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哈尔滨激光治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱佳木斯妇幼保健妇保医院电话号码是多少Business商业报道Starbucks星巴克Just add water加水即成The ailing giant turns to instant coffee for a pick-me-up亏损巨头靠速溶咖啡来提神NO ONE can accuse Howard Schultz of inaction since he returned as chief executive of Starbucks,没有人可以指责重回星巴克的首席执行官霍华德·舒尔茨的无所作为,the firm he built into a multinational only to watch it stumble under his successor.他只是没想到看着他一手建起的跨国公司绊倒在他的继任者脚下。Barely a month has gone by over the past year without the firm announcing some new initiative or other.在过去的一年公司没有公布任何新的咖啡饮料,仅仅不到一个月,The latest came on February 17th in New York, when Mr Schultz unveiled Via, an instant coffee which, he claims,2月17日在纽约,舒尔茨先生推出Via,一种速溶咖啡,他声称,tastes just as good as Java brewed in the shop by one of the firms baristas.其味道和星巴克咖啡大师在店里调配的Java一样香醇。Mr Schultz hopes to win a share of the billion or so the world spends on instant coffee—a product which, he sniffs, has not improved in decades.舒尔茨先生希望赢得全球花在速溶咖啡约170亿美元上的一点份额—速溶咖啡,他嗤之以鼻地说,在过去的几十年里一点儿没改进。Starbucks itself has spent 20 years pursuing the holy grail of an instant coffee that tastes as good as the fresh stuff.星巴克用了20年所追求的圣杯速溶咖啡的味道和新磨的一样好。Don Valencia, the firms first head of research and development, who created the blended and frozen frappuccino drinks that earn Starbucks billion a year,唐?瓦伦西亚,星巴克公司研发部的首席研究员,他研发的法布奇诺咖啡为星巴克每年赢得2亿美元,could never find a way to scale up an instant formula he had developed at home.他在家里研究时一直不能找到一种好的方法即规模化生产的速溶配方。When Mr Schultz returned as chief executive, he noticed that there had been some technological advances, allowing finer grinding, for example.当舒尔茨先生重新回到星巴克任行政长官,他注意到,有了一些技术的进步,例如能够使咖啡豆更精细研磨。So he asked the Ramp;D team to repeat the recently deceased Valencias experiments, and found that we had broken the code.因此,他要求研发团队重做最近已故的Valencia实验,结果发现, 我们已经破译了密码 。The name Via is a hat-tip to Valencia—though during development it was known as Jaws.把这款速溶咖啡命名Via是向Valencia致敬,但在开发过程中它被称为大白鲨。Starbucks says it has patents that should prevent competitors from quickly replicating Via, which will go on sale in some American stores next month.星巴克表示,它拥有专利,可以防止竞争者迅速仿制Via,下个月美国的一些星巴克将开始出售Via。The opportunity may, however, be biggest in other countries: in Britain over 80% of coffee sold is instant, compared with just 10% in America.不过,在其他国家机会可以更大:英国80%以上的咖啡是速溶的,相比之下,美国速溶咖啡只有10%。Assuming Starbucks drinkers decide that Via tastes good, the company will have to get the price right.假设星巴克客人认为Via好喝,公司将不得不把价格定合适。At first, it will come in packets of 12 or 3 individual servings, for 83 and 98 cents a cup respectively.首先,它会分为3袋装或12袋装,分别为83美分和98美分一杯。That is much more than other instants, but much less than a cup of coffee at one of Starbucks stores.这比其他速溶咖啡贵很多 ,但远远低于任何一个星巴克的门店的一杯咖啡。The risk is that the firms existing customers may abandon counter service and start making their own cup of instant.市场的风险在于,公司现有的顾客可能会放弃柜台务,而开始泡速溶咖啡。That would encourage them to visit Starbucks less often, a trend that is aly gathering pace with the recession.这将促使他们去星巴克消费的次数下降,这一趋势已经在加快衰退的步伐。The nickname Fourbucks has not helped at a time when consumers have become cost-conscious.