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2018年01月23日 20:04:31    日报  参与评论()人

云南省第一人民医院治疗假牙价格云南昆明哪家医院镶烤瓷牙最便宜Last night a group of us were at a bar when we were accosted by the glowing appearance of a smiling, extremely good-looking man. He dazzled us with his sparkling blue eyes and sharp, inspiring jawline, and then he opened his mouth and revealed himself to be British.昨天晚上,我们一群人在酒吧里遇到一位前来搭讪的帅哥,他热情洋溢,微笑迷人,英俊潇洒。我们都被他那明亮的蓝眼睛和棱角分明、鼓舞人心的下巴迷住了。后来,他一开口,我们就知道了,原来他是一位英国人。We were beside ourselves. What is it about British men that makes women comfortable enough to openly giggle about them in their presence? The accent certainly plays a role—it softens them, making them seem sensitive and accessible. (Perhaps too sensitive and accessible.) But it is also probably something about that apologetic confidence; it#39;s not the aggressive, in-your-face manlinessthe American people imbibe from a young age. And indeed, this week, the UK-based market research firm YouGov released statistics that confirm some of these romantic fantasies about British men: They increasingly think masculinity is bad and don#39;t really associate themselves with it.我们都沉醉其中。英国男人身上有什么特质使得女人们能非常舒地在大庭广众之下对他们咯咯笑呢?口音肯定是一个原因——口音有柔化效果,让他们显得细腻而亲切(也许太细腻太亲切了)。但很可能也跟他们那种一脸歉然的自信有关;他们不像美国人从小就学着要有闯劲,要有直来直去的男子汉气概。事实上,英国市场研究公司YouGov本周公布了一些统计数据,揭示了英国男人谜之热辣的真相:越来越多的男人觉得“纯爷们”是个坏词,不希望跟这个词联系起来。According to the statistics, which surveyed 819 men and 873 women, 42 percent of British men aged 18-24 have a negative association with masculinity. In older age groups, that percentage drops sharply. (So Hugh Grant is probably not among the more enlightened.) What#39;s more, British men are much less attached to the concept of masculinity than American men; when asked to rate themselves on a scale from 0 (completely masculine) to 6 (completely feminine), 42 percent of American men considered themselves masculine, while only 28 percent of British guys did.他们调查了819名男性和873名女性,数据显示,在18岁到24岁的英国男性中,有42%的人认为纯爷们是贬义词。在年龄稍大的人群中,这个比例下降了很多(所以休·格兰特很可能不在更为开明的那一组)。而且,与美国男人相比,英国男人更不愿意接受纯爷们这个概念。当要求他们用0~6为自己打分时(0代表纯爷们,6代表纯娘炮),42%的美国男人认为自己很爷们,而英国男人中只有28%的人这么认为。Is there something about American culture and priorities that yield more masculine dudes? ;It#39;s intersectional as hell for me—but mainly because I really do identify as an American in terms of culture, as well as identifying as a man,; said Harry Cheadle, a VICE US editor who identified himself as a 1 on the masculine-feminine scale. ;There are more or less universal markers of masculinity, like being strong and sporty and relatively unemotional and not gay, but you see some national differences. UK men are definitely expected to dress better than American men. (I think?);那么是不是美国文化所看重的一些东西造就了更多美国爷们呢?VICE杂志的一位美国编辑哈里· 奇德尔说:“我对此无法苟同,但那主要是因为从文化角度来说我是美国人,而且我也认为自己够爷们。关于纯爷们,或多或少有一些普遍标准,比如要强壮,热爱运动,不那么情绪化,以及不搞基,但是国与国之间又有区别。比如大家往往觉得英国男人要比美国男人穿衣品味好,或者只是我这么认为?”他在“爷们-娘炮”量表中给自己打的分数是1分。