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宜兴/治疗便秘多少钱养心优惠无锡/第二人民医院肛肠科

来源:安心新闻    发布时间:2017年12月16日 07:38:21    编辑:admin         

Maybe when people get older, sense of a humor is the first thing to go.也许,人年纪越大,越是幽默感至上。Actually, research suggests that old folks, if theyre healthy, canstill appreciate humor as much as a younger person can.事实上,研究 表明,和年轻人一样,健康的老人们仍然欣赏幽默。They still smile and laugh when they get the joke.有人开玩笑依旧会面带微笑或大笑。However, there isevidence to suggest that with age we may lose our ability to comprehend more complex forms of humor.但是,研究也实随着年龄的增长,我们无法理解比较复杂形势的幽默。Scientists believe that the tools we need to get a complex joke are primarily located in the brains frontal lobes.科学家相信,理解复杂玩笑主要靠的是脑前叶的功能。People with damage to their right frontal lobe experience difficulty getting punchlines and prefer slapstick humor instead.脑前叶右部受损会造成笑话中妙语的困扰,而这类人也更倾向于浅显幽默。Theres also evidence that the functions located in the brains frontal lobes may be the first to diminish with aging.有明显示,脑前叶功能会随着年老而最先退化。This may explain why in a recent experiment older folks performed significantly worse than younger folks in comprehending more complex forms of humor.这也解释了最近的实验中,年长者们在理解更复杂幽默上明显不如年轻人。Of course, its also important to take into account such factors as social differences in the kind of humor people prefer, social setting, and health.当然,综合考虑其他因素也很重要:比如社会差异影响个体的幽默倾向、社会背景、健康状况。Maybe an elderly person would laugh at a joke if she were socializing with a group of her friends,也许,和朋友相处的一个老人会因为玩笑而大笑;but not laugh with her neighbor whom she doesnt know well or finds annoying.但是,和不熟悉或恼人的邻里就不会大笑。 201406/305809。

Clinical trials临床实验Testing, testing测试,测试The nation is losing its grip on a valuable industry我国正失去一项重要行业的优势。THE British have long been experimenting on each other: in 1747 a Scottish doctor first fed oranges to a group of scurvy-ridden sailors. But clinical trials have been moving overseas for years. The number of trials approved in Britain dropped by 14% between 2005 and 2013; at the same time, the countrys share of the global market fell. This is a big problem—but one with a solution.不列颠人对自己人进行实验由来已久:1747年,一名苏格兰医生首次让一群饱受坏血病折磨的水手进食橘子。不过临床试验搬移海外已有数年之久。在2005年至2013年间,在不列颠进行的实验数量已经下降14%;与此同时,我国医药领域在全球市场的份额下降。这是个大问题——好在还有挽救的余地。The process of testing new treatments is unusually slow in Britain. It is held up at every stage—from getting formal approval to finding the right hospital. But the biggest challenge is the time it takes to round up subjects. At present trial designers often recruit by phoning doctors they know, who will try and remember to mention the trial to their patients. It is “all quite ad hoc,” says Shaun Treweek, a researcher at Dundee University. Indeed, recruitment has not moved on much since the tuberculosis trials of the 1940s, where ten to 20 subjects were thought sufficient, and could be gathered locally and at random.在不列颠推进新治疗方案的过程异常缓慢。在所有阶段都会有阻碍—从获得正式许可到找到合适的医院。不过最大的问题在于招募被试时费时过长。目前实验设计者常通过打电话给他们熟知的医生进行招募。这些医生会试着在记起来的情况下向他们的病人提及此事。此乃“便宜之举,”Dundee大学的研究员Shaun Treweek道。