时间:2018年03月21日 14:50:47

Yu is the hero of controlling flood.禹是治水安民的历史英雄人物。It is said that in the reign of Yao and Shun, the overrunning flood was mischievous, so Yao assigned Gun to regulate it.尧、舜时期,洪水泛滥为害。尧命夏族首领鲧治洪水。Gun failed with embankment and was killed by Shun.鲧用筑堤防的方法治水无功,为舜杀死。Then, Shun recruited Yu,Gun,s son,to continue the work. Spending a backbreaking thirteen years and bypassing his house three times but never going in, Yu dredged new river channels as outlets, guiding water to river and river to sea.舜又命鲧之子禹治水,禹“居外十三年,过家门不敢人”,用疏导法治水,导小水入于川,导川水致于海。This not only eliminated the flood, but contributed to the development of agriculture.不仅消除了洪水,还为农业生产发展创造了良好条件。Yu was revered as Yu the Great for his achievement and selected to succeed to the throne by Shun.禹因有大功于人民,被尊称为“大禹”,并因此被舜选为接班人。 /201510/407407

Everyone has their own favorite foods to choose from, but how many of our beloved foods do we know the history of? Who has sat down with their burger at a fast food chain and asked themselves #39;Where did the idea of burgers come from?#39; Probably nobody, as their mouth would be full of burger before the thought would even occur to them. Some of the foods we eat day-in, day-out, however, can have surprisingly long histories behind them. In this list, we#39;ll be exploring the origin stories behind ten commonplace foods from around the world. Try not to get too hungry.每个人都有自己喜爱的食物,但我们对它的历史了解多少呢?谁会在快餐店里拿着汉堡坐下,然后问自己:;汉堡的主意来自哪里呢?;可能不会有人这么做,因为在他们这么想之前,嘴巴就已经被汉堡塞满了。然而,我们每天所吃的食物背后可能存在着令人吃惊的悠久历史。在这篇文章里,我们将了解全球常见的10种食物背后的故事。可不要太饿哦。10.Burgers10.汉堡包A lot of people reckon that the burger was an American invention, but they were by no means the first country to think it up. The humble burger, like many other foods, actually has quite a long history attached to it. Perhaps it did not have cheese, onions, and buns to go with it, but it was definitely there.很多人认为汉堡包是美国人的发明,但他们绝不是第一个想出这个点子的国家。像其他很多食物一样,平凡的汉堡包实际上有着非常悠久的历史。或许那时它还没有加奶酪、洋葱和小圆面包,但它确实已经出现在那里。The full name, #39;hamburger#39;, originates from 1880, when German immigrants created the meal within Hamburg, Germany. In order to make a beef steak, they would grind up the meat and create a steak from what remained, calling it a #39;Hamburg steak#39;. This steak would eventually have its name shortened to #39;hamburger#39;. What must be noted, however, was that this was the origin of the steak itself – nobody quite knows where the idea of sticking a hamburger between two buns came from. As for the steak itself, we have our German friends to thank for that. Big Macs would not be the same without you. There is a little bit of history that states that the Romans created the #39;Isicia Omentata#39;, regarded as the first burger. However, this appears to be a recipe for a sausage, rather than an actual burger. More on sausages later.它的全名是;汉堡包;,起源于1880年,当时德国移民在汉堡发明了这种食物。为了做牛排,他们将肉磨碎,用它制成肉饼,叫做;汉堡牛排;。这种牛肉饼的名字最后缩短成了;汉堡包;。但必须说明的是,这是牛排自身的起源——没人知道把一个煎牛肉饼贴在两个圆面包之间的主意从哪儿来。至于牛排,我们要感谢德国朋友。要是没有你们,现在的巨无霸也会不一样。有一些历史表明罗马人发明了;Isicia Omentata;,这被认为是第一款汉堡包。但是,它的制作食谱看起来像是一个香肠的食谱,而非真正的汉堡。后面会介绍更多关于香肠的内容。9.French Fries9.炸薯条Of all the foods to have an origin story, this one seems to be the most clear cut as to where it came from. Unfortunately, there#39;s an ongoing dispute between France and Belgium as to who really made it.在所有具有历史起源的食物中,这一款食物的源起最清楚不过。不幸地是,法国与比利时一直在争论到底是谁真正发明了这种食物。