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2019年08月17日 21:53:47|来源:国际在线|编辑:百科大夫
Science and technology科学技术Arachnology节肢动物学Having a mate for dinner情人为食Male spiders make the supreme sacrifice for their children雄蛛对后代的无私奉献AMONG spiders, the female of the species really is more deadly than the male.蜘蛛家族中,雌蛛致命性比雄蛛高得多。交配后将配偶狼吞虎咽地吃掉,雌蛛因此声名在外。Lady arachnids have a well-deserved reputation for polishing off their suitors, post copula, in a manner that Hannibal Lecter might have admired.它们的这一行为或许在一定程度上赢得了汉尼拔莱克特的敬仰,But it has never been clear why this happens.然而其原因一直不为人所知。Some biologists believe it is simply a mixture of female hunger and the availability of a meal that is in no position to run away.一些生物学家认为这仅仅是因为雌蛛饿了,而盘中餐又无力逃脱。Others suspect that the male is actually sacrificing his life for the good of his genes.一些生物学家认为雄蛛是为他的基因而牺牲的。In other words, his becoming a meal for his paramour somehow helps the offspring of their union.换句话说,他成为情人的腹中食某种程度上有助于他们共同的后代。Peng Yu, of Hubei University in China, and his colleagues, decided to try to settle the question.中国湖北大学的彭宇及其同事决定尝试解开这一谜题。The results of their investigation are published this week in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.他们的条查结果刊登在《行为生态学与社会生物学》。Dr Peng and his team collected almost 400 young wolf spiders, of both sexes, from local fields.彭士和他的小组在当地收集了几乎400只狼蛛,They then raised the animals separately until they were sexually mature.再雌雄分开饲养,直到它们性成熟。Then, one at a time, they introduced the females to a male and watched until one of three things happened:然后他们每次一只,将雌蛛与雄蛛配对,直到出现以下三者之一的情况发生:the male got eaten; the male mated with the female and successfully avoided being eaten; or the male survived for half an hour, but did not mate with the female within that time.雄蛛被吃;雄蛛与雌蛛交配后幸免于难;或者雄蛛存活了半小时,而期间未与雌蛛交配。有时,他们将未交配的雌雄蛛配对;Sometimes the researchers paired virgin males with virgin females; sometimes they paired virgin males with females that had recently bred.有时他们将未交配的雄蛛与刚繁殖过的雌蛛配对。And in one crucial set of tests they paired virgin males with virgin females that had been taken off their regular diet of fruit flies a fortnight beforehand, and were thus presumed to be feeling more than a little peckish.在一项关键性实验中,他们将未交配的雄蛛与停饲果蝇两周的雌蛛配对—此时假设雌蛛处于极度饥饿状态。After doing all this, the team chose 16 females that had mated and then eaten their partners, and ten that had mated but not done so, and followed their reproductive success.配对后,实验小组挑选了16只交配后吃掉配偶的雌蛛,10只交配后未吃掉配偶的雌蛛,观察其繁殖成功的过程。When these females laid their egg sacs, the researchers picked ten sacs at random from each group and monitored those until the eggs hatched.当这些雌蛛产下卵袋时,研究者从每组随机挑选了10个卵袋观察,直到卵孵化。At that point they selected 20 spiderlings from each group for further study.这时,他们从每组挑选10只幼蛛用于后续研究。Their first pertinent observation was that, while female wolf spiders did indeed sometimes eat males before breeding with them, that happened only 10% of the time, and did not seem to be more frequent if the female had been starved.他们第一个客观观察结果是,雌狼蛛有时确实会在交配前吃掉雄狼蛛,这种概率是10%,并且似乎不比雌蛛挨饿后比率高。Their second observation was that if a male was deemed suitable to mate with, he was never eaten in copula—even though copulation could last as long as an hour and a half.第二个观察结果是,如果雄蛛被认为适合交配,它们绝不会在交配中被吃—即使交配过程可能长达一个半小时。Their third was that, 28% of the time, a male that had mated was indeed eaten afterwards.他们第三个观察结果是,有28%的几率雄蛛会在交配后被吃。Successful suitors, then, succumbed more often than unsuccessful ones.如此可得出,交配成功的雄蛛被吃的比未成功的多。The crucial finding, however—which makes sense of all the others—was the success of the spiderlings.