当消费者已经开始省钱时,绰号Fourbucks的人是不会来星巴克消费的。For the first time in Starbucks history, same-store sales have fallen.这是在星巴克的历史上,第一次同一店面销售额开始下降。Mr Schultz has had to accelerate the store-closure programme that he had started in order to correct the over-expansion which prompted his return to the helm.舒尔茨先生不得不加快店铺关闭方案,他已经开始关闭店面以便纠正过度扩张,从而使他重回咖啡王国。To keep customers coming to remaining outlets, he might experiment with discounts such as cheap combination meals of a drink and food.为了让顾客常来剩下的店铺,他可能会尝试打折,如廉价的套餐的饮料和食品。He also wants a visit to a Starbucks shop to be a uniquely uplifting experience.他还希望顾客访问星巴克是一个独特的振奋的体验 。Improving the smell in stores by changing the cheese used in breakfast sandwiches was a start.替换三明治早餐里的奶酪来改善店里的进餐气氛就是一个开始。But ensuring that staff are enthusiastic will be especially difficult when jobs are disappearing.但要确保员工的工作热情将是特别困难的,当工作岗位正在减少时。Mr Schultz remains hostile to unions, but has decided to maintain the firms popular health benefits, while cutting his own pay.舒尔茨先生仍然敌视工会,但决定保持该公司广受欢迎的医疗保险,同时降低自己的工资。Will all this be enough?这样做就够了吗?So far, investors seem sceptical:迄今为止,投资者似乎持怀疑态度:Starbucks share price remains barely a quarter of its all-time high in 2006.星巴克的股票价格仍然是2006年历史最高水平的四分之一。 /201304/237089哈尔滨省六院专家推荐 Long before this was a national park, it held the fascination of a man who wrote this rather lovely old book,Mr. G.A.Farini. 这里成为国家公园很久以前,它特有的魅力擒获了一个写出这本相当可爱旧书的男人法尼的心。And he fell in love with this place when it was undiscovered, wild frontier land.于是他爱上了这个地方,那时候这里还未被发现,是野生的边境土地。The Great Farini, otherwise known as William Hunt, was a famous Canadian showman, best known for crossing Niagara Falls on a high wire in the 1860. 法尼或者被人们熟知为威廉?亨特,是一位加拿大最出名的表演者,以1860年钢丝跨越尼亚加拉瀑布而闻名。Having retired from acrobatics, the intriguing Farini continued his waterfall interests by coming here, an adventure that probably made him the first white man to cross the Kalahari. 在退出杂技界后, 好奇心十足的法尼来到这里继续醉心于他的瀑布兴趣,一次冒险就可能让他成为穿越喀拉哈里沙漠的第一个白人。My expedition has completely disproved the long-prevailing notion that Kalahari is a barren wildness. 我的探险已经完全否定了长期以来喀拉哈里沙漠是贫瘠荒凉之地的说法。Well, I completely agree. 嗯,我完全同意。Now theres just a small matter of finding those falls, and I think its gonna get a bit tougher.现在找到那些瀑布只是一个小问题,我认为这要有一点点困难。Farinis drive to explore the Kalahari on foot was revolutionary. 法尼醉心于徒步探索喀拉哈里沙漠具有革命性的意义。Today, walkers come here all the time, but the area still has to be respected. 今天,步行者所有的时间都会来这里,但是该地区仍受到保护。201309/258216Conditions for a ceasefire停火条件Why Hamas fires those rockets为什么哈马斯要发射那些火箭Hamas wants two big concessions. It may not get them哈马斯需要两大让步,但不太可能实现MANY Gazans, not just their leaders in Hamas, think they have little to lose by fighting on. For one thing, the spotlight has been switched back onto them since the Israeli campaign began earlier this month. In Gazan eyes, Hamas gains from the violence because the outside world may, as a result of the grim publicity generated by the bloodshed, feel obliged to consider its grievances afresh. This week Hamas issued a ten-point plan. A ceasefire, it suggested, could be followed by a ten-year truce. Among its key demands were a lifting of the siege of Gaza and the release of prisoners. Gazas seaport and airport would be reopened and monitored by the UN.