The Belgian side of the story is that the 17th Century residents of the Meuse Valley in Belgium were not shy of frying things. They had a tendency to fry any fish that they caught, which made up the majority of what they ate. When winter came and the rivers froze over, the Belgians turned to the ever-reliable spud, preparing them in battered slices, the same way they prepared fish. The French side states that, in the late 17th Century, potatoes were regarded unfit for human consumption, and only for pigs to eat. When a famine struck in 1785, this mind-set changed, and the French gave the potato another chance. It caught on so well, by 1795 they were grown everywhere, with even some royal gardens being converted to help grow the friendly spud. During this boom, someone had the smart idea of frying the slices and selling them as #39;frites#39;. Thus, the French fry was born. Whichever side you take, just remember that asking for #39;Belgian fries#39; at a drive-thru will get you funny looks.比利时的版本是:17世纪比利时默兹河流域的居民喜欢吃油炸食品。他们习惯把捕来的所有鱼都进行油炸,这在他们的饮食中占据了绝大部分。当冬天来临,河流冰冻,比利时人就求助于他们一直以来所依赖的马铃薯,把它们切成薄片预备着,他们对鱼也采取同样的处理方式。法国的版本是:在17世纪后期,人们认为土豆并不适合食用,只能用来喂猪。到1785年爆发了饥荒,这种想法才得以改变,法国人发现了土豆的另一个用途。它变得相当流行,到1795年已经在各个地方都有种植,甚至一些皇家公园都被改造以有利于这些友好的马铃薯生长。在这个土豆繁荣的时期,有人想出一个聪明的点子,将土豆切片并油炸,然后起名为;炸薯条;进行售卖。薯条由此诞生。不论你相信哪个版本,只要记住,在汽车餐厅里点一份;比利时薯条;会让你看起来很搞笑。8.Sausages8.香肠The exact origin of the sausage is unclear, with reports ranging around 50,000. There is an agreement, however, that the sausages, frankfurters, and hot dogs that people eat on a daily basis originated from a desire to preserve meat.香肠的准确起源并不清楚,大约在公元前50000年就已经有了相关记载。不过存在着一个共识,那就是人们每天吃的香肠、法兰克福香肠和热都是源于人们保存肉类的愿望。Ever wonder why sausages are wrapped in some form of casing? The reason is that, before refrigeration, butchers would want to preserve meat during transit. They took the meat, organs, and blood of a slaughtered animal, sprinkled it with salt to preserve it, then wrapped the gristly results in the animal#39;s intestine or stomach to stop it going off before it could be eaten. This is why some sausages contain a large amount of blood in their recipes; the origin of this practice was to help use up any blood that was left over after slaughtering an animal. We have no real use for salting today, given how good fridges can be with preserving meat. The tradition of meat in casing, however, still goes strong to this day.想知道香肠为什么要用各种肠衣包裹?原因就是在冷藏之前,屠夫想要在运输途中保存肉类。他们将动物屠杀,在所得的肉、五脏和血上撒盐以便保存,然后将这些柔软的东西包进动物的肠或胃里,防止吃之前腐坏。这就是为什么有些香肠的制作食谱中包含有大量的血,这种做法是为了用尽屠杀动物后所留下的所有血。在今天,我们已经无需再盐腌肉类,因为有冰箱可以保存肉类。但是,将肉灌进肠衣的传统至今仍然盛行。7.Pizza7.披萨Any time anyone mentions the dish, the image of black-haired, rotund Italian chefs kissing their fingers comes to mind. The #39;traditional#39; image of the dish consisting of b, tomatoes and cheese did, in fact, originate from Naples. The food was easy to make with little cost, and was regarded as something that the poor could eat to keep themselves going. It contained cheese, tomatoes and basil – very similar to the kind we consume today. The idea of placing food on top of flatb, however, dates before the Italian invention.任何时候想起这个食物,人们脑海中就会浮现出黑头发圆滚滚的意大利厨师亲吻自己手指的画面。这款食物包含着面包、土豆和奶酪的;传统;形象实际上起源于那不勒斯。这种食物容易制作,成本低,被认为是穷人也能吃得起的东西。它包括奶酪、土豆和罗勒——与我们今天食用的很相似。但是,将食物铺在面饼上的主意最早由意大利人发明。A lot of cultures – including the Romans and the Egyptians – came up with the concept of meal on top of flatb, but the Persians were the first recorded case. When King Darius the Great ruled the Persian Empire, it is thought that his soldiers baked flatbs on their shields, and added cheese and dates for flavouring. Ordering Dominos while in enemy territory just isn#39;t ideal.很多文化——包括罗马与埃及——都给这种面饼上面的食物下过定义,但波斯人最先进行了记录。在大流士一世统治波斯帝国的时候,他的士兵就在盾牌上烤制面饼,并添加上奶酪和枣椰子调味。在敌人领地里要求吃上达美乐披萨可不太现实。6.Tomato Ketchup6.