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天河区长安医院宫颈息肉手术The global public health emergency involving deformed babies emerged in 2015, the hottest year in the historical record, with an outbreak in Brazil of a disease transmitted by heat-loving mosquitoes. Can that be a coincidence?2015年,全球出现了涉及婴儿畸形的公共卫生紧急情况。这一年也是有历史记录以来最热的一年。这种由喜热的蚊子所传播的疾病在巴西爆发,是否可能只是巧合?Scientists say it will take them years to figure that out, and pointed to other factors that may have played a larger role in starting the crisis. But these same experts added that the Zika epidemic, as well as the related sp of a disease called dengue that is sickening as many as 100 million people a year and killing thousands, should be interpreted as warnings.科学家称,要确定是否属于巧合需要进行多年的研究。他们指出这次危机可能另有原因。但是,这些专家还补充说,兹卡的疫情以及与之相关的登革热的传播应该被视为一种警告。后者一年最多能感染1亿人,并造成数以千计的人们死亡。Over the coming decades, global warming is likely to increase the range and speed the life cycle of the particular mosquitoes carrying these viruses, encouraging their sp deeper into temperate countries like the ed States.在未来几十年,全球变暖可能造成那些携带这些病毒的特殊种类的蚊子的活动范围扩大和生命周期加快,进而促使这些疫病向美国等温带国家扩展。Recent research suggests that under a worst-case scenario, involving continued high global emissions coupled with fast population growth, the number of people exposed to the principal mosquito could more than double, to as many as 8 billion or 9 billion by late this century from roughly 4 billion today.近期的研究表明,最糟糕的一种情况是,随着全球温室气体的大量排放和人口的高速增长,有可能接触这种蚊子的人口将翻番,目前是40亿左右,到本世纪末将多达80亿或90亿。“As we get continued warming, it’s going to become more difficult to control mosquitoes,” said Andrew Monaghan, who is studying the interaction of climate and health at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. “The warmer it is, the faster they can develop from egg to adult, and the faster they can incubate viruses.”“随着全球变暖,控制蚊子将越来越困难。”安德鲁·莫纳甘(Andrew Monaghan)说。安德鲁在科罗拉多州尔德的美国国家大气研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research)研究气候与健康的互动关系。“天气越热,蚊子从孵化到成年的速度就越快,病毒繁殖的速度也就越快。”Aly, climate change is suspected — though not proven — to have been a factor in a string of disease outbreaks afflicting both people and animals. These include the sp of malaria into the highlands of eastern Africa, the rising incidence of Lyme disease in North America, and the sp of a serious livestock ailment called bluetongue into parts of Europe that were once too cold for it to thrive.人们怀疑,气候变化是人畜感染一系列疾病的一个原因,尽管这一点尚未得到实。这些疾病包括东非高原地区的疟疾,北美莱姆病的发病率升高,欧洲部分地区的牲畜出现的严重的蓝舌病疫情,那些地区之前因为太冷,很少出现这些疾病。In interviews, experts noted that no epidemic was ever the result of a single variable.在访谈中,专家指出没有任何一种传染病是仅由一个变量引起的。Instead, epidemics always involve interactions among genes, ecology, climate and human behavior, presenting profound difficulties for scientists trying to tease apart the contributing factors. “The complexity is enormous,” said Walter J. Tabachnick, a professor with the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, a unit of the University of Florida in Vero Beach.相反,传染病常常涉及基因、生态、气候、人类行为等多种因素的互动,所以科学家很难把单个因素分离出来。“原因极为复杂。”佛罗里达大学(University of Florida)位于维罗比奇(Vero Beach)的佛罗里达医学昆虫学实验室的教授瓦尔特·塔巴奇尼克(Walter J. Tabachnick)说。The epidemics of Zika and dengue are cases in point. The viruses are being transmitted largely by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. That creature adapted long ago to live in human settlements, and developed a concomitant taste for human blood.兹卡和登革热就是典型的例子。这些病毒主要是由感染黄热病的伊蚊传播。这种生物早已适应了在人类聚居地生存,并因此喜好人类的血液。Cities in the tropics, the climate zone most favorable to the mosquito, have undergone explosive growth: Humanity passed a milestone a few years ago when more than half the population had moved to urban areas. But spending on health care and on basic public health infrastructure, like water pipes and sewers, has not kept pace. Mosquito control has also faltered in recent decades.