实际上,招募自从上世纪40年代的肺结核实验之后便无改观。彼时认为10至20名被试足矣,而且可以在当地就近随机选取。For drugs companies the delays that result are costly. The life of a patent starts as soon as a drug is discovered, and a single days delay getting it to market costs up to m. Trials have been moving to eastern Europe and China, where hurdles are fewer. Britain is thus losing its grasp on a valuable industry: the global clinical trials industry is worth £30 billion ( billion) a year. It is also in danger of losing research and development investment. Trials are the habitat of Ramp;Ds most valuable workers: skilled researchers and clinicians.对医药公司而言,结果的耽搁意味着代价高昂。药物专利的时限在发现之日起就开始计算,而每多一日的延迟将使药物投放市场的成本上升1000万美元。目前实验已经迁至东欧和中国,那些地区阻碍较少。自此不列颠正对这一有价值产业的影响正在下降:每年全世界临床实验产业价值300亿英镑。在研发领域的投资也存在上述危险。实验是研发产业最有价值职工—熟练研究者和临床医生的聚集地。And as trials move away from Britain, more subtle damage is being done. Martin Landray, a researcher at Oxford University, points out that clinical standards go up when doctors are involved in research, as their hospital keeps pace with evolving knowledge. And, as in many other industries, innovation happens in clusters.而且,随着实验从不列颠迁走,小损失产生不断。牛津大学的研究员Martin Landray指出,临床标准会随着医生研究的进行而提高,同时他们所在的医院也会随着知识的演进紧随步伐。而这如同许多其他产业一样,在聚集中产生创新。Yet in recent years some of the biggest and most smoothly-conducted trials have taken place in Britain. One is UK Biobank, which, with half a million subjects, has become one of the largest ever studies into the importance of nature versus nurture. Then there is the vast REVEAL heart disease trial, which recruited 19,000 Britons in record time.当然最近这些年,一些大型和进展顺利的实验还是在不列颠进行了,其中一个是联合王国生物计划,大约有50万被试参与其中。这项计划已经成为天性与教养孰轻孰重的研究中规模最大的一个。然后还有规模庞大的“揭示”心脏病发病机制的实验,这项计划创纪录地招募了19000名不列颠人。These studies have something in common: researchers were able to trawl NHS data to find appropriate subjects and contact them directly. Data-protection laws usually make this tricky, but they were granted an exemption by the confidentiality advisory group. Unfortunately, such exemptions are rare, and are now under threat from a proposed EU directive. Mr Landray, who helped arrange the REVEAL study, reckons the bar is set too high. “We wrote to a third of a million people. 19,000 took part; 30 complained,” he says.这些研究具有一些共性:研究者得以查阅英伦国民健康档案,并依此寻找合适的被试,直接与之联系。信息保护法经常让事情变得棘手,不过这些研究者获得保密咨询小组的保得以豁免。不幸的是,这种豁免少之又少,而现在又面临一项欧盟指令的威胁。Landray,曾帮助筹备安排“揭示”计划。他认为门槛设得太高了。“我们曾写给30万人请求加入计划。19000人加入;30人投诉。”他说。Allowing more studies to recruit patients in this way would give Britain a unique advantage. After all, it is the only country with a centralised patient data system. And there are ways to protect patients from abuses—Ben Goldacre, a doctor and science writer, has suggested making the penalties for breaching medical privacy stiffer. Minimise the risks, and Britain could lead the world in clinical testing. Politicians panicked when it looked as though Pfizer, an American drugs company, might end up buying AstraZeneca, a British one, and shred the countrys research base. They should consider Britains hidden strengths.允诺更多实验以此途径招募被试将给不列颠带来独特优势。不管怎么说,我国是世界上仅有的具有一个集中病例系统的国家。并且,避免病人受到虐待也方法颇多—医生与科学作家Ben Goldacre已经建议立法者对违反医疗隐私法例的人处以更严厉的惩罚。以最大的努力降低这些风险,不列颠可以引领世界临床测试。政客们面对辉瑞公司时惊慌失措。这个美国公司最终将购买不列颠的AstraZeneca公司。他们认为这将毁掉我国的研究根基。政客们应该注意到不列颠隐藏的能量。 /201408/317651。