番茄酱Everyone would probably think that tomato ketchup would originate from the US, and they#39;d be right. The first recipe popped up in 1801 in the #39;Sugar House Book#39;, an American publication. What#39;s interesting about our favourite condiment, however, is that ketchup was based on an older recipe.人人都会以为番茄酱起源于美国,他们没错。第一份制作食谱于1801年出现在《糖屋书》中,这本书由美国出版。但是,有趣的是,这款我们最喜欢的调味品其实是在一份更加古老的食谱基础之上制作而成。Its original name is #39;ke-tsiap#39; and it started in 17th Century China. While it has a name similar to the bottle of red stuff we shamelessly apply to everything, the actual sauce itself was made up of fish brine and spices. The Dutch and English would end up taking a few bottles back home with them, well-loved due to its ability to keep for large amounts of time, a key trait that sailors and travelers appreciated when stocking their larders. The sauce saw a lot of remixes on the original recipe – including a moment in time where mushrooms where a primary ingredient — before the tomato variation was devised.它起初的名字是;ke-tsiap;,起源于17世纪的中国。尽管它的名字很像我们往各种食物上洒的红色调料,但实际的调味汁本身却是由鱼露和香料制成。荷兰人和英国人最后就带了几瓶回家,这种酱汁得到厚爱,因为它能够保存很长时间,水手和旅行者很喜欢将其储存在食品室里。在最初的食谱中,这种酱汁由很多种材料混合而成——最早的原料中还曾一度包含了蘑菇——后来才发明出了以番茄为原料的变种。翻译:赵倩 来源:前十网 /201510/405191

The divorce rate is rising rapidly. In 2014, 3.6 million Chinese couples broke up, almost double the number from a decade previously. In the past, couples required permission from employers or community committees to divorce, and many put up with their spouses just to avoid public embarrassment.离婚率近年来迅速飙升。2014年,中国有360万对夫妻离婚,比10年前几乎增长了一倍。在过去,夫妻离婚需要获得工作单位和社区委员会的许可,因而很多夫妻为了避免公共尴尬,只好对配偶忍气吞声。A 2003 regulation on marriage and divorce simplified the divorce procedure and allowed couples to divorce the same day at a cost of 10 yuan (1.53 dollars).2003年颁布的婚姻和离婚法简化了离婚程序,当天即允许夫妻离婚,花费仅为10元人民币(折合1.53美元)。Reservations and appointments began in Dali on Feb 1, 2015. By the end of last year, 9,571 couples made reservations, but 4,531 of them, 47 percent, did not end up in divorce. In many other cities, similar reservation systems are in place.大理在2015年2月1日开始实行保留和预约制度。截止到去年年底,有9571对夫妻进行预约离婚,但其中约占47%的4531对夫妻最终没有离婚。其他许多城市也准备实行类似的预约体系。These measures are not without their critics. ;It is not proper for governments to put obstacles in front of people wanting a divorce, because Chinese citizens enjoy freedom of marriage,; said Nie Aiping of Jiangxi Academy of Social Sciences. He suggests that interventions should be conducted by an impartial organization.但这样的方式也引来了一些批评。“政府给想要离婚的人设置障碍的方式是不妥的,因为中国公民享受婚姻自由。”江西社科院的聂爱平表示。他建议应由一个公正的组织来实行相关干预。Liu Min in East China#39;s Anhui province has been a divorce attorney for years. She believes that not all broken marriages can be repaired, because the causes of divorce vary.中国东部安徽省的刘敏多年来一直从事离婚律师职业。她认为并不是所有破碎的婚姻都能够修复,因为导致离婚的原因各不相同。;In the past people wanted to divorce mostly because of domestic violence and affairs, now it is increasingly common among young couples to separate after trivial disputes or interference of their parents,; she said.她说:“过去人们离婚主要由于家庭暴力和风流韵事,现在年轻夫妻由于小事争吵或父母干预而离婚这一现象变得越来越普遍。”Most people born in the 1980s and 1990s are only children whose parents tend to interfere too much in their lives, Liu said. What#39;s more, unlike their parents, they attach more importance to individuality and the quality of life.刘敏表示,大部分80后和90后都是独生子女,父母往往喜欢干涉他们的生活。而且与他们父母不同的是,这些年轻人更加关注个性化和生活质量。For the couples careering into divorce without careful forethought, marriage guidance offices have been set up next to registry offices in Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai and other provinces. Psychologists are available.