许多加沙的居民,不仅仅只是他们在哈马斯的领袖们,都认为再继续打下去,他们也没什么可再失去的。一方面,自本月初以色列运动开始以来,焦点就已经转移到他们身上。在加沙居民眼中,哈马斯是以暴牟利,因为流血推动的宣传让世界可能感觉到有必要考虑刷新一下他们的困境。本周,哈马斯发表了份十个要义的计划。建议10年的停火。其中最主要的需求就是放弃对加沙的包围,并释放囚犯。加沙的海港、机场需重新开放,并接受联合国的监控。After the last big Israeli effort to stop the rockets, in November 2012, it was agreed that, along with a ceasefire, the blockade of Gaza would gradually be lifted and the crossings into Egypt and Israel would be opened. The ceasefire generally held, but the siege continued. As Gazans see it, they have remained cruelly shut up in an open-air prison. Firing rockets, many of them argue, is the only way they can protest, even though they know the Israelis are bound, from time to time, to punish them.在2011年11月,以色列最后试图组织火箭发射之后,双方同意停火,并将逐渐解除对加沙的封锁,埃及-以色列之间的道路也会开通。然而说好的停火被搁置,围攻也还在继续。对加沙人民而言,他们仍被封锁在一个露天的监狱中。许多人认为,发射火箭是他们唯一反抗的方式,即便他们知道以色列人有时决心不让他们好过。More recently, say Gazans, the Israelis under Binyamin Netanyahu showed they were determined to destroy a peace-minded Palestinian unity government endorsed by Hamas and the more moderate Fatah party under Mahmoud Abbas, after the failure of American-brokered talks between Mr Abbas and Mr Netanyahu. The Israeli prime minister made it clear he would never talk to a Palestinian government backed by Hamas, even though America cautiously welcomed it. So he has done everything, say the Palestinians, to thwart it.加沙人说,在内坦尼亚胡的领导下,以色列人表现得很坚决,在美国推动的阿巴斯和内坦尼亚胡和谈失败后,以色列人决心要毁掉哈马斯所持的一个和平的巴勒斯坦政权以及在阿巴斯领导下的法塔赫党。以色列总理很清楚的表示,他绝不会与哈马斯持的巴勒斯坦政府交谈,尽管美方很乐意见到这点。巴勒斯坦人说他已经准备好一切。Among other things, Mr Netanyahus government has prevented Mr Abbas from reasserting his authority, as part of the unity deal, over Gaza—and from paying off Hamas civil servants there. Indeed, Mr Abbas at first looked even more feeble than usual during Operation Protective Edge: he could not, as a leader committed to peace, cheer on the Hamas rockets. Yet his pleas for restraint on both sides have so far had little effect.至于其他,作为联合协定的一部分,内坦尼亚胡政府阻止阿巴斯重新夺取在加沙的政权,同时阻止阿巴斯付哈马斯公务员薪水。的确,阿巴斯一开始看上去比平时在“护刃行动”中更为软弱:作为一个致力和平的领导者,他不能因哈马斯而喝,但是他要限制双方的请求至今也没什么成效。The Gazan grievance over prisoners stirs great passion among Palestinians everywhere. After three Israeli students were kidnapped on the West Bank on June 12th and later found murdered, the Israeli security forces rounded up more than 500 Hamas people, even though the movement did not claim responsibility for the crime. The increase in rocket fire was partly intended as a protest against the round-up of prisoners. Any ceasefire, says Hamas, must include the release at least of those detained in the past month.加沙人目前如犯人们的困境激怒了所有巴勒斯坦人。6月12日,三名以色列学生在线西岸被绑架,之后发现被杀害,此后,以色列安保队抓了500多名哈马斯人,尽管该行为没有说是对之前的犯罪负责。之所以发射更多的火箭炮,一部分是想以此作为一种手段对非法“聚集”犯人表示抗议。哈马斯方表示,任何停火条件都要包括至少释放过上个月所拘留的人。 /201407/314635黑龙江省哈尔滨第二人民医院几级