热带是最适合蚊子生存的气候带,而那里的城市正在经历迅猛的增长:几年前人类就跨过了一个里程碑:一半以上的人口已迁居到城市地区。但是公共医疗和公共卫生基础设施的投入,比如水管和下水设施,仍是滞后的。近几十年对蚊子的控制也出现了放松。The mosquito lays its eggs in containers of water, of a sort that are especially common in the huge slums of Latin American cities. With unreliable access to piped water, people there store water in rooftop cisterns, buckets and the like. Old tires and other debris can also become mosquito habitat.蚊子在盛水的容器中产卵,这种容器在拉丁美洲城市的大型贫民窟中尤其常见。由于没有可靠的管道用水,那里的人们会把水存放在屋顶的水箱、水桶和类似的容器中。旧轮胎和其他垃圾也可能成为蚊子的栖息地。Water storage near homes is commonplace in areas where Zika has sp rapidly, like the cities of Recife and Salvador in northeastern Brazil, and where dengue experienced a surge in 2015, like S漀 Paulo, Brazil’s largest state.在兹卡病毒迅速传播的区域,比如巴西东北部城市累西腓和萨尔瓦多,以及2015年出现登革热病例激增的巴西最大州圣保罗,都有在民宅附近存水的习惯。Altogether, dengue killed at least 839 people in Brazil in 2015, a 40 percent increase from the previous year. Worldwide, dengue is killing more than 20,000 people a year.2015年,巴西共有至少839人死于登革热,比上一年增加40%。而全世界一年有超过2万人死于登革热。 多名专家在访谈中称,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行造成受风险人口增加。他们认为气候变化只是压垮骆驼的最后一根稻草。Several experts said in interviews that a main reason for the disease outbreaks was most likely the expansion of the number of people at risk, through urbanization, population growth and international travel. They see the changing climate as just another stress on top of a situation that was aly rife with peril.多名专家在采访中说,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是随着城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行,面临风险的人群扩大了。他们认为在已经有重重危险的局面中,气候变化只是其中的一重压力。While they do not understand to what degree rising temperatures and other weather shifts may have contributed to the outbreaks, they do understand some of the potential mechanisms.虽然他们并不知道气温升高和其他气候变化因素,对疫情爆发的作用有多大,但是他们明白其中一些潜在的机制。The mosquitoes mostly live on flower nectar, but the female of the species needs a meal of human blood to have enough protein to lay her eggs. If she bites a person infected with dengue, Zika or any of several other diseases, she picks up the virus.蚊子大多以花蜜为生,但是雌性蚊子为了产卵,需要吸人血来提供充足的蛋白质。如果它叮了已感染登革热、兹卡或其他几种病的人,它就携带了该种病毒。The virus has to reproduce in the mosquito for a certain period before it can be transmitted to another person in a subsequent bite. The higher the air temperature, the shorter that incubation period. Moreover, up to a point, higher temperatures cause the mosquitoes to mature faster.病毒需要在蚊子的体内繁殖一段时间,才能在下一次叮咬时传播给他人。温度越高,病毒繁殖所需的时间就越短。而且在某个限度以内,温度越高,蚊子的成熟就越快。With rising temperatures, “You’re actually speeding up the whole reproductive cycle of the mosquitoes,” said Charles B. Beard, who heads a unit in Fort Collins, Colo., studying insect-borne diseases for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. “You get larger populations, with more generations of mosquitoes, in a warmer, wetter climate. You have this kind of amplification of the risk.”温度上升“实际上会加速蚊子的整个繁殖周期,”查尔斯·B·彼尔德(Charles B. Beard)说,“人口增加了,在更潮湿、更炎热的气候里,存活的蚊子世代也增多了,这就放大了风险。”彼尔德领导着一个位于科罗拉多州科林斯堡的团队,为亚特兰大的疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta)进行昆虫传播疾病研究。In principle, the risk from continued global warming applies not just to temperate countries, but to cities at high altitude in tropical countries. Researchers are keeping a close eye on Mexico City, for instance.理论上,全球持续变暖所带来的风险,不仅涉及温带国家,还涉及热带国家的高海拔城市。比如,研究人员正在密切关注墨西哥城。With 21 million people in the city and its suburbs, Mexico City is the largest metropolis of the Western Hemisphere. While the lowlands of Mexico are plagued by yellow fever mosquitoes and the viruses they transmit, the country’s capital sits on a mountain plain that has — up to now — been too cold for the mosquitoes.