French political fiction法国政治小说What if it were true?如有雷同,纯属巧合?When truth really is stranger than fiction事实远比小说离奇ONE pleasure of the French summer is the publication of political fiction in media usually busy with the soap opera of real political life. During the holidays, reporters let their imaginations run wild. Improbable alliances, liaisons and betrayals are invented. Le Figaro, a conservative newspaper, ran a 17-part fictional series in August entitled “Hollande departs”.LOpinion, another daily, ran a 14-part series originally called “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”.法国夏日的乐趣之一---媒体相传的政治小说通常都是取自于真正政治闹剧或政界风云。在假日里,记者们让自己自由驰骋在想象的大草原上。他们构造出不可能的联盟、伙伴和对手。保守派报刊费加罗报在8月连载了一部17期的系列小说《奥德朗的离开》。另一份观点日报则连载了一部14期的原创小说《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》。Other countries turn out political drama, from Americas “House of Cards” to Denmarks “Borgen”. But the French seem keen on fiction based on real characters. In recent years directors have made films about serving, or recently active, politicians, including “La conquete”, a fictional portrayal of the rise to power of Nicolas Sarkozy, the former president. “Quai dOrsay” was an entertaining glimpse into theatrics at the foreign office under a fictitious Dominique de Villepin, a former foreign minister.从美国的《纸牌屋》到丹麦的《根》,其他国家也有政治题材的电视剧。但是似乎只有法国尤其喜欢基于真实人物的作品。近些年导演们只做了一些关于役、近期政治动作或政客的电影,包括《征》。这部电影虚构的描述了前总统尼古拉斯·萨尔科齐的崛起。《奥尔赛码头》则是对虚构的前外交部长多米尼克·德维尔潘手下的外交部做了一个有趣的窥探。Television does it too. A French series, “LEcole du Pouvoir”, followed five characters who met at the elite Ecole Nationale dAdministration in the late 1970s, ahead of the election of a Socialist president, Fran?ois Mitterrand, in 1981. One seemed rather like Fran?ois Hollande, the incumbent; another resembled Ségolène Royal, his classmate, former partner and defeated 2007 presidential candidate.电视媒体也很热衷政治剧。一部名为《学院权利》的电视剧讲述了19世纪70年代末在精英学校国家行政学院相遇的5名主角的故事。剧中背景为1981年,正值社会主义总统弗朗索瓦·密特朗当选前。其中一名主角就像现总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德,另一个就像他的同学塞格琳·罗雅尔。罗亚尔也是奥朗德的前女友,但她在2007年总统候选人选举中落选。French publishers also like the stuff, although more often as apocalyptic futurism. Recent titles include “La nuit de la faillite”, a racy thriller by Gaspard Koenig, a former speechwriter for Christine Lagarde when she was finance minister, in which he imagines a New York trader provoking a default on French sovereign debt. Nicolas Baverez, a lawyer and writer, recently published “Lettres béninoises”, a novel set in a dystopian 2040 France.法国出版商也很喜欢这种题材,尽管这类作品经常被当做世界末日的预警。最近一些作品名,例如加斯帕德·科尼戈的生动惊悚片《夜间破产》。他是克里斯蒂娜·拉加德就任财政部长期间的前演讲稿攥稿人。在影片中他想象纽约以拖欠国债来挑衅法国。律师兼作家尼古拉斯·巴维莱兹最近出版了一部小说《贝宁的文学》,其背景设定在2040反乌托邦的法国。