道里区检查妇科病哪家医院最好的Business商业报道Airline alliances航空公司联盟The airmiles-high clubs高空俱乐部Three airline alliances cover most of the world—where do they go next?三家航空公司联盟已然覆盖了整个世界-接下来何去何从呢?FOR businesspeople who spend much of their time in the air, the three global airline clubs—Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam—are all about such goodies as frequent-flyer points and access to comfy lounges.对于那些成天飞来飞去的商务人士来说,提到星空联盟、环宇一家、天合联盟这三家全球航空俱乐部就意味着飞行常客奖励点数和贵宾室待遇。For the airlines that belong to them, the main benefit is that the other members hook them up with lots of passengers seeking connecting flights, helping them to fill their planes.而对于那些航空公司联盟成员而言,最大的好处就是联盟成员可以相互之间把那些转机乘客的航线关联起来,来增加客座率。Since the alliances started in the late 1990s, they have steadily signed up new members.航空联盟成立于90年代后期,并不断稳定的发展新的联盟成员。Until recently SkyTeam, which includes Air France, KLM and Delta, was the laggard.虽然最近天合联盟发展慢了下来,但它已经收获颇丰,But it has gained altitude by signing, among others, China Eastern and China Southern, two of Chinas big three carriers.尤其是签了中国三大航空巨头其中的两家,中国东方航空公司和中国南方航空公司。Star Alliance, which includes Lufthansa, ed-Continental and Singapore Airlines, remains the biggest, having signed up Air China, the third of the mainlands big three.星空联盟依然是规模最大的,包括了德国汉莎航空公司、美国联合航空及大陆航空联营公司、新加坡航空公司,并签约了大陆三巨头之一的中国国际航空公司。One world, which includes British Airways, American Airlines, Iberia and Cathay Pacific, will soon welcome aboard Indias Kingfisher.环宇一家则包括英国航空公司、美国航空公司、利比亚航空公司以及国泰航空公司,同时也即将迎来印度翠鸟航空的加盟。Now there are few big network airlines left to be nabbed.现如今剩下的几家拥有大型航空网络的航空公司成了抢手货。The juiciest prize still on offer is LATAM, a giant to be formed next year through a merger of Brazils TAM and Chiles LAN, which will dominate the skies of South America.最让人垂涎欲滴的就是拉美航空公司,是将在明年由巴西天马航空公司和智利航空公司合并成的一个庞然大物,并成为南美洲天空的霸主。TAM now belongs to Star and LAN to one world, but regulators will force the merged carrier to choose.现在天马航空是星空联盟的成员而智利航空是环宇一家的成员,但是监管机构将强制合并后的公司选择其中一家联盟。Star has aly signed up two Latin American rivals, AviancaTaca and Copa, but it is not impossible to imagine it jilting either of these, if that were necessary to be allowed to admit LATAM.尽管星空联盟已经签约了拉美航空市场的另外两个玩家,中美洲航空公司和巴拿马航空公司,但是不难想象的是为了拉美航空公司的加盟,如果必要的话星空联盟将舍弃其中一家。One world needs LATAM even more: as the only alliance to lack a member in mainland China, it cannot afford to drop two BRICs.环宇一家更是对拉美航空公司青眼有加,因为作为唯一一个没有中国大陆航空公司加盟的航空联盟,它无法承担失去两个金砖四国成员的航空市场。In Indias big but chaotic market, oneworld is sorted, but Star and SkyTeam are said to be chasing Jet Airways.印度是一个巨大而混乱的市场,环宇一家还在考察,但据说星空联盟和天合联盟已开始争夺捷特航空公司。Star spent years negotiating with Air India, the deeply troubled flag-carrier, but suspended talks in July.星空联盟已经花费数年和陷入运营困境的国家航运公司-印度航空公司谈判,但是7月份的时候却中止了对话。The Arabian Gulfs three “superconnectors”—Emirates, Etihad and Qatar—are unsigned, but are growing so quickly that they see little need for allies.阿拉伯海湾的三家“超级网络”却没签约加盟,包括酋长国航空公司、阿提哈德航空和卡塔尔航空,它们迅速扩张似乎并不怎么需要联盟。That leaves just a few independent carriers with long-haul networks.那么就剩下为数不多的几家拥有长途航线的航运公司可选择了。Virgin Atlantic is one: its bid to buy bmi, Lufthansas money-losing British offshoot, seems to have failed, with BAs parent company the likely buyer.英国维珍大西洋航空公司就是其中一家,它对英伦航空的竞标看起来是没戏了,因为英国航空公司的母公司想要收构英伦航空。The question is whether Virgin can continue in splendid isolation when all around it are in cosy co-operation.关键是维珍航空还能继续光荣独立么,而周遭都是安逸的协同合作。Somewhat like the European Union, the alliances have “variable geometry”:这有些像欧盟,联盟采用“可变机翼”的原则:members do not have to join all initiatives, and non-members sometimes take part in selected activities.