墨西哥城的城区和郊区一共有2100万人,它是西半球最大的都市。虽然在墨西哥的低地,感染黄热病和其他病毒的蚊子到处肆虐,但是墨西哥的首都位于较寒冷的山顶平原,至少目前蚊子还无法在那里生存。But temperatures are rising, and the mosquitoes have recently been detected in low numbers near Mexico City.但是随着气温的升高,墨西哥城附近最近发现了少量的蚊子。“The mosquito is just down the hill, literally,” Dr. Monaghan said. “I think all the potential is there to have virus transmission if climatic conditions become a bit more suitable.”“蚊子已经来到山脚下了,”莫纳甘士说。“我觉得只要气候条件再合适一点,病毒就有可能开始传播。” /201602/427713广州早孕b超检查 The recent suggestion that breastfeeding should be allowed in the chambers of Parliament has been denounced by MP Simon Burns, who thinks it will open the Commons to ridicule. I wonder what the headmistress who recently enraged the likes of me by asserting that her girls could hope for a serious career or children, but not both, would think of that.近期一个允许国会议庭内母乳喂奶的提议被下院议员Simon Burns谴责,他认为这会使平民百姓耻笑。我很好奇那位女校长会怎样想,她最近因声称女孩只能在正经的工作和孩子之间选择一个而激起众怒。The possibility of combining children with outside work has, of course, always been accepted when it came to menial work – the women down the mines used to complain that the belts hurt them “when they were in the family way” – but not for well-educated middle-class lasses. But even in the days when such women “didn’t work” they actually did a vast amount. For example, as I’ve said before, the young women sent out to marry Englishmen ruling India had to control all the staff and cater for the whole outfit – the kind of stuff which would have counted as a serious job if a man had been doing it.当然了,涉及到粗活累活,大家都能接受将孩子和工作结合起来——矿井下的女性曾抱怨怀的时候传送带勒得他们疼——但对受过高等教育的中产阶级女性却不是这样。但即使是在这些女性“没有工作”的时候,他们也实际上做了大量的工作。比如,像我之前说的,那些嫁给统领印度的英国人的年轻女性要管理全体人员并提供全部装备——这些活如果让男人来做就会被视为正经的工作。My mother had no salaried job, but when my father was a housemaster at a public school she was responsible for the catering and staff, and my father had only become the housemaster because the wife of the one before him had fallen ill, so the man couldn’t continue.我的母亲做着没有工资的工作,但是当我父亲曾任公立学校舍监的时候,她负责饮食和参谋,并且我父亲成为舍监也是因为他之前的那任舍监由于妻子生病而无法继续。There was a time, too, when a doctor’s wife was an essential part of his practice; she’d know a good deal about the patients and maybe how they got their illnesses. It is only now that so many of us get the credit for our work – whether we’ve got children or not.曾经还有一段时间,医生的妻子是他业务中重要的部分,她会了解很多病人的情况,或许知道他们是如何生病的。只有现在我们很多人才能因为自己的工作而且受到奖赏,不论我们有没有孩子。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201512/415067佛山治多囊大概多少钱

天河宫颈息肉的治疗费用China warned residents across a large part of northern China on Friday to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, the worst of which is expected to over capital Beijing, prompting the city to issue its second ever ;red alert;.周五,中国向北方大部分居民发出预警,提醒他们要为应对周末来临的雾霾大潮做好准备。这是北京第二次发布最严重的红色预警信号。The National Meteorological Centre said the smog would stretch from Xian, home to the Terracotta Warriors, across part of central China, through Beijing and up into Shenyang and Harbin in China#39;s frigid northeast.国家气象中心报告,雾霾会从兵马俑之都西安蔓延开来,穿过中部一些地区,到达北京;北至沈阳和东北严寒之地哈尔滨。The air pollution will begin rolling in from about Saturday evening and last until Tuesday, with visibility in the worst affected areas such as Beijing likely to fall to less than one kms (0.6 miles), it said.气象中心表示,空气污染将从周六傍晚持续到下周四;在北京这样的重灾区,能见度会下降至一公里甚至更小。In Beijing and parts of Hebei province, which surrounds the capital, the pollution index will probably exceed 500, it said. At levels higher than 300, residents are encouraged to remain indoors, according to government guidelines.中心还报告,在北京和首都周边的河北地区,污染指数可能会超过500。