然而,幼蛛成活率是关键的发现—这使得其他发现都有了意义。Young born of females that had eaten their partners had a 48% chance of making it through their first month of life.吃掉配偶的雌蛛其后代48%可以活过一个月,Those born of females who had let their partners live, had only a 12% chance of surviving that long.而放生配偶的雌蛛的后代存活相同时间的只有12%。That is a staggering difference—and certainly, in evolutionary terms, enough to drive self-sacrificial behaviour by males,这个差距是巨大的—当然,按照进化论原则,足以使雄蛛采取自我牺牲行为。since a male would have to mate successfully another three times to match the benefit he gains by this one suicidal act.因此,为获得这一次自杀行为带来的好处,它之前必须成功交配三次。The reason a male is almost three times as likely to be eaten if he has mated with the female in question than if he has not is thus probably that he wants to be eaten, for the good of his posterity.讨论中,如果与雌蛛交配成功,雄蛛被吃的概率几乎是未交配成功的雄蛛的三倍,其原因可能是为后代着想,它希望被吃。Just what it is that a male meal gives, via the females digestive system, to the hatchling spiders, remains to be determined.通过雌蛛的消化系统,雄蛛给予孵化蜘蛛的是什么?这还有待探索。Perhaps spider bodies contain some crucial nutrients which are scarcer in other forms of prey.也许蜘蛛体内含有其他猎物所缺乏的重要的营养成分。Whatever the details, though, the general answer to the biologists question is now clear.不管具体如何,生物学家们的问题有了大致的。In the case of spiders, fathers really do lay down their lives for their children.对蜘蛛来说,父亲们真真是为孩子放弃了他们的生命。 /201401/271642Sailing from France,and invading army is about to run in veils.从法国远道而的这远征大军逐渐露出了端倪。The leader of this army was a refugee,a fugitive.这军队的领袖曾是一名难民,一名逃犯。A man who had spent half of his twenty years on the run,and he had barely acclaimed to the from of England.这个人花了自己人生二十年中的一半东躲西藏,而且几乎没得到英格兰的半点赞誉。His name was H,C.and asking the H the seventh.He would create a dynasty that born his name.他的名字是亨利七世,而他将会自己的名字缔造一个王朝。But H ,the seventh,remains obscure.但亨利七世仍然笼罩在神秘当中。a clips by the moment he deposed, which is the third, by the glamor, the notoriety of his wife killing his son, Henry the eighth, and glamor of his granddaughter, Elizabeth the first.他废黜的时刻仍然记忆犹新,受到迷惑,他声名狼藉的妻子处死他的儿子亨利八世及他的孙女伊丽莎白魅力一世。Yet Henry the seventh was possibly be the most extraordinary story of them all.然而亨利七世可能是最无与伦比的人物。with a hunger for power, and air determination to hang on to the throne at all costs, he would rewrite the history, seizing the crown, and rebuilding the monarchy in his own image.对于对权力的渴望,保住王位的决心, 他不惜一切代价改写历史,再掌权利,重建他自己脑中的君主政体。He would become paranoid, described later as infinitely suspicious ruler, a dark prince. 他会变得偏执,后世描述他为无限可疑的君主,黑暗王子。His ring have seen a bleak, wintry landscape.他的戒指已经见过凄凉,如严冬般的风景。For years I have explored his murky story of spice and informs, Intrigues and extortion. 多年来我已经探索了他各种阴暗的故事,阴谋和勒索。And I found the deeper you go, the more you discover the fascinating glimpse of this manipulative king.而且我还发现越是深层次的挖掘,你就越发现这位傀儡国王迷人的一面。 201310/260860

European migration欧洲移民The great escape胜利大逃亡Emigration may not relieve pressure on wages in weak economies在经济疲软的背景下,欧洲人移民国外也许不能在工资方面缓解压力Purchasing power on the move购买力在移动TO ECONOMISTS, an “optimal currency area” is one in which the gains from sharing a single currency outweigh the costs. There is some debate as to whether the euro area qualifies.对于经济学家来说,一个“最优货币区”意味着共用同一种货币的收益要大于成本。欧元区是否符合“最优货币区”的条件,存在一些争议。Among the keys to making shared currencies work, according to Robert Mundell, the godfather of optimal-currency theory, is a mobile workforce. Countries tying the monetary knot give up the right to slash interest rates or devalue when stormclouds gather. A slump focused on just one region of the currency zone can therefore last a long time: until falling wages make hiring there attractive once more. But if the jobless can up sticks for sunnier shores, this discomfort can be curbed.