联盟成员不必响应所有的活动,而非联盟成员则可以参加特定的活动。Each alliance has at its core a group of carriers which pool their flights in the huge transatlantic market.在巨大的跨大西洋市场里,每个联盟都有自己的一组核心成员把各自的班机放在一起联合运营。Americas Department of Transportation has given these ventures immunity from antitrust prosecution.美国交通运输部给予这些合企业反垄断起诉的豁免权。The European Commission has approved oneworlds transatlantic venture, with conditions, but is still investigating the other two.欧盟委员会已经有条件的批准了环宇一家的跨大西洋合资公司,但还在审查另外两家的申请。A report by London-based Aviation Economics notes that the transatlantic ventures are a good source of profits in an otherwise hard market—but if they start to look too successful, regulators may get tougher.一份来自伦敦航空经济研究报告所示,跨大西洋合资公司在竞争激烈的市场能有效的产生利润,但一旦它们过分高调的话,监管机构就会变得强硬起来。The alliances have encouraged their members to co-operate on such things as buying cabin interiors, to obtain better prices from suppliers.这些联盟都鼓励它们的成员通类似于团购座舱内饰等方式来合作,以便从供应商处获得更便宜的价格。But progress is slow: only a handful of Star members are taking part in its project to buy aircraft seats jointly.但是进展却很缓慢,只有很少量的星空联盟的成员参与了这个项目来联合购买飞机座位。A consultant to one of the alliances says he has spent two years trying to persuade its members to agree on a joint check-in desk at one airport.一位来自其中一个联盟的的咨询顾问声称他用了2年的时间尝试去说联盟成员在机场建立一个联合登机手续办理窗口。SkyTeams boss, Michael Wisbrun,而天合联盟的老板迈克尔?威斯布伦说,says even simple stuff like this saves a lot of money, so he is urging his member airlines to make it their priority.类似于这些看似简单的改变将节省大笔费用; 因此他一直敦促其联盟成员优先去做这些事情。As the alliances struggle both to broaden and deepen further, they face being unpicked by their customers, as ever more of them build their own flight itineraries using online portals, which can result in big savings.这些航空联盟都在尽力拓宽拓深其业务领域,然而他们却要面临客户流失的问题,因为越来越多的人通过在线网站来安排自己的飞行旅程来节省开销。Oneworlds boss, Bruce Ashby, says the alliances are aimed at offering seamless service to business flyers who care more about convenience than price.环宇一家的老板布鲁斯.阿什比声称联盟志在为那些视便捷性甚于价格的商务人士提供无缝务。The trouble is, such passengers are also sensitive to the big variations that still exist between each alliances member airlines.不过麻烦的是,这类乘客对于同一个联盟内的不同航空公司的巨大差异非常敏感。Those used to plush Asian and European business-class cabins are often dismayed when they transfer to their airlines American alliance partner, where the service is poorer and—horrors—the seats dont always convert to fully flat beds.那些习惯于亚洲和欧洲的豪华商务舱的人士,当他们被转到联盟内的美国航班时总是很失望,因为这些航班务很差而且更恼火的的是有时候座椅居然不能转成躺椅模式。 /201304/235927哈尔滨市医科大学医院四院看病怎么样 Popping property bubbles戳破房地产泡沫Choosing the right pin选择正确的针House prices in Europe are losing touch with reality again. Deflating the bubbles will not be easy欧洲的房价渐与现实脱节。挤压泡沫并非易事THE Swedish word bo means to live; sambo to cohabit. As more people struggle to get on the housing ladder, a new word has been coined: mambo, to live with your mum. After Oslo, Stockholm is Europes fastest growing capital—its population is expected to expand by 50% by 2030—yet cranes are scarce. The 30,000 new arrivals each year have increased competition for housing, and record-low interest rates have allowed Stockholmers to afford bigger mortgages. As a result, Swedish house prices have more than trebled since 1996 and household debt has reached 174% of after-tax income. There is talk, naturally, of a bubble.