根据政府的指南,在污染指数超过300的情况下,居民不宜到户外走动。The Beijing city government issued its first ;red alert; last week following criticism that previous bouts of smog had failed to trigger the highest warning level.之前雾霾肆虐,北京市政府未发布最高预警,由此招致诸多批评。上周,北京市政府终于发布了首次红色预警信号。A red alert is triggered when the government believes air quality will surpass a level of 200 on an air quality index that measures various pollutants for at least three days. The U.S. government deems a level of more than 200 ;very unhealthy;.当政府认为空气质量指数会在三日以上都超过200,就会发布红色预警信号。美国政府认为高于200的空气质量指数是“非常不健康”的。In Beijing, a red alert means around half the vehicles are removed from the roads with an odd-even license plate system enforced, schools are recommended to close and outdoor construction banned.在北京,红色预警信号表示政府将执行机动车单双号限行,学校会被建议听课,而户外建筑工地会被禁止作业。 /201512/416817 While debate about the relevance of the secular stagnation idea to current economic conditions continues to rage, there is now almost universal acceptance of a crucial part of the argument. It is agreed that the “neutral” interest rate, which neither boosts nor constrains growth, has declined substantially and is likely to be lower in the future than in the past throughout the industrial world because of a growing relative abundance of savings relative to investment.关于长期停滞观点是否切合当前经济状况,人们还在热议,但这种观点中的一个关键部分已被极为普遍地认可。人们近乎一致地认为,既不会刺激增长、也不会抑制增长的“中性”利率已经大幅下降,而且未来工业国家的中性利率有可能比过去更低,原因是相对于投资来说,储蓄日益充裕。The idea that real interest rates — that is, adjusted for inflation — will be lower than they have been historically is reflected in the pronouncements of policymakers such as Federal Reserve chair Janet Yellen, the medium-term forecasts of official agencies such as the Congressional Budget Office and the International Monetary Fund and the pricing of government bonds whose payments are tied to inflation.实际利率(即经过通胀调整后的利率)将比历史水平更低的观点,可见于美联储(Fed)主席珍妮特耶伦(Janet Yellen)等政策制定者的声明、美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)和国际货币基金组织(IMF)等官方机构的中期预测,以及那些与通胀挂钩的政府债券的定价中。This is important progress and has contributed to more prudent monetary policies than otherwise would have been made and the avoidance of a deflationary psychology taking hold particularly in Europe and Japan. Policymakers, despite having adjusted their views, still overestimate the extent to which neutral real interest rates will rise.这是重要的进步,导致了更为审慎的货币政策,并避免了通缩心理的形成,特别是在欧洲和日本。政策制定者们尽管观点有所转变,但仍然高估了中性实际利率将会上升的幅度。Neutral real interest rates may well rise over the next few years as the American economy creates jobs at a rapid rate and the effects of the financial crisis diminish. This is what many expect, though the fact that an imminent return towards historically normal interest has been widely expected for the past six years should invite scepticism.随着美国经济快速创造就业,以及金融危机的影响消退,中性实际利率很可能在今后几年出现上升。许多人都是这么预期的,然而过去6年里人们也普遍预期利率即将回归历史正常水平,这种情况应该激起人们的怀疑心理。A number of considerations make me doubt the US economy’s capacity to absorb significant increases in real rates over the next few years. First, they were trending down for 20 years before the crisis started and have continued that path since. Second, there is at least a significant risk that as the rest of the world struggles there will be substantial inflows of capital into the US leading to downward pressure on rates and upward pressure on the dollar, which in turn reduces demand for traded goods.出于种种考虑,我怀疑美国经济在今后几年承受实际利率大幅上升的能力。首先,实际利率在危机开始前有20年处于下降通道,而且危机以后又继续下降。其次,至少存在一个巨大风险,即在全球其他地区经济增长乏力的情况下,资本将会大量流入美国,引发利率的下行压力和美元的上行压力,这反过来将减少对贸易商品的需求。