根据最优货币理论的鼻祖,罗伯特.蒙代尔的理论,流动的劳动力是从统一货币的政策中获利的关键。当不利的经济信号显现时,参与实施统一货币政策的众多国家将放弃削减利率或干预货币贬值的权力。在统一货币区内,经济衰退集中在一个地区,因此,这种经济衰退会持续很长一段时间,直到这个地区的工资下降,使得招聘启事再次具有吸引力。但是如果失业者可以迁居到经济状况较好的地区,这种经济衰退就可以得到抑制。In the 1990s a few prescient critics noted that “fluidity” was not a characteristic commonly used to describe European labour markets. Just 0.35% of Europeans migrate across borders each year, compared with the nearly 2.5% of Americans leaving one state for another. The crisis boosted euro-area migration rates, but overall numbers remain small.20世纪90年代,几位有先见之明的家指出,“流动性”指标不常用来说明欧洲劳动力市场特征。每年跨国迁移的欧洲人仅有0.35%,而有近2.5%的美国人跨州迁移,两者相比,前者迁移人数很少。经济危机提升了欧元区的人口迁移比率,但总体迁移人数并不多。Immobility might not always be quite the drag academics fear, however. New research by Emmanuel Farhi of Harvard University and Iván Werning of MIT finds that although migrants out of depressed regions get the expected boost from relocation, those left behind may or may not benefit, depending on the nature of the slump.然而,人口流动停滞也许并不总是那么让学者们担心。在一项新开展的研究中,哈佛大学的Emmanuel Farhi和麻省理工的Iván Werning发现,尽管人们从经济萧条地区迁移出去可以按照预期推动迁居地的经济发展,但原住地是否能从中获益,这取决于经济衰退的性质。The problem, they note, is that departing migrants take their purchasing power with them when they go. If a regions troubles are the result of tumbling exports that is no big deal. Exporting surplus labour spares the struggling economy the need to suffer falling wages.他们指出,问题是,移民者的离去使得原住地失去了这部分人群的购买力。如果一个地区的困扰是出口严重下滑的结果,这没什么大不了的。出口剩余的劳动力使得疲弱的经济不必再遭受工资下降的打击。If instead the struggling region is facing weak domestic demand then shipping excess labour abroad does not help, because the loss of migrants spending further weakens demand. Instead, higher exports are needed to make up for insufficient domestic spending. That requires improved competitiveness—which often means lower wages.如果情况相反,经济疲弱地区正面临的是内需不足,再向国外输出过剩劳动力就无益了,因为若失去这部分移民者的购买力,则会进一步削弱内需。取而代之的解决方案应该是,需要更高的出口来弥补国内消费不足。这就需要提高竞争力,而提高竞争力通常意味着低工资。Interestingly, however much their lot improves when they move, migrants tend to judge their fortunes relative to economic conditions at home. According to a new working paper from the Institute for the Study of Labour, a German think-tank, migrants to Germanybecome glummer the better the economy in their country of origin does. But they cheer up considerably when unemployment rises at home, presumably because that confirms the wisdom of having moved. By then, they have perhaps been in Germanylong enough to learn the word Schadenfreude.有趣的是,迁移过程中,无论移民者的生活怎样改善,他们都倾向于依据家乡的经济状况来评判自己的财富状况。根据一个德国智囊团,劳动力研究所的一份新的工作报告,迁入德国的移民变得愈加愁苦,他们本国的经济就变得愈好。但是当发现本国失业率上升,他们就明显振作起来,大概是因为这明了自己当初移民是明智的抉择。到那时,他们也许已经在德国居住了很久,以至于都学会了“幸灾乐祸”这类德语单词。 /201405/299314

Science and technology科学技术Art criticism and computers艺术和计算机Painting by numbers数字图画Digital analysis is invading the world of the connoisseur数字分析正侵蚀艺术品鉴赏界JUDGING artistic styles, and the similarities between them, might be thought one bastion of human skill that machines could never storm.对艺术风格,跟他们之间的相似之处的评价,可能被认为是一块机器无法侵犯的人类技艺圣地。Not so, if Lior Shamir at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan is correct.并非如此,加入密歇根州老孙死理工大学的Lior Shamir没错的话。A paper he has just published in Leonardo suggests that computers may have just as good an eye for style as humans do—and,他刚刚在李奥纳多发表的一篇文章之处电脑的眼力可能不必人类差——而且,in some cases, may see connections between artists that human critics have missed.