Another VICE UK editor outlined some further masculine archetypes. ;There#39;s definitely a very British set of masculine tropes/stereotypes,; he, a 3, said. ;Football-watching pub lad or Northern hard man who used to work in a mine or whatever. I fall more into the Blur era, Damon Albarn-y, artsy, soft, middle-class southern grouping than the Noel Gallagher, Northern hard man thing. Overall I fear people see me as more Hugh Grant—a bit wet and awkward.; One of the sexier qualities of British men is how they speak English like it#39;s a different language.另外一位VICE杂志的英国编辑则更深入地指出了一些爷们的典型。这位给自己打了3分的编辑说:“我们有一种非常英式的纯爷们概念/刻板印象,比如在酒吧里看球的家伙或者在矿井里卖力工作的北方人之类的。我自己更接近Blur乐队的达蒙·奥尔本,是有点艺术家气质的、温和的南方中产阶级,而不是像诺尔·加拉格那样的北方硬汉。总的来说,我很怕别人认为我更像休·格兰特那种有点软弱又笨拙的人。英国男人更为性感的一点在于他们口中的英文就像另外一种语言。” /201606/448532云南省第一人民医院半口全口种植牙多少钱 Shaping the agenda 完善峰会议程At this year#39;s G20 summit, China will also be playing a more prominent role in international affairs. 在今年的G20峰会上,中国将会在国际事务中发挥更突出的作用。;This will be the first time that China hosts a global economic governance summit, unlike chairing regional meetings such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation,; said Chen. ;It is a good opportunity for China to exercise its power in global economics.; “这是中国首次举办商讨全球经济治理的峰会,这与举行亚太经合组织会议等区域性会议不一样”,陈凤英说,“这是中国在世界经济中展示力量的好时机。”She explained that because the G20 is an international forum with no secretariat or enforcing agencies, the outcome of the summit is to a large extent determined by the will of the host country. 她解释道,G20作为一个国际论坛,没有常设的秘书处,也没有执行机构。所以,G20峰会能取得什么样的成果很大程度上取决于主办国。;As a big country, China has the influence to push for specific goals, especially when they coincide with the interests of other countries,; she said, praising China#39;s concrete action plans in the context of vaguer pledges of past years. “作为一个有影响力的大国,中国能够推动达成特定的目标,特别是那些与其他国家的利益相契合的目标,”陈凤英说道。相对于以前定下的相对模糊的承诺,她认为中国制定的具体行动计划确实值得称赞。Zhu stressed that China, as the biggest developing country, has the responsibility to promote more balanced governance of the global economy. 朱教授强调,中国作为最大的发展中国家,有责任推动建立更加均衡的全球经济治理模式。;The birth of the G20 has broken the myth of the G7 and allows for the exploration into diverse paths of growth,; he said. “G20打破了G7的旧逻辑,考虑到要探索不同的发展道路,”朱教授说道。According to statistics from the International Monetary Fund, emerging and developing economies are home to 85 percent of the world#39;s population, accounting for almost 60 percent of global GDP and contributing to more than 80 percent of global growth since the 2008 financial crisis. 国际货币基金组织的数据显示,新兴经济体以及发展中国家的人口占世界总人口的85%,GDP占比接近全球的60%;自2008年金融危机以来,这些国家对全球经济增长的贡献率超过了80%。China alone has contributed 35 percent to global growth in the past five years. 过去五年,中国对全球经济增长的贡献率为35%。The view of China#39;s growing role in global economic governance is widely shared. “中国在全球经济治理中发挥着越来越重要的作用,这是大家都认同的。;There is probably some means for building new institutions given the rise of Asia and rise of China,; said Tim Harcourt of the University of New South Wales in Australia. ;I think in some ways the G20 can play that role.; “随着中国及亚洲的崛起,我们也许能够找到建立新体系的方法,”澳大利亚新南威尔士大学的提姆#8226;哈考特教授说,“我认为在某种程度上,G20就能发挥这样的角色。”