,研究非凡的成功毫无意义。如果你不是天生如此,你永远都不会实现非凡的成功。并且,你反正也不会想要这样的成功。However, these billionaires remain of zoological interest, particularly in terms of how they manage their personal lives. Ms Musk’s view on this is pretty grim. Extreme success, she reckons, comes complete with “family drama, issues with the Significant Other you rarely see, dark nights of the soul#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;little sleep, less sleep than that”.然而,作为一个特殊的人群,这些亿万富翁仍然是有意思的研究对象,特别是就他们如何安排个人生活而言。贾丝廷#8226;马斯克在这方面的看法非常冷酷。她认为,非凡的成功少不了“家庭变故,与伴侣感情不好、很少见面,灵魂的黑夜……少眠,失眠”。In other words, billionaires are rotten people to marry. Which is also precisely what I had always thought.换句话说,亿万富翁是靠不住的结婚对象。这也是我一直以来的想法。Mr Musk himself sounds like a particularly bad marital bet: shortly after divorcing Ms Musk he married an actress, only to divorce and remarry her in quick succession. Now he is in the process of divorcing her again.埃隆#8226;马斯克本人听上去就是个格外不可靠的结婚对象:与贾丝廷#8226;马斯克离婚后不久,他娶了一个女演员,然后两人离婚,又迅速复合。现在,他已第二次与这个女演员离婚。Yet just as I was congratulating myself on not having married a billionaire, I started thinking about the other names in the Quora question — Bill, Richard and Steve. The remarkable thing about them is not that they have gone through wives as quickly as the twinkling of a bed post, but that they have mostly found one and stuck with her.然而,就在我庆幸自己没有跟亿万富翁结婚时,我开始思考Quara上那个问题中提到的其他几个名字——比尔、理查德和史蒂夫。他们身上令人惊异之处,并非是他们走马灯似地换夫人,而是他们基本上都找到了适合自己的那个人,然后对她不离不弃。Bill Gates, who married Melinda 21 years ago, appears to have one of those marriages so solid that if I discovered the two were splitting up, I would feel let down, as if the world had become a less dependable place. Sir Richard Branson, after a starter marriage in his early 20s, is still married to his second wife after 25 years. And Steve Jobs remained married to the same woman for 20 years, until he died.比尔#8226;盖茨21年前与梅琳达(Melinda)结婚,两人的婚姻看上去那么稳固,假如有一天两人分手,我肯定会备感失望,就好像世界变得不那么可靠了一样。理查德#8226;布兰森爵士20岁出头的时候结过一次婚,他的第二次婚姻如今已走过25个年头。史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯与同一个女人结婚20年,直到他去世。If you go down the Forbes billionaires list a weird pattern starts to emerge. More than 40 per cent of all marriages end in divorce, but among the extremely successful, who one might have expected to be extremely unsuccessful in wedlock, the reverse seems to be the case.如果你逐个研究福布斯(Forbes)财富榜上那些亿万富翁,你会发现一条奇怪的规律。他们的婚姻超过40%以离婚收场,但在那些特别成功、可能会被认为婚姻非常失败的人中,情况似乎是相反的。Carlos Slim, number two on the Forbes list after Mr Gates, was married to the same woman for 32 years, until she died in 1999. Warren Buffett (#3) remained married to his first wife for 52 years (although for much of that time he was living with a cocktail waitress whom he married on his wife’s death).福布斯财富榜第二名、排在盖茨之后的卡洛斯#8226;斯利姆(Carlos Slim),与同一个女人结婚32年,直到她1999年去世。沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett,财富榜排名第三)与头一任妻子结婚52年(尽管他很多时间与一名鸡尾酒女招待生活在一起,头任妻子去世后,他就和女招待结了婚)。Further down the list there are only a few who have exhibited certain traits of ADD in their approach to matrimony: Larry Ellison has had four wives and Ronald Perelman five. They are the exceptions — more of the billionaires seem to be on first wives than those who are not. This is not much of an achievement for Mark Zuckerberg who only tied the knot in 2012, but Jeff Bezos and Michael Dell have been married for more than 20 years apiece, Eric Schmidt for more than 30, Ray Dalio at Bridgewater has notched up about 40 while Phil Knight of Nike is heading towards his golden wedding.排名略为靠后的人中,只有少数几个在婚姻中显示出某种ADD症状:拉里#8226;埃里森(Larry Ellison)有过4任妻子,罗纳德#8226;佩雷尔曼(Ronald Perelman)现在的妻子是他的第5任。他们俩是例外——亿万富翁中仍在与首任妻子相守的人数似乎超过了不是这样的人数。对马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)来说,这算不上很大的成就,因为他2012年才结婚,不过,杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)和迈克尔#8226;戴尔(Michael Dell)都已结婚20多年,埃里克#8226;施密特(Eric Schmidt)已结婚30多年,布里奇沃特(Bridgewater)的雷#8226;戴利奥(Ray Dalio)已结婚40年,耐克(Nike)的菲尔#8226;奈特(Phil Knight)还有几年就将迎来金婚。How can such stability happen? These billionaires have all lived in the grip of a rip-roaring obsession with work that should have ruined all relationships, and all have enough money to attract gorgeous new wives — and to pay off old ones.这些亿万富翁的婚姻怎么会这么稳定?他们都是超级工作狂,这原本应该会毁掉任何的伴侣关系,他们也都有足够的钱,能够吸引漂亮的新妻子,以及向发妻付分手费。I have no idea what the reason is, but I wonder if it might be that when the truly weird find someone who suits them, they don’t give them up in a hurry. Or perhaps it is that if you are transfixed by your work, an affair offers insufficient thrill. Or it could simply be that if you hardly ever see your spouse, he or she is significantly less likely to get on your nerves.我不知道这是什么原因,但我猜想,或许这是因为当一个真正的怪人找到了适合自己的人,他们就不会匆忙放弃。抑或这是因为,如果你一门心思扑在工作上,外遇就显得不够刺激了。又或者,这只不过是因为,假如你和自己的配偶很少见面,他或她把你惹毛的几率就大大降低了。 /201505/372939。