在瑞典语中,“bo”这个词语意味着“生活”;而“sambo ”则意味着“同居。”随着越来越多的人对于买房力不从心,一个全新的词语被创造了出来:mambo,即“和你的妈妈住在一起”之意。在奥斯陆之后,斯德哥尔成为了欧洲增长最快的首都——其人口到2030年预计将会增长50%——然而,起重设备稀缺。每年三万的新移民增加了住房竞争,并且创记录的低利率使得斯德哥尔人民要承受更大的抵押贷款所带来的压力。因此,瑞典的房价已经达到了自1996年以来的两倍,家庭债务已经达到了税后的174%。最次有一个讨论,自然地,也与泡沫有关。It is not just Sweden: in June the IMF called on policymakers to do more to curb housing prices around the world, pointing out that valuations looked high in many countries. In May the European Central Bank singled out sky-high prices in Belgium, Finland and France; in July Moodys, a ratings agency, said that Britain showed signs of a new property bubble. The trend is all the more remarkable given that many of those economies have not fully recovered from the financial crisis and are growing feebly if at all.不仅仅是瑞典:在六月的时候国际货币基金组织呼吁政府决策人员采取更多的措施来抑制世界范围内的房价问题,并且指出某些国家的房价看起来更高了。今年五月的时候欧洲中央也曾指出在比利时、芬兰以及法国的房价简直就是天价;在七月份的穆迪—一家评级机构的显示英国出现了新的房地产泡沫的迹象。这一趋势变得更加引人注目并且考虑到许多的经济还没有完全的从金融危机中恢复过来,如若房地产泡沫持续增大的话,他们恐怕会变得越来越无力应对。After the collective pre-crisis boom, European housing markets took two paths. Denmark, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain dropped sharply; some continue to fall. Others including Belgium, Britain, Norway and Sweden only dipped before rebounding with worrying speed (see chart).在集体经历了危机前的繁荣之后,欧洲的房地产市场道分两路。丹麦、希腊、爱尔兰、荷兰、葡萄牙以及西班牙的房价迅速跌落。其他的一些国家,包括比利时、英国、挪威以及瑞典的房价仅仅是在以令人担忧的价格反弹前略微有所下降。The ratio of house prices to rents is 65% above its historical average in Norway, 44% above it in Finland and 43% in Britain. Incomes are also failing to keep pace, with the price-to-income ratio 46% above its long-term average in Belgium and 27% in France. Things look even more outlandish in some cities. Apartment prices in Stockholm have risen 11% over the past year, after climbing 9% the year before; homes in London went up by 19%, thanks in part to foreign speculators.在挪威,租房的价格也高于历史水平65%,在法国和英国这个数字分别为44%和43%。人们的收入却是未能跟上这样快的增长步伐,在比利时,房价收入比已高于其长期平均水平的46%,同样的在法国,这个数字也已达到了27%。在其他一些城市,房价越发的剑走偏锋。斯德哥尔的公寓价格自去年上涨了9%之后又;于去年一年内上涨了11%。伦敦的房价上涨了19%,着一定程度上要“归功于”外国的炒房者。Household debt is also hitting new records, as people take on bigger mortgages. In Norway, where the price of homes has risen fourfold since 1995, households now owe creditors two times their annual income after tax. Americans used to be far more indebted than Europeans. But Americans debt is now below 105% of income after tax, whereas that of euro-zone households is almost 110%. “You cannot know youre in a bubble, but you can know that debt has moved too far,” says Urban Backstrom, a former governor of the Riksbank, Swedens central bank. However, expectations that borrowing will stay cheap and not enough new homes will be built continue to push prices higher.当人们不断承受着更大的抵押贷款时,家庭债务的数量也达到了一个新高。在挪威,房屋价格自1995年起已经增长了四倍,家庭欠债已经高达其税后年收入的两倍。美国人的负债曾远远高于欧洲人。但美国人现在的债务低于税后收入的105%,反之欧元区的家庭债务几乎是税后收入的110%。“你可能不知道自己身处在经济泡沫之中,但你可以感知到债台高筑,” Urban Backstrom——瑞典央行的前高管说道。无论如何,根据预期显示:贷款将会继续保持廉价并且足够的新房的建设将会把房价推向新高。