China is now in a position to assert its influence in the management of the global economy, according to a report that was released in March by the London-based Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Other countries are y to learn from China#39;s experiences in transforming its economy, it added. 英国皇家国际事务研究所——伦敦查塔姆研究所3月发布的报告显示,如今中国在全球经济治理中正发挥着自身的影响力。报告还指出,其他国家也非常愿意借鉴中国在经济转型发展中的经验。 /201608/463089As the memory of high school may cast a lingering shadow on later lives, so “A Brighter Summer Day,” Edward Yang’s magisterial four-hour drama of Taipei teenagers, looms over the landscape of Taiwanese cinema. American recognition has been slower. Completed in 1991 but released in the ed States 20 years later, the film is now out on disc from Criterion.杨德昌长达四小时的巨作《牯岭街少年杀人事件》描绘了台北青少年的生活,它在台湾电影世界中像一座恒久耸立的高峰,正如中学时代的记忆会给一个人以后的人生投下长久的阴影。美国对这部片子的认可来得有些缓慢——它于1991年摄制完成,直到20年后才在美国上映。如今这部片子将出光碟版,由美国公司标准收藏(Criterion)发行。A universal tale of wayward adolescence is woven into complex context. Taiwan, a liberated Japanese colony with a large native Chinese population, was ruled from 1949 on by newly arrived Chinese nationalists backed by the American military. “A Brighter Summer Day” depicts but does not directly explicate the political situation. “Rather than working its way through a neatly predigested story line, it plunges the audience into a vast social fresco,” the British critic Tony Rayns, one of the movie’s first Western admirers, wrote in 1993.这是一个讲述叛逆的青春期的普遍故事,被放在错综复杂的背景之中。台湾是被解放的日本殖民地,有不少原住中国居民,1949年后,新来的中国国民党在美军持下统治了台湾。《牯岭街少年杀人事件》描绘了当时的政治环境,但又并不给出直接的解读。1993年,该片在西方最早的仰慕者之一,英国家托尼·雷恩(Tony Rayns)写道:“影片没有按照一条清晰简化的故事线发展,而是带领观众跳入一幅巨大的社会风情图卷之中。”Along with his contemporary Hou Hsiao-hsien, Mr. Yang (1947-2007) helped usher Taiwanese cinema onto the world stage. Mr. Yang was also the new cinema movement’s most cosmopolitan member — born in Shanghai, raised in Taipei and trained as an engineer at the University of Florida. Early films like “Taipei Story” (1985) and “The Terrorizer” (1986) are laconic depictions of Taiwan’s disaffected urban elite. “A Brighter Summer Day,” on which Mr. Yang worked for three years — one of which he said was devoted to rehearsing his cast’s 60 young members — is more ambitious and personal.杨德昌(1947-2007)与其同代导演侯孝贤一道,令台湾电影跻身世界影坛。生于上海,在台北长大,在佛罗里达大学读工程学的杨德昌,也是新电影运动中最国际化的一位。他的早期电影如《青梅竹马》(1985)和《恐怖分子》(1986)是对台湾愤懑叛逆的都市精英的简练描写。《牯岭街少年杀人事件》则更有野心,也更加个人化,它花费了杨德昌三年的时间。他说,其中一年是用来训练60名年轻演员的。“A City of Sadness” (1989), Mr. Hou’s intimate yet panoramic treatment of Taiwan’s turbulent Cold War history, provided a template for Mr. Yang. While not strictly autobiographical, “A Brighter Summer Day” drew on his own experiences; set in 1960, it is based on a juvenile homicide that occurred at Mr. Yang’s school when he was 13. In an interview published in 2005, Mr. Yang called making the movie “a kind of responsibility that I had to take on.”侯孝贤的《悲情城市》(1989)为台湾在冷战时期的历史描绘了一幅全面而又细致入微的图画,也为杨德昌提供了模板。《牯岭街少年杀人事件》并不是严格的自传,却也取材于他自身的经历;故事发生在1960年,根据杨德昌所在学校里的一宗少年杀人案改编,当时他只有13岁。在2005年的一次访谈中,杨德昌说,拍摄这部电影“是我必须承担的一种责任”。