某些情况下,电脑甚至能够发现一些家忽略的,艺术家之间的相似之处。Dr Shamir, a computer scientist, presented 57 images by each of nine painters—Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko and Vincent van Gogh—to a computer, to see what it made of them.士Shamir,一位计算机专家,将Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko和 Vincent van Gogh九位画家的每人57幅作品扫描到计算机中,看看它能得出什么。The computer broke the images into a number of so-called numerical descriptors.于是电脑将图像分解为许多所谓的数字描述符。These descriptors quantified textures and colours, the statistical distribution of edges across a canvas,这些符将质地和颜色量化,帆布的边缘的统计分布,特定种类的形状的分布,the distributions of particular types of shape, the intensity of the colour of individual points on a painting,一幅作品上独立的点的颜色的深浅,还有任何蕾丝不规则碎片的本质,and also the nature of any fractal-like patterns within it.不规则碎片是指大小不同形状相似的特质,比如雪花的边缘。All told, the computer identified 4,027 different numerical descriptors.结果,电脑总共确认了4027种不同的符。Once their values had been established for each of the 513 artworks that had been fed into it,一旦它们对于这513件被反哺给电脑的每件艺术品的价值被确立,it was y to do the analysis.计算机马上可以开始分析。Dr Shamirs aim was to look for quantifiable ways of distinguishing between the work of different artists.士Shamir的目的事项寻找区分不同艺术家作品的可量化的方法。If such things could be established, it might make the task of deciding who painted what a little easier.如果上述事实能够被实成立,区分各个画家的作品的工作将会简单一点儿。Such decisions matter because, even excluding deliberate forgeries, there are many paintings in existence that cannot conclusively be attributed to a master rather than his pupils,这样的决定对我们很重要,因为即使是在排除有意伪造之后,任然有许多作品不能被确认出自某位画家,而非他的学生,or that may be honestly made copies whose provenance is now lost.或是某个出处无可探寻的逼真的复制品。To look for such distinguishing features, Dr Shamir programmed the computer to use a statistical method that scores the strength of the distance between the values of two or more descriptors for each pair of artists.为了寻找这种能有助于区分的特质,Shamir士设法使计算机能利用一个统计学方法来评价用来比较每两位画家的两个以上的描述符的价值之间距离的大小。As a result, he was able to rank each of the 4,027 descriptors by how useful it was at discriminating between artists.最后,他就能根据描述符分辨艺术家的能力来给它们打分。Surprisingly, the values of 19 of the 20 most informative descriptors showed dramatically higher similarities between Van Gogh and Pollock than between Van Gogh and painters such as Monet and Renoir,令人吃惊的是,在提供的消息最有用的20种描述符中,有19种显示出梵高和波洛克作品之间的相似度,要远远高于梵高和像莫内和雷诺瓦的画家之间,who conventional art criticism would think more closely related to Van Goghs oeuvre than Pollocks is.而传统的家认为后者的作品与梵高作品更接近。相反地,达利和恩斯特的作品的差距却比预期要大。What is interesting, according to Dr Shamir, is that no single feature makes Pollocks artistic style similar to Van Goghs.有趣的是,Shamir士指出,没有一个特质能单独明波洛克的艺术风格与梵高的相似。Instead, the connection is based on a broad set of image-content descriptors which reflect many aspects of the two artists styles,相反,他们的联系是在长长的一系列反映了这两名画家的许多艺术风格的图像内容符的基础上形成的,including a shared preference for low-level textures and shapes, and similarities in the ways they employed lines and edges.风格中包括,他们都偏爱低档面料跟外形,他们勾勒线和边的方式相似。What was intended, then, as a way of improving the ability to distinguish between different hands has also thrown up a new way of looking for stylistic similarities.于是,原本用来宜于区分不同画家的作品的方法,也能用来寻找艺术家的不同风格。Whether Pollock was actually influenced by Van Gogh, or merely happened upon a similar way of doing things through a similar artistic sensibility, is not clear.虽然波洛克实际上到底是受到了梵高的影响,还是仅仅是由于在处在相似的艺术风气下,不得而知。But it gives art historians a new line of investigation to pursue.但是它给艺术历史学家提供了一条新的线索。 /201305/240044

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