Central bankers cannot use interest rates to deflate the housing bubbles since, asset values aside, the economies of the countries concerned remain so sickly. Swedens attempt to cool the market with an increase in rates in 2010 backfired: unemployment stopped falling and the country headed towards deflation, forcing the Riksbank start reducing rates again in 2011. If anything, monetary policy is likely to provide a further spur to house prices in the euro zone, since the ECB is toying with the idea of buying bonds in an effort to bring borrowing costs down yet further.央行不能通过利率来挤压房地产泡沫是因为除了资产价值以外,相关国家的经济持续保持病态。瑞典曾试图通过提高利率来冷却市场但结果事与愿违:失业率停止下降并且整个国家走向了通货紧缩,迫使瑞典央行于2011年再次调低利率。如果说有什么不同的话,币政策的调整似乎进一步的刺激了欧元区的房价,因为欧洲央行怀着不负责的想法单纯的认为购买债券可以进一步的降低借贷成本。Macro prudential tools, to discipline both banks and borrowers, are a subtler set of instruments. Setting stricter limits on the amount people can borrow relative to the purchase price (the “loan-to-value” ratio, or LTV) or to their household income (loan-to-income ratio) helps to curb buyers irrational exuberance; increasing the amount of capital that banks must hold against mortgages checks theirs.为了规范以及借款者,宏观调控的工具,是一系列精细的仪器。它对于人们可以借款的数额做出了严格的限制,将其与物价(贷款价值比率,或称“LTV”)或者他们的家庭收入(贷款收入比)挂钩来帮助抑制购买者的非理性消费;或提高为放设抵押贷款所必须持有的资本量的数额。The Netherlands has applied strict limits of this sort, with striking results. In 2011, with the euro crisis in full swing, the average new mortgage in the Netherlands was 112% of the propertys value, putting Dutch household debt among the highest in Europe. The authorities hastily introduced a host of restrictions: LTV was capped at 106% in 2012 and is due to fall to 100% by 2018; capital requirements for banks were raised immediately. The government is also gradually reducing the tax break for interest payments on mortgages. These changes, along with the economic downturn, were enough to push prices down 20% in three years in real terms (after accounting for inflation, that is).荷兰已经上述严格的限制付诸于实践,随之而来的是显著的结果。在2011年。随着欧元区危机的全面展开,荷兰平均的新的抵押贷款是其财产价值的112%,使荷兰人的家庭债务在欧洲名列前茅。于是当局伧俗的出台了一系列限制措施:2012年贷款价值比率的上限106%并且要于2018年下降至100%;的资本要求也即刻被提高。政府也将逐渐降低抵押贷款付息的所得税宽减额。这些改变,随着经济的衰退,足够使按实际值计算的物价在三年内下降20%。In contrast, neighbouring Belgium, where house prices had moved in tandem with Dutch ones until 2010, has taken a hands-off approach. As a result, while Dutch house prices have plunged, Belgian ones have increased by 11%. Belgiums market is now so overpriced that its buyers are credited with helping revive prices in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands by moving over the border.相比之下,在相临近的比利时,其房价在2010年之前都与荷兰不相上下,却采取了不干涉的办法。因此,当荷兰的房价下跌之时,比利时的房价却又增长了11%。比利时的房价现今已如此之高导致购房者认为穿越国境线而举家搬迁到荷兰的东南部才能有助于房价的回落。To make matters more difficult for policymakers, Europes property booms tend to be concentrated in capital cities, which are growing for the most part, even as other regions stagnate. Ireland provides an especially garish example. It is still full of ghostly developments of never-occupied houses. Yet in Dublin, which needs 8,000 new homes a year, fewer than 1,400 were built last year. That has helped to drive local house prices up by 23% over the past year, even as the property market in the rest of the country rose by a modest 5%.