“A Brighter Summer Day” is largely focused on high school turf wars and imported Elvis worship. (The title refers to a misheard lyric from the Elvis Presley hit “Are You Lonesome Tonight?”) But it is also a family drama that evokes Taiwan’s prolonged period of martial law. The protagonist Si’r, a bright, impulsive 14-year-old, is enrolled in a secondary school where the uniforms and regimentation provide an unforced parallel to military rule.《牯岭街少年杀人事件》主要聚焦一个中学里的帮派战争,还引入了“猫王”(Elvis Presley)崇拜。该片的英文名“A Brighter Summer Day”(更明亮的夏日)就是来自“猫王”的金曲《今晚你可孤独吗》(Are You Lonesome Tonight?)里面一句听错了的歌词。但是它也是一部家庭剧,令人想起台湾实行戒严法令的漫长时期。主角四儿是个聪明、爱冲动的14岁少年,在他就读的中学里,制与严厉的管控自然而然与大环境中的军事统治形成对照。Originally on the fringes of a local gang, Si’r is drawn into its power struggles, including an emotional vortex around the murdered gang leader’s girlfriend, Ming. The title notwithstanding, much of the film’s action takes place at night, or is otherwise obscured, reinforcing the sense of a clandestine youth culture coursing beneath the frozen surface of a mobilized society.四儿原本只是处在一个本地帮派的边缘,却被卷入种种权力斗争,包括与帮派遇害头领的女友小明的感情纠葛。和电影的英文名称相反,影片大部分情节发生在夜晚,要么就是在非常昏暗的情境下,勾勒出这个全民动员的社会冰封表面之下肆意发展的秘密青少年文化的氛围。Seeing “A Brighter Summer Day” in the early 1990s as part of a touring package of Taiwanese films, I was impressed by Mr. Yang’s synthesis of detached European art cinema and florid Hollywood youth films; familiar yet exotic, his movie seemed a Michelangelo Antonioni version of “West Side Story” or a Wim Wenders remake of “Rebel Without a Cause,” with the added frisson of pop ballads by Frankie Avalon and Ricky Nelson performed by Taiwanese singers in phonetic English.20世纪90年代初,我在一次台湾电影巡展中看到了《牯岭街少年杀人事件》 ,最打动我的是杨德昌把欧洲艺术电影的超然与好莱坞青年电影的华丽融为一体;他的电影既令人感觉熟悉,又富于异国情调,犹如让米开朗琪罗·安东尼奥尼(Michelangelo Antonioni)来拍摄《西区故事》(West Side Story),或是让维姆·文德斯(Wim Wenders)来翻拍《无因的反叛》(Rebel Without a Cause),再加上台湾歌手用注音的英语演唱弗兰基·阿瓦隆(Frankie Avalon)与里奇·尼尔逊(Ricky Nelson)流行歌的那么一点。To revisit the movie is to appreciate the precision of Mr. Yang’s period details and novelistic touches. An outsize flashlight stolen by Si’r and his friends from a night watchman in one of the movie’s first scenes reappears throughout to illuminate (or not) the tangled conflicts. The school’s proximity to a movie studio allows Mr. Yang to comment both on his film and his characters as historical actors, not least when the duplicitous Ming is given a screen test.重新观看这部影片,可以欣赏到杨德昌的小说式语言和他对时代细节的精确处理。电影开始不久的一场戏里,四儿和朋友们从一个守夜人那里偷来一个大号手电筒,这个手电筒后来多次出现,照亮纷乱的帮派斗争(或者说什么也没有照亮)。学校距离一个电影棚不远,让杨德昌可以借历史角色之口去他的电影和他的人物,尤其是两面派的小明去片场试镜的那场戏。Dialogue from “Rio Bravo” is heard as well, but Mr. Yang’s lofty aspiration may be gauged by several references to “War and Peace,” a book seen by the movie’s most romantic character as the Western equivalent of the Chinese martial arts novels in which he imagines he lives. That may have been Mr. Yang’s feeling as well. Interviewed by Mr. Rayns, he remarked, “If someone asked me to make a 300-episode TV series about these people, I’d have had the material to do it.”片中可以听到《赤胆屠龙》(Rio Bravo)的对白,但是最能体现杨德昌远大抱负的,可能还要算是几次对《战争与和平》(War and Peace)的提及。片中最浪漫的一个角色把这本书当做西方的武侠小说来读,他也幻想自己就生活在武侠的世界里面。杨德昌自己可能也有同感。雷恩采访他时,他说,“如果有人让我为这些人物拍一部300集的电视剧,我也有足够的素材。”