Third, the increases in demand achieved through low rates in recent years have come from pulling demand forward, resulting in lower levels of demand for the future. For example, lower rates have accelerated purchases of cars and other consumer durables and created apparent increases in wealth as asset prices inflate. In a sense, monetary easing has a narcotic aspect. To maintain a given level of stimulus requires continuing cuts in rates.第三,最近几年由低利率带来的需求增长实际上是预了需求,将导致未来需求水平下降。例如,利率下降刺激消费者提前购买汽车和其他耐用消费品,而随着资产价格上升,财富也明显增加。从某种意义上来说,货币宽松有着起到麻醉作用的一面。要保持既定水平的刺激,就需要继续削减利率。Fourth, profits are starting to turn down and regulatory pressure is inhibiting lending to small and medium sized businesses. Fifth, inflation mismeasurement may be growing as the share in the economy of items such as heathcare, where quality is hard to adjust for, grows. If so, apparent neutral real interest rates will decline even if there is no change in properly measured rates.第四,利润开始下降,同时监管压力正在抑制对中小企业的放贷。第五,随着医疗保健等务在经济中的比重增长,在衡量通胀时误差会越来越多。若情况果真如此,表面的中性实际利率将会下降,即便正确衡量的利率没有任何改变。All of this leaves me far from confident that there is substantial scope for tightening in the US and there is probably even less scope in other parts of the industrialised world. The fact that central banks in countries, including Europe, Sweden and Israel, where rates were zero found themselves reversing course after raising rates adds to the cause for concern.所有这些都让我很难相信美国有巨大的紧缩空间,其他工业化国家的紧缩空间甚至可能更小。有一种情况让人更有理由担忧:欧洲、瑞典和以色列等地的央行曾经实行零利率,它们在加息之后就又改变了做法。But there is a more profound worry. The experience of the US and others suggests that once a recovery is mature the odds of it ending within two years are about half and of it ending in less than three years over two-thirds. As normal growth is below 2 per cent rather than the historical near 3 per cent, the risk may even be greater. While recession risks may seem remote given rapid growth, no postwar recession has been predicted a year ahead by the Fed, the administration or the consensus forecast.但还有一种更深层次的担忧。美国和其他国家的经历表明,一旦复苏进入成熟阶段,它在两年内结束的几率大约为一半,在不到三年内结束的几率超过三分之二。由于正常增长低于2%而不是历史上的近3%,风险可能更大。尽管鉴于增长迅速,衰退风险似乎很遥远,但二战后的任何一次衰退,不论美联储、政府还是共识预测,都不曾提前一年预测到。History suggests that when recession comes it is necessary to cut rates more than 300 basis points. I agree with the market that the odds are the Fed will not be able to raise rates 100 basis points a year without threatening to undermine recovery. Even if this were possible, the chances are very high that recession will come before there is room to cut rates enough to offset it. The knowledge that this is the case must surely reduce confidence and inhibit demand.历史表明,当衰退来临时,就有必要降息逾300个基点。我赞同市场的这种观点,即美联储大概无法一年加息100个基点还能不破坏经济复苏。即便有此可能,在美联储能够及时大幅降息以阻止经济衰退之前,极有可能衰退已经降临。对于这种情景的认知必定会打击信心并抑制需求。Central bankers bravely assert that they can always use unconventional tools. But there may be less in the cupboard than they suppose. The efficacy of further quantitative easing in an environment of well-functioning markets and aly very low medium-term rates is highly questionable. There are severe limits on how negative rates can become. A central bank forced back to the zero lower bound is not likely to have great credibility if it engages in forward guidance.央行官员们大胆宣称,他们总是可以使用非传统工具。但可动用的工具可能比他们预料的要少。在市场运转良好、中期利率已非常低的环境里,进一步量化宽松的效力非常令人怀疑。利率能够达到的负值有很大限制。被迫退回到零利率下限的央行公信力不会太好,如果它发布前瞻性指引的话。The Fed will in all likelihood raise rates this month. Markets will focus on the pace of its tightening. I hope their response will involve no great turbulence. But the unresolved question that will hang over the economy is how policy can delay and ultimately contain the next recession. It demands urgent attention from fiscal as well as monetary policymakers.美联储很可能在本月提高利率。市场将关注其紧缩步伐。我希望市场做出的回应不会造成巨大的震荡。但一个困扰美国经济的问题没有得到解决,那就是如何利用政策延迟、并最终遏制下一场衰退。这需要财政及货币政策制定者立即重视起来。 /201512/415152广州天河妇幼医院怎么去广州番禺妇科体检价格

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