是决策者们更加为难的是,欧洲的房地产泡沫往往集中于那些即使其他地方止步不前而其自身发展却依然大踏步前进的首都城市。爱尔兰就提供了一个非常特别的例子。那些从未被入住的房子如幽灵般疯狂的增长。然而在都柏林这样每年都有8,000套住房需求的地方,其去年建造的新房却还不到1,400套。这使得当地的房价在过去的一年里上涨了23%,而该国家其他地区的房价只是适度的增长了5%。In most growing European cities new construction is impeded by a thicket of planning restrictions, which could only be cut back with great political effort. The number of new homes completed in the European Union fell by a third between 2011 and 2013. Only three countries started building more homes last year than in the year before. In Paris the shortage of new homes is so acute that stories of illegal dwellings in cupboards and garages abound.在欧洲的大多数城市新的工程都受到了通过极大地政治干预而所获得的规划限制的阻碍。新房的建成数量在2011到 2013之间减少了三分之一。只有英国、德国以及比利时这三国的房子较之去年有所增长。在巴黎房源的短缺非常严重,非法居住于碗橱以及车库的故事比比皆是。Some countries have come up with clever measures to whittle down their housing deficits. This month Britains central government launched a website that maps all its land and buildings, from offices to prisons, and invites the public to suggest better uses for them under a new “right to contest”. It has promised to release for sale any property whose current use it cannot justify. Another quick fix is to make it easier to convert unused offices and shops into houses.一些国家已经想出一些妙招来削减其住房赤字。本月英国中央政府建立了一个网站囊括了其从办公室到监狱的所有的土地以及建筑物,并且邀请公众在一个全新的“比赛”中来赋予它们更好的用途。政府已承诺会释放出售任何当前使用不当的房产。另一个权宜之计是将未使用的办公室和商店更容易变成住房。Perhaps the most striking innovation has been in Sweden, which in July began letting landowners build tiny rental cottages in their gardens, without any need for planning permission. These Attefallshus, can have a footprint of no more than 25 square metres and a height of no more than four metres. That is small, but it beats living with mum.或许最影人瞩目的创新是在瑞典,七月份开始他们允许业主可以在不需要任何规划许可的情况下在其花园内构建微型住房。这些Attefallshus占地不超过25平方米高度不超过4米。小是小了一点,但也不至于和妈妈住在一起了。 /201409/326634依兰县妇女医院医生排名

宾县流产需要多少钱 Worker bees then take over, secreting wax to build the hive.工蜂从这一阶段开始接手,它们用蜂蜡建造蜂巢。Starting from the top and working down, they build combs–layers of hexagonally shaped cells with passageways along the walls to allow bees to move between combs.工蜂按照逐层往下的顺序进行建造,从每个蜂房都是六边形的巢基开始。而蜂房间要留有空隙以便蜜蜂出入。Each layer of cells has a specialized purpose.每个蜂房都有特殊的作用。The uppermost cells store honey, followed by pollen-storage cells.最上面的蜂房是储存蜂蜜的,接下来是用于储存花粉,The bottom layers are designated for infant-rearing.下层是育婴室,Just beneath the pollen cells are brood cells where larvae become worker bees, and off to the side are cells housing drone bee larvae.再下层是幼虫变成工蜂的孵化室,两侧居住的是雄蜂幼虫。Last, but certainly not least, special cells are set aside to shelter infant queen bees.当然,特殊的蜂房是留给有着尊贵地位的蜂王的。A typical nest has about 100,000 cells with a total surface area of about twenty-seven square feet.标准的蜂巢有100,000个蜂房,连上表层大概有27平方英尺。Most of the cells are used to store the more than forty pounds of honey required to feed a bee colony during the winter.大多数蜂巢会储存40多英镑的蜂蜜,这足以使得整个蜜蜂家族度过整个冬天。They may not win any awards, but bees are clearly some of natures most accomplishedarchitects.虽然蜜蜂从未摘得任何桂冠,但是它们无疑是大自然最杰出的建造师。201312/267187牡丹江妇幼保健妇保医院缩阴黑龙江省哈尔滨市第一医院医生值班



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