American television hasn’t lacked for high school drama, but few series are as treasured as “Freaks and Geeks,” created by Paul Feig and produced by Judd Apatow. Broadcast in 1999 and 2000 but set outside Detroit at the dawn of the Reagan era, the series was canceled by N at midseason but revived on cable, complete with un-telecast episodes, and has enjoyed a long afterlife as a critical and fan favorite. “Freaks and Geeks: The Complete Series,” a new Blu-ray box out from Shout! Factory, provides all 18 episodes both in the original broadcast aspect ratio and a superfluous wide-screen format.美国电视中一直不缺少关于中学生活的剧集,但很少有像《怪胎与书呆》(Freaks and Geeks)那样被人称道的。该剧由保罗·费格(Paul Feig)编剧,贾德·阿帕图(Judd Apatow)导演,于1999年至2000年上映,不过背景设定在里根时代初期的底特律郊外。该剧被N在季中取消,但又在有线台复活,补完了未播出的几集,此后长期受到家与剧迷的青睐。Shout! Factory公司最近发行了《怪胎与书呆全集》(Freaks and Geeks: The Complete Series)蓝光版,收入该剧全部18集,并有原始播出的比例和特别宽屏版两种格式。Mr. Feig (“Bridesmaids,” the coming “Ghostbusters” reboot) and Mr. Apatow (“Trainwreck,” “Knocked Up”) are now kingpins of Hollywood comedy. A number of the show’s stars, including the three main “freaks” — James Franco, Seth Rogen and Jason Segel — also enjoy great box-office visibility, but the series’s real star is Linda Cardellini. In her mid-20s when the show was shot, she was a more convincing teenager than her co-stars, some of whom, like Mr. Rogen, were still in their teens. (More recently, Ms. Cardellini has appeared in AMC’s “Mad Men” and the series “Bloodline” on Netflix.)费格曾执导电影《伴娘》(Bridesmaids),及即将上映的《超能敢死队》(Ghostbusters),阿帕图曾执导《生活残骸》(Trainwreck)和《一夜大肚》(Knocked Up),两人目前都是好莱坞喜剧界的中流砥柱。《怪胎与书呆》中群星荟萃,三位主要的“怪胎”由詹姆斯·弗兰科(James Franco)、塞斯·罗根(Seth Rogen)和杰森·席格尔(Jason Segel)饰演,他们都颇具票房成就。但剧中真正的明星还要算是琳达·卡德里尼(Linda Cardellini)。出演该剧时她已经20多岁了,演起十几岁的青少年来,却比其他几位演员更令人信。其中几位,比如罗根,还是真的十几岁的少年。最近,卡德里尼还出演了AMC台的《广告狂人》(Mad Men)和Netflix的电视剧《至亲血统》(Bloodline)。If not free of sentimental moralizing, “Freaks and Geeks” is generally unflinching in its identification with high school outcasts. The show’s period and something of its attitude is established by the use of Joan Jett’s “Bad Reputation” as a theme; a geekier alternate might have been the Ramones’ bratty satire of in-group exclusivity, “I Don’t Wanna Walk Around With You.”就算没有完全摆脱多愁善感的道德说教,《怪胎与书呆》总体而言还是毫不动摇地站在高中生里的弃儿们这边。剧集主题曲是琼·杰特(Joan Jett)的《坏名声》(Bad Reputation),正好可以反映剧中的时代以及本剧的态度; 如果要显得更“书呆”一点,“雷蒙斯”那首大胆讽刺小圈子排外的《我不愿意和你一块儿走》(I Don’t Wanna Walk Around With You)也很合适。 /201605/445131昆明牙齿断裂修复多少钱

文山马关县丘北县广南县富宁县瓷贴面什么价格Half an hour later, I walk out of a shop selling “African groceries” carrying a stone that had cost me 99p. I gingerly put a small piece in my mouth. The grit sucks all of the water from my tongue, forming a paste that sticks to the roof of my mouth like peanut butter.果然,半个钟头以后,我怀揣着一块耗资99便士的泥巴,从一家号称售卖“非洲食品杂货”的铺子里迈步走出。随后,我轻手轻脚地掰开一小块放到嘴里。霎时间,土里的沙砾吸干了我舌头上的全部水分,接着就跟块浆糊似的粘在我口腔顶部,那质感有点像花生酱。I briefly entertain the thought that it tasted a little bit like smoked meat, before deciding that no, actually it tasted much more like dirt. 刹那见,我萌生出一个念头,感觉它尝起来有一点儿像烟熏肉。但马上,我就毙了这个想法,说实在的,它尝起来真正就是泥土的味道啊。I wondered what it is that gets so many people hooked.所以,我就纳了闷了,为什么有这么多人吃土吃上瘾。