对于那些没有慎重考虑就急着离婚的夫妻,北京、重庆、上海及其他省份均在登记处旁边设立了婚姻指导办公室,有心理学家提供咨询务。The registrars who handle dissolutions in Anhui province have been trained to tell whether a marriage can be saved or not, according to their statement and emotional state, according to Gao Jiamei of Anhui Provincial Civil Affairs Department.安徽省离婚处的登记员接受过培训,能根据夫妻的陈述和情绪状态辨别这段婚姻是否能够被挽救,安徽省民政厅的高佳梅说。A local government in the provincial capital Hefei has invited professional counselors to work alongside registrars. They help couples calm down and think over their relations, establishing a sense of responsibility leading to a rational choice.在省会城市合肥,地方政府邀请了专业咨询师在登记处旁边工作。他们帮助夫妻冷静下来,仔细思考他们的关系,建立责任感,引导他们做出理性选择。But marriage is, after all, deeply personal. To divorce or not, the choice finally lies with the couple themselves.但婚姻毕竟是和个人紧密相关的。离或者不离,决定权最终还是在于夫妻本人。 /201603/429524

JABUGO, Spain — On a vast farm dotted with oak and cork trees, about 350 pigs are enjoying the final weeks of a short but blissful life. They roam freely, sleep outdoors or shelter in spacious pigsties. Above all, autumn is when they get to feast all day on acorns recently fallen from the trees.西班牙哈武戈——在一座散布着橡树与栓皮栎的广袤农场上,有大约350只猪正享受着它们短暂却幸福的生命的最后几周。它们自由地漫步,在野外或宽敞猪舍的庇荫下安睡。最重要的是,秋季是它们终日饱食新近离枝的橡果的日子。“Pigs are known for eating everything, but when it comes to their favorite acorns, they are real connoisseurs and very selective — and the sweeter the acorn, the better,” said Juan Carlos Domínguez Lorenzo, 49, who was born on the farm and has been looking after its pigs since he was a teenager.“大家都知道猪不挑嘴,不过要说到它们最爱的橡果,这些猪可是十足的行家,非常挑剔——橡果是越甜越好,”胡安·卡洛斯·多明尼奎兹·洛伦佐(Juan Carlos Dominiguez Lorenzo)说。他今年49岁,在这座农场出生,从年少的时候就开始照养这里的猪只。The way these pigs of Spain’s Ibérico breed are fed and raised here is a far cry from how most meats are produced almost anywhere, making the cured ham a delicacy prized for its unique texture and taste, which is enhanced by the sweet and nutty flavor of the acorns the pigs eat.此处喂养这些西班牙伊比利亚猪的方式,和世界各地大部分肉类产品的生产过程有着天壤之别。这使得这种猪肉腌成的火腿以其独特的口感与味道而异常鲜美,又因为这些猪食用的橡果的那股甜美的坚果风味而更上一层楼。So when the World Health Organization, in a recent report, linked processed meats to colorectal cancer, the news came as an affront to many Spaniards, who have been eating cured hams produced this way for generations.世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)近来一份报告指出加工肉品与肠癌有关。消息一出,冒犯了不少西班牙人。世世代代,他们都吃着以这种方式腌制出来的火腿。Today, Spain’s Ibérico hams are increasingly sought after worldwide, particularly among Chinese consumers concerned about the safety of their own homegrown food.世人对西班牙伊比利亚火腿的追求在今日益发热烈,特别是那些对自家出产的食物有安全顾虑的中国顾客。“Spanish ham is a very unique product, but it’s also seen as healthy, which is a real asset when you’re selling to the Chinese,” said Oliver Win of Olivier Pacific Limited, a fine foods distribution company based in Hong Kong that imports the Cinco Jotas brand of Spanish ham.“西班牙火腿是非常特别的产品,人们也认为它有益健康,而和中国人作买卖的时候这是很有利的筹码,”永兴太平洋贸易公司的奥立弗·荣(Oliver Win)表示。这是一家位于香港的高级食材分销商,进口5J牌(Cinco Jotas)的西班牙火腿。Spain’s producers, in fact, took no small measure of umbrage at the World Health Organization’s attempt to lump their luxury ham together with cheaper products like processed sausages and hamburger meat.事实上,对于世界卫生组织竟然将他们的极品火腿与加工香肠、汉堡肉这类廉价商品混为一谈,西班牙火腿生产商的火气可不小。A single leg of the finest ham from Cinco Jotas — weighing almost 18 pounds — costs about 0 in Spain. (In the ed States, the price is about double.) Even the way the ham is sliced is considered something of an art form.单单一条5J牌最高档的腌火腿——重达18磅(约合8千克)——在西班牙的售价大约为670美元(约合4300元人民币)。(这个价格在美国还要翻上一番)。