Why the passion for political fiction? The truth in French politics is often as strange as, or stranger than, such musings. A summer 2013 series in Le Figaro imagined Mr Valls as prime minister; in 2014 it happened. And in “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”, also penned by Mr Koenig, a group of libertarians snatch the former minister to stop him damaging France. The series was still running when Mr Montebourg was evicted from the government for criticising its economic policy为何媒体如此热衷于政治小说呢?事实上,法国政治经常与这种小说思路一样奇特,有时甚至更甚。2013年夏天《奥朗德的离开》中虚构瓦尔斯担任总理,结果2014年这变为现实。在科尼戈所著的《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》中,一群自由主义者抓了前任部长以阻止他继续破坏法国。这部剧集在蒙特伯格因批评政府的经济政策而被逐出政府时仍在播映。 /201409/325603。

Business商业报道Facebook and the under-13s脸谱和那些13岁以下的孩子们Kid gloves小心孩子Small children are a big headache for the social network小孩子们现在是社交网络的一个头疼问题ONE American in three aged 65 or older uses social networks, says a new report by the Pew Research Centre, a think-tank.美国智库皮尤研讨中央的一份新报告显示,65岁或是65岁以上的人中,有三分之一的人在使用社交网络。But it is the small surfers, not the silver ones, who are currently making waves.但是在社交网络,如今兴得起风做得了浪的还是年轻的一代,在这里,年龄不是什么优势。Facebook is examining ways to allow children under the age of 13 to use its service, with some form of parental supervision.脸谱现在正在研究一些方法,好让年龄在13岁以下的孩子们享受脸谱的务,当然了,这要在家长的监督之下进行。If this happens—and Facebook stresses that it has not yet decided whether to go ahead—it would be a venture into uncharted territory.如果这种情况发生—脸谱强调,他们现在还没有决定要不要这么做—向这片未知领域进军,那将是一种冒险。Critics howl that young children lack the maturity to cope with social networks.家们怒嚎,小孩子们太嫩,对付不了社交网络。They also worry that Facebook will find devious ways to make money from naive children or, more likely, their parents.他们还担心,社交网络会不会采取一些见不得光的手段,从天真的孩童身上捞钱,或者,更准确点讲,是从孩子们的父母身上捞钱。We would be giving the keys to the chicken coop to the fox, says Doug Fodeman of ChildrenOnline.org, a pressure group.为了防止狡猾的狐狸,我们要给鸡舍上锁,道格?佛德曼说。道格?佛德曼是儿童在线集团的人,儿童在线集团是一个关于儿童压力的组织。There is also the thorny question of how Facebook could comply with the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act in America,还有一个棘手的问题,脸谱要怎么做,才能让其行为符合美国保护儿童在线隐私法。which was designed to protect children under 13 as they use the internet.保护儿童在线隐私法,是为了让13岁以下的孩子,在上网的时候得到保护。The law stipulates that online services with youngsters among their customers must obtain the consent of the childrens parents before collecting data from them.它规定,如果网络务的对象时13岁以下的孩子,那么在向孩子们收集资料的时候,必须得到孩子父母的同意Parents also need to be able to review their childrens data and have these deleted if they so wish.。父母也需要检查孩子的资料,如果父母觉得这些资料应该予以删除,那么父母就有权删除这些资料。The onerous nature of these and other COPPA provisions explains why social networks have tended to shun the young.些规定,还有COPPA的规定,真的是好烦的,这也是为什么社交网络都避开孩子的原因。Facebook insists that you have to be 13 to use its service.脸谱强调,想要享受脸谱的务,那么等你长到13岁吧。The snag is that children fib about their age.难的是孩子们对自己的年龄撒谎。A study by Consumer Reports found that 5.6m children under 13 were using Facebook in America alone.消费者报告的一份研究显示,单单只是美国,就有560万13岁以下的孩子在使用脸谱。Another survey of American parents found that adults often knew that their children were less than 13 when they joined Facebook.