“Everyone has their reasons,” says Monique, another Cameroonian student. “Simple desire is one, or else to treat nausea and stomach pain. The clay calms the pain by acting as a gastric dressing.”莫妮克(Monique)说:“每个人都有自己的原因”,她是另外一名来自喀麦隆的学生,“有些人纯粹是为了满足自己的欲望而吃土,还有些人是为了治疗反胃恶心和胃痛而吃土。黏土到了胃里,会形成一层保护膜,进而缓解胃的疼痛。”Could this be it? Instead of an illness, is geophagy a treatment?果真如此吗?难道食土癖非但不是一种怪病,反而还是一种治病的疗法?In fact, three key explanations have been proposed for why people eat dirt, and Monique’s answer touches on one of them.事实上,对于人们吃土的原因,已有三种主要的解释性论述,而莫妮克的回答便涉及到了其中之一。Not all dirt is created equal. Kaolin belongs to a specific group of clay minerals, and these seem to be the most popular when people crave a mouthful of earth. 不同的泥土生成的方式也有所不同。高岭土从属于一种特别的矿物质黏土类型,而这些矿物质黏土似乎也是最受食土族群喜爱的黏土。Clay is very good at binding to things, so when Monique talks about it calming gastric pains, it could be doing just that by binding with or blocking harmful toxins and pathogens in the digestive system.黏土是非常好的粘合材料。所以,当莫妮克提到吃土缓解胃痛时,它的作用原理应该就是:黏土进入消化系统后吸附有害有毒物质、阻碍病原体入侵。Experiments with rats andobservations of monkeys indicate that other animals may seek non-food substances to combat ingested poisons, and various traditional food preparation practices involve mixing food with clays to extract toxins andmake it palatable. Acorns are generally unpleasant to eat, for example, but the traditional production of acorn b in both California and Sardinia involves grinding the nuts up with clay that seems to reduce the concentration of unpalatable tannic acid they contain.根据小白鼠实验和对猴子的观察,专家发现除了人类,其他动物也会通过摄入非食物类物质来对抗体内的毒素。而在各种传统的食物烹制过程中,都有这么一个步骤:在食物中混合些污泥,进而将食物中的毒素提取出来,同时让食物更加美味可口。比如说,橡子其实是味道极涩的一种坚果,但在美国加州和意大利的撒丁岛,橡子面包是一种传统的食物。为了减少橡子中苦涩的丹宁酸的含量,人们用泥块将橡子的果仁碾碎,从而使橡子面包更可口。The second hypothesis is perhaps more intuitive: clay could provide nutrients that are not present in conventional food items. Anaemia is often associated with geophagy, so perhaps eating iron-rich soil is an instinctive attempt to remedy iron deficiency. 而第二个猜想或许更为直观:黏土可以为我们提供别的传统食物没有的营养物质。贫血症常常和食土癖联系在一起,而对于同时有贫血症和食土癖的人来说,含铁量丰富的泥土或许就是他们福音。There’s also a suggestion that geophagy is a response to extreme hunger, or micronutrient deficiencies that make non-food items attractive. This hypothesis is non-adaptive, meaning it fits with the idea that eating earth is a negative behaviour with no benefits.另外一个意见则认为,食土癖是在极度饥饿时产生的一个反应,又或许是人体微量营养素的缺乏导致人们对非食物类物质产生食欲。这一假设认为吃土是非适应性的行为(即生物体与环境表现不适合)。换言之,这一假设认为吃土是一个负面的行为,并不能给人带来任何好处。The first two hypotheses, on the other hand, suggest adaptive reasons for geophagy, and they go some way to explaining its distribution, too.前两种假设则与之相反,认为食土癖存在适应性原因,而且它们也解释了食土习俗在热带地区相对盛行的原因。“We predicted that it would happen most in the tropics, because that’s where there is the greatest density of pathogens,” says Young. Furthermore, children and pregnant women are two groups that might need extra nutrients or protection against disease, as their immune responses are weaker. 塞拉#8226;杨指出:“我们判断,热带地区是发生最多食土行为的地区,因为那里是病原体最集中的地区”。而且,由于儿童和妇的免疫力相对较弱,他们是最需要营养和保护以抵抗疾病入侵的两大群体。 /201606/451515玉溪市牙齿矫正去哪里医院好 大理学院附属医院看洗牙要多少钱

