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2019年12月10日 06:21:02    日报  参与评论()人

青岛做狐臭手术多少钱青岛诺德电话多少But by then, the idyllic image of an easygoing, romantic Brazil had been shuttered by a military coup.但是到那时,田园诗般景象温和,浪漫的巴西被一场军事政变所污染。The soldiers would remain in power for the next 21 years.士兵们在接下来的21年中一直掌权。And in a country where music had come to represent the national identity, samba and bossa would be transformed and a new generation of musicians would fight against the harassment and censorship that was to come.而在这个音乐来代表国际身份的国家,桑巴和巴萨诺瓦将会交由新一代的音乐家们手中为即将到来的烦乱和审查机构斗争而进行改变。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/221304威海福神整形医院治疗腋臭 Science and Technolgy科技Science in Argentina阿根廷的科研Cristina the alchemist炼金术士克里斯蒂娜Argentina is trying to build a scientific establishment阿根廷努力打造一个科研机构SOUTH AFRICA is not the only middle-income country which aspires to join the worlds scientific powers (see article).和南非一样, 阿根廷不仅是一个中等收入国家同时也寻求在世界科学研究领域的地垃。Argentina would like to as well. The place is proud of its three Nobel science prizes-the largest haul of any Latin American nation-even if the most recent was awarded in 1984.这里的人们都以曾获3次诺贝尔奖为殊荣- 这是拉美国家里所获该奖最多的- 即便最近的1次是在1984年。But many researchers fled in the 1990s, when budgets were slashed.可是在90年代,因为预算削减,很多科研人员都流失了。Now the government is trying to attract them back, and to encourage younger talent to consider a scientific career.现在阿根廷政府正试图吸引人才回归,同时鼓励那些有天赋的年轻人投入科研生涯。When Néstor Kirchner, the predecessor and late husband of the current president, Cristina Fernández,克里斯蒂娜.费尔南德兹是现任总统; 她的亡夫同时也是前任总统内斯托?基什内尔,took office in 2003, Argentina was spending just 0.41% of its GDP on research and development (Ramp;D). Now, that figure is 0.64%. (Brazil, by comparison, spent 0.95% in 2003 and 1.18% in .)在2003年就任的时候,阿根廷的科研费用只占了总GDP的0.41%, 而现在则是0.64%.(以巴西为比照,2003年是0.95%,而年是1.18%)Kirchner raised researchers salaries, launched a scheme to repatriate departed scientists and gave tax breaks to software companies.基什内尔提高了科研人员的工资,还启动了一个旅外科学家回归计划,同时减免了软件公司税收。Ms Fernández followed suit by creating a science ministry and putting a biologist, Lino Bara?ao, in charge of it.费尔南德斯夫人延续了该政策并建立了科技部还委任了一位生物学家利诺?巴拉尼奥为部长。She also increased grants to firms that try to develop new products.同时对于研发新产品的公司,她还增加了相应的政府补贴。Many of the Kirchners critics were sceptical, seeing the ministry either as a political marketing ploy or as a soft touch for lobbyists seeking unjustified subsidies.许多基什内尔的政治家对此政策持怀疑态度,认为这个部门不是个政治秀就是政客们捞取黑钱的把戏。But the strategy seems to be working.但是实际上这个策略似乎行之有效。With help from the Inter-American Development Bank the government has, since 2004, lured back 854 expatriate scientists.It has done so by providing new laboratories and equipment for them, moving their families, and forking out extra money for their salaries. 自2004年开始,在泛美的帮助下,通过提供新实验室和设备,帮助家庭落户,付额外的工资补贴等方式,吸引了854名旅外科学家回国。As a consequence, according to Dr Bara?ao, Argentine researchers have published 179 articles in leading journals in the past decade, compared with just 30 in the 1990s.据巴拉尼奥士称,在去年10年中,阿根廷科研人员在学术期刊上发布的论文达到了179篇, 而在90年代仅有30篇。Most of the returners are academics. But commercial science has benefited, too.虽然大多数回归的都是理论研究学者,但是应用科学也同样受益。Indear, a joint public-private biotechnology-research centre based in Santa Fe, recently worked out how to transfer a gene for drought resistance from sunflowers to crops such as maize, soyabeans and wheat. That can increase yields in droughts by up to 40%.一所位于圣达菲的公私合营的生物科技研究所Indear,最近提出了通过转基因技术把向日葵的抗旱性移稙到玉米,大豆和小麦上,这样在旱季可以增产40%。And the government has also doled out m in grants for the development of products that include coagulant factors to treat haemophilia, transgenic cattle which secrete valuable hormones in their milk, and better ways of probing for oil deposits.同时政府已投入5.4亿美元在诸多产品研发领域,包括治疗血友病的凝血剂,产奶里富含荷尔蒙的转基因牛,还有油床勘探技术等。Help for high-tech innovation comes in other forms, too.对于科技创新,科技部给予多种多样的扶持形式。The state offers, for example, to pay the cost of patenting inventions in foreign jurisdictions and of hiring lawyers to defend those patents.比如,对于在国外的专利发明的成本费用以及雇佣律师保护专利的费用,都予以国家补助。It also acts as a headhunter for information-technology firms seeking employees with PhDs, and will pay part of the salaries of such recruits.科技部也扮演猎头角色并为那些信息科技公司寻找拥有士头衔的雇员,同时为这些雇员付部分薪水。None of these programmes has faced allegations of corruption.目前在这些项目里还没发现有贪污现象。Whether all this activity will have the effect of stimulating high-tech industry, as Ms Fernández hopes, remains to be seen.这些措施能否如费尔南德兹夫人所期望那样促进高科技行业的发展,还有待观察。