另一份关于美国父母的调查发现,孩子们在小于13岁的时候,就已经加入脸谱了,而对这件事,大人们通常都知道。In many cases, the parents helped them to set up their accounts.甚至在很多情况下,父母帮着孩子建立账号。Regulators have noticed.管理者们已经注意到这一点了。Facebooks current musings may reflect the fear that the firm will run into trouble if it does nothing.目前脸谱正在深思这一问题,如果公司跟没事人似的,问题肯定会有的,早晚的事。It aly has slightly more robust privacy settings for children between the ages of 13 and 17.现在针对13岁到17岁之间的孩子,在隐私设置这一块,他们已经稍微做了些还算可靠的举措。But it would need a far tighter regime for younger children, says Sarah Downey of Abine, an online consumer-privacy company.在线隐私公司的负责人萨拉·唐尼说,对于年轻的小辈们,措施还需更为严厉些。In spite of its plummeting share price, Facebook has oodles of cash from its recent stockmarket flotation.虽然股份持续下降,脸谱还是从最近的股票上市中捞了一大笔钱。So it could easily hire the extra staff needed to support parents and their youngsters, as well as to ensure compliance with COPPA.所以雇佣更多的人员来应对父母,孩子,并且还要保符合儿童在线隐私保护法案,这对脸谱来说,倒不是件难事。Mark Zuckerberg, the social networks boss, has said he believes childrens education should start early.马克·扎克伯格,社交网络的老大,曾今说过,他相信教育要从娃娃抓起这件事。Now he has a chance to prove that he means it.现在历史给他一个机会,明自己的时刻到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246416。

Yaeuml;l: [OVER THE DRUMS] Don! Hey, Don! Hey!咚!嘿!咚!嘿!D: Did somebody say something? 有人在说话吗?Y: Yes, over here, hello!?! 是的,在这里。你好?D: Oh, hi Yaeuml;l. What a sec, let my take my earplugs out. Man, drums are loud. 哦,嗨Yaeuml;l. 等我一下,我把耳塞拿出来。鼓声实在是太大了。Y: Tell me about it! What are you doing? Starting a rock band? 告诉我,你敲鼓干什么?开摇滚乐队吗?D: Nope. Im working out. 没,我在锻炼身体。Y: Uh, OK. It looked to me like you were nurturing your inner John Bonham. 呃,好吧。据我看,你就是在模仿John Bonham.D: Well, maybe I was living out my rock star fantasies, but Im also working up a sweat. 嗯,也许我是要活出我的摇滚明星梦,但我也出了一身的汗。Did you know that during a rock show the drummers heart rate can get as high as 179 beats per minute? 你知道吗?摇滚演出的时候鼓手的心率能达到每分钟179下。Y: Wow! Thats like professional athlete range. 哇!那就好比职业运动员的心率范围。D: Yep. Rock drummers burn something like six-hundred calories per hour. 是的。摇滚鼓手每小时要燃烧六百卡路里。Y: How do you know all this? 你是怎么知道这些的?D: Im a big fan of the rock group Blondie. Remember them from the 1970s and early 80s? 我是摇滚乐队Blondie的忠实粉丝。70年代末80年代初就知道他们了。Anyhow, the groups drummer, Clem Burke, has been working with scientists to study what drumming does for the body. Turns out it could be a great form of exercise. 总之,他们的鼓手,Clem Burke,一直在与科学家研究打鼓对身体的好处。事实明这可能会是一种很棒的健身形式。Y: I can see that. Youre using both arms and legs at the same time, and if youre playing a fast song, that really takes a lot of energy. 我知道。你要同时动用双臂和双腿,而且如果你在演奏快歌,那确实是要耗很大能量的。D: Exactly. And its more fun than running on a tmill like a hamster on a wheel. 的确。但那会比在跑步机上跑步有意思,后者就像是绕着转轮跑的仓鼠。Y: So are we going to see drumming fitness centers in the near future? 所以在不久的将来我们会看到击鼓健身俱乐部吗?D: Maybe. Theres still more research to be done on drumming as exercise. But drumming could very well emerge as a new fitness trend. 也许吧。但还需要做些深入研究。但是打鼓很可能成为一个新的健身趋势。201308/251325。