就连该怎么给这种火腿切片都被认为是一门艺术。“This ham is as natural as food can get — no added heavy metals, preservatives or colorings — and it comes from an animal that has built up muscle by eating the best food and exercising a lot in beautiful surroundings,” said José Gómez, the owner of Joselito, another top brand of ham. “There are thousands of products that present a higher cancer risk.”“这种火腿是再天然不过的食物了——没有添加重金属、防腐剂或染色剂——而且它来自一种摄取顶级养分、在优美的环境中大量运动而锻炼出肌肉的动物,”另一个高级火腿品牌小何塞(Joselito)的老板何塞·戈麦斯(José Gómez)说。“还有数不清的食品的致癌风险更高呢。”With a passion for pork products, and rising incomes, the Chinese have entered the market for Ibérico hams with gusto, even while paying slightly more for Spanish ham than prices set for the American market. The next step, according to Spanish producers, is to get China to lift a cumbersome restriction that forces them to remove the bone from the leg.因着对猪肉类产品的热爱与收入的增加,中国人津津有味地进入了伊比利亚火腿的市场,即使他们得为了这些西班牙火腿付出比美国市场还要再稍高的价钱。根据西班牙生产商所言,他们的下一步是让中国取消强制他们给火腿剔除骨头的麻烦规定。In fact, the Chinese appetite for Spanish pork stretches all the way down its production chain, including innards that Spanish companies struggle to export to many Western countries.事实上,中国人对西班牙猪肉的胃口一路扩大到了生产链的所有环节,包括西班牙公司难以推销给众多西方国家的内脏类产品。Fresh pork exports to China from Spain — including heads, ears and other parts — rose 35 percent last year, making it the second-largest market in volume after neighboring France, according to figures from the Spanish Meat Export Office.西班牙肉类出口办公室(Spanish Meat Export Office)的数据显示,去年西班牙向中国出口的新鲜猪肉产品——包括猪头、猪耳朵和猪的其他部位——增长了35%,就出口量而言,中国已成为西班牙猪肉产品的第二大市场,仅次于临近的法国。Last year, Fosun, one of China’s largest financial and industrial conglomerates, bought a stake in the parent company of Cinco Jotas, one of Spain’s top brands of Ibérico ham, which is based in Jabugo.去年,中国最大的金融和工业集团公司之一复兴国际入股了5J的母公司,5J是西班牙顶级伊比利亚火腿品牌之一,其总部位于哈武戈。“We generally think that our culture is closer to that of America, but when it comes to ham, Chinese gastronomy is really in tune with ours,” Bernardino Rodríguez, the general director of Cinco Jotas, said during a tour of cellars where legs of ham are hooked from the ceiling and left to age.“我们通常认为,自己的文化和美国更接近,但说到火腿,中国美食文化的确和我们的更一致。”5J总裁贝尔纳迪诺·罗德里格斯(Bernardino Rodríguez)一边带领大家参观火腿储藏窖一边说,火腿被挂在地窖顶部,一直腌制到足够的年份。“I can’t think of anybody more capable of distinguishing between different qualities of ham than the Chinese,” he said.“我觉得,在分辨不同品质的火腿的差别方面,谁也比不过中国人,”他说。But the health and quality of the animals have also become a big driver of Chinese demand. Early this year, the Chinese police arrested more than 110 people who were accused of trafficking pork from diseased pigs.但动物的健康和品质问题也是促使中国人需求增加的一个重要因素。今年早些时候,中国警方还以走私病猪肉的罪名逮捕了110多人。“Many Chinese come and buy food in Hong Kong and have turned it into a parallel import market largely because of their safety worries about food in China,” Mr. Win, the importer, said.“很多中国人来香港买食物,将这里变成一个平行进口市场,这在很大程度上是因为他们对内地的食品安全存在担忧,”香港进口商奥立弗·荣说。Paradoxically, however, the same things that have lured the Chinese about the natural way the pigs here are raised, slaughtered and cured are some of the chief sources of tension between Spain’s producers and the ed States.然而,有些矛盾的是,这些火腿吸引中国人的地方,即这些猪在西班牙当地被饲养、屠宰然后进行腌制的方式,恰恰是西班牙火腿制造商和美国之间关系紧张的主要原因。Ibérico ham was banned in the ed States until about a decade ago over concerns about swine fever and traditional curing methods, and even today just a handful of Spanish slaughterhouses have been authorized to export to the ed States.直到大约十年前,伊比利亚火腿在美国还一直被禁,因为他们担心存在猪瘟隐患,也对那种传统腌制方法存有疑虑。而且即使到今天,也只有为数不多的西班牙屠宰场被允许向美国出口猪肉产品。 /201512/414131

文章编辑: 天涯面诊