Argentine scientists are happy to take taxpayers money but according to Luis Dambra, a professor at the IAE business school in Buenos Aires, they look down their noses at the idea of actually getting their hands dirty by going into industry.但据一位来自布宜诺斯艾利斯商业管理学院的教授刘易斯.邓波拉称,阿根廷的科研人员都心安理德地拿纳税人的钱,却又自命清高不愿意真正进入产业领域。Mr Dambra, though, says industry is equally to blame.然而邓波拉也声称产业界同样也担负责任。In (the latest year for which data are available), only 21% of Argentine Ramp;D was paid for by the private sector, compared with 44% of Brazils. Firms that might recruit academic scientists often do not see the point. Even those that do may struggle to accommodate people with a non-commercial background into the business world.在年(最新可用数据)阿根廷的研发出只有21%是来自于私人资本,而巴西则是44%. 但那些可能雇佣理论科研人员的企业总是忽略这些,即使那些想把非商业背景人才引入商业领域的企业也为此犹豫不决。Attitudes can change, of course.当然,态度总是可以改变的。In the 1980s many British academics were as snobbish about commerce as Argentinas are now.在90世纪80年代许多英国研究学者和现在的阿根廷一样都自命不凡。These days, Britains top universities are gung-ho for spin-outs and the revenue they can provide.而现在,英国的顶尖学府都热衷于分拆和赚钱。But it takes time and consistent policy to make such changes and Argentina is notorious for sudden alterations in the political weather.但这些改变都是需要时间和政策的持续性,而阿根廷最让人诟病的就是政策的摇摆不定。That makes the country a perilous place to invest, whatever the current climate.无论现在的情况是怎样,这些因素将恶化阿根廷的投资环境. /201210/205410Going back, say, ten years ago, would you ever imagine that you would have been able to tell what colour any dinosaurs would have been?回首过去,比如十年前,想象一下,你还能辨别出每一种恐龙可能是什么颜色吗?No, I mean I think at that time I would have said that its one of the things we will never know. And so we just focus up and see what weve got here.不能。我想那时候我会说这件事我们永远不会知道。所以我们只是专注起来,看看我们在这里留下的。Using a scanning electron microscope, Mike can find clues about the pigmentation of these ancient fossil feathers. 在电子扫描显微镜的帮助下,迈克可以找到有关这些古老化石特征的线索。And if we just have a look at this, the required time amount of locations, thats 9,000 times.如果我们只是看这个,需要放大倍数为9000倍。All these sausage shapes then are melanosomes, and then a living feather.所有这些香肠形状都是黑素体,然后是逼真的羽毛。They would be full of the chemical melanin, which would in fact give the colour.他们会充满化学黑色素,这些才是真正有颜色的原因。And these sausage-shaped ones are a sure indicator of a particular kind of melanin, which is the one that gives a black or dark brown colour.这些香肠形状的东西是一个特殊黑色素的标志,也是羽毛显现出黑色或者棕色的原因。So in some cases like this, the field of views is completely packed with the sausage-shaped ones.所以在某些情况下,能看见这一块地方充满了香肠形状的物质。So we know this must have been intensely black. If they were more loosely spaced, we would know it was a paler colour, maybe dark brown or even gray.所以我们知道这里一定是密集的黑色。如果他们是比较松散的排列的,它就会呈暗淡的颜色,也许是深棕色或者是灰色。So is it just really the presence or absence of the black pigments that you are able to ascertain?那么你能够确定它是真的存在或缺少黑色的色素吗?Well, the wonderful thing is there is another form of melanin that gives a ginger colour.嗯,奇妙的是,还有一种形式的能够呈现出姜色的黑色素。And so, and it is packaged in a different shape of melanosome, not this kind of cigar-shaped or sausage-shaped one, but a spherical one, a little ball. Close it up. We get the vacuum going.所以,它存在于一个不同形状的黑色体中,不是这种雪茄型或者香肠型的,而是球形的,一个小球。这块地方还有很大的空间。A sample taken from a different fossil shows what the structures that carried this ginger pigment look like.从另一个化石中取得的样品看起来像姜的形状。Thats entirely different. This surface looks as if theyve taken a melon baller and scooped up lots of little spherical hollows.这是完全不同的。表面上看起来好像是他们搓球机在球的表面制作了很多凹槽。So what colour would these melanosomes have made?所以这些黑色素造成了什么颜色?This is definitely ginger. And if you look at this ginger hair from a man of our human being, thats what you see ourselves.很明显是姜黄色。如果你看到一个人的头发是姜黄色的,那么你看到的就是你自己。So is it relatively easy to compare your dinosaur feathers with whats aly known about, the feathers of a living bird, to get that comparison to know what colours you were looking at here?因此通过已知的存活的鸟类的羽毛去比较恐龙的羽毛相对容易些,这样你就可以知道你在这里看到的是什么?We can put the specimens in one after the other. There is the modern one. There is the fossil. Spot the difference.我们可以将标本一个接一个的摆放。有现代的,也有化石。观察它们的区别。No difference at all. And who on earth would have thought a dinosaur was close to a bird?一点差别都没有。到底谁会觉得恐龙会和鸟有相似之处呢?But here we are, you know, its kind of proved in the skeletons. And now if you like, proved in the melatonin of the feathers.但是我们会,你知道,在骨骼上这已经得到实。现在如果你还想了解,可以实在羽毛的褪黑激素里。201302/225772山东省青岛济宁治疗青春痘的医院

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