昆明柏德口腔口腔美容科The two mothers, who are also sisters,swapped babies. Or rather, the older sister, Pandora, forced the switch. Theother sister, Calusa, attempted to retrieve her calf several times, but wasunsuccessful.两位海豚妈妈,同时也是,她们调换了孩子。或者不如说,是年长的海豚潘朵拉(Pandora)强迫海豚调换了她们的孩子。海豚卡卢萨(Calusa)几度试图要回自己的孩子,但都徒劳而归。This switch may have ;reset theimprinting clock;, say King and her colleagues, meaning each calf then hadto learn its adoptive mother#39;s call.金和她的同事认为,这种调换“可能重置了印记时钟”,这意味着每只小海豚都不得不再次学习养母的呼唤。It is unusual for a female dolphin to stealanother#39;s calf but it has previously been documented. It is not clear why twosisters who live close together would do so.海豚妈妈偷取另一只海豚妈妈的孩子非同寻常,但之前就曾有相关记录。至于住得很近的海豚这样做的原因为何,目前还不为人知。It may not be as rare as one might think,says co-author Kelly Jaakkola of the Dolphin Research Center. ;A femaletaking another#39;s infant has been seen in many wild animal species.;海豚研究中心的项目合作者凯利·贾科拉(Kelly Jaakkola)表示,“这种情况可能并不像人们想象的那样罕见,在很多野生动物物种中,都有雌性夺走他人幼子的情况发生。”Switching between two mothers is unusual,says King. ;However, the two mothers are maternal sisters, so each calfwas then looked after by its #39;aunty#39;. Evolutionarily speaking there are stillfitness benefits in looking after your sister#39;s calf.;金表示,“两位海豚妈妈交换孩子的情况非同寻常,不过,如果两位海豚妈妈是,那么两只小海豚就将由各自的‘阿姨’照料。从生物进化角度而言,照料的孩子在适应性方面仍然具有优势。”When they want to reunite they will whistle想要重新会合时,它们会发出唿哨While this behaviour might sound strange,dolphins do have a darker side to them. They have been known to be incestuous,to ;rape; and even to kill one another#39;s young. In that light, alittle infant-stealing no longer sounds as bad.这种行为也许听起来奇怪,但海豚也有阴暗面。人们已经知道,它们会乱伦,会“强暴”甚至杀死年幼的海豚。从这个角度而言,偷小海豚的劣迹也就相形见绌了。Even a year later, the calves had not beenswapped back to their original mothers.即使在一年后,被调换的小海豚也没有被交还各自的妈妈。It may have been too late. By then the calfwould have imprinted on its new mother and now be listening to her call.也许已经太晚了。这时,小海豚已经学会了新妈妈的印记,现在它们将听从新妈妈的呼唤了。Fortunately, there was never any physicalaltercation between the mothers. Both babies remained healthy and happy.;As they got older, they socialised with both mothers and with eachother,; says Jaakkola.幸运的是,海豚妈妈之间永远不会发生肢体冲撞。两只小海豚也会健康快乐地成长。贾科拉表示,“随着小海豚的长大,它们会与两个海豚妈妈互动,彼此之间也会有互动。”In a separate new study in the journalBehavioural Processes, King and colleagues identified just how powerful hersignature call is.每只小海豚都不得不学习养母的呼唤Each calf then had to learn its adoptivemother#39;s call在《动物行为过程》(Behavioural Processes)杂志另外一项最新研究中,金和同事发现这种印记十分强大。Her team wanted to understand how a motherretrieves her calf as it grows up. To do so, they asked a female dolphin toeither fetch an object, such as a ball, or her calf. Only when she went to gether calf did she produce her unique call.她的团队希望能了解,在小海豚长大时,海豚妈妈怎样才能要回自己的孩子。为此,他们要求海豚妈妈找回一个物体,如找回一个皮球,或者找回自己的孩子。只有在去找回自己的孩子时,海豚妈妈才会发出独特的呼唤声。It fits in with our understanding ofsignature whistles, says King. ;When mothers and calves are separated fromone another and want to reunite, they will produce their signaturewhistle.;金表示,“这与我们对唿哨信号的理解相吻合。海豚妈妈和小海豚彼此分离时,如果想要重新会合,它们就要发出自己的唿哨信号。” /201605/440826 昆明超声波洗牙费用昆明医学院牙科

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