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2019年10月19日 11:22:44


郑州大学第五附属医院祛痘多少钱焦作市第四人民医院口腔科Last month Ricardo Hausmann, a normally mild Harvard academic, set off the equivalent of a financial bomb. The economist suggested that Venezuela had aly defaulted on many of its suppliers, its oil service contractors, and its citizens. So who or what might come next?上个月,通常温和的哈佛(Harvard)学者里卡多#8226;豪斯曼(Ricardo Hausmann)不啻引爆了一枚金融炸弹。这位经济学家表示,委内瑞拉已对其许多供应商、石油务合同商以及国民违约了。那么,接下来可能对谁或者哪个领域违约呢?When Hausmann suggested Wall Street, the market reaction was huge. Indeed Venezuelan bonds, undercut by the falling oil price, have been dropping ever since. Yet it turns out that Venezuela’s latest default has been, in fact, to China. Given that Beijing is one of Caracas’ closest allies, this is surprising. It is also bullish for Wall Street.豪斯曼对华尔街(Wall Street)的提醒,引起了市场的巨大反响。实际上,因油价下跌而被压低的委内瑞拉债券,从那时起价格一直在下跌。但事实明,委内瑞拉最新的违约对象其实是中国。鉴于中国是委内瑞拉的最亲密盟国之一,此事颇令人惊讶。这也利好华尔街。Venezuela has long been a major recipient of Chinese loans, accounting for half of Beijing’s lending to the region. Since 2006, it has taken on bn of oil-backed debt. Last year, Rafael Ramirez, the former head of state-oil company PdvSA, revealed that these payments-in kind absorbed over half of Venezuela’s 640,000 barrels per day of oil exports to China. But no more, it seems.长期以来,委内瑞拉一直是获得中国贷款的大户,占到中国对拉美贷款总量的二分之一。自2006年以来,该国接受了500亿美元石油持贷款。去年国有石油公司——委内瑞拉国家石油公司(PDVSA)的前掌舵人拉斐尔#8226;拉米雷斯(Rafael Ramirez)透露,这种以石油偿还贷款的方式占该国每日64万桶对华石油出口的逾一半。但是,看来以后不会这样了。Last week, Venezuela’s national gazette made it official that Caracas no longer needed to export 330,000 barrels bpd to China to pay for its loans. Instead, according to BancTrust, a boutique investment bank, PdVSA can now send as much or as little oil to Beijing as it wants. Furthermore, the terms of the loans have been extended beyond their current three years, perhaps indefinitely. China’s Ministry of Commerce has since confirmed the changes, pointing out they were made at Venezuela’s request.上周,委内瑞拉全国性报纸公开称,该国不再需要每日向中国出口33万桶石油以偿还贷款。相反,小型投行BancTrust表示,PDVSA现在向中国出口石油量的多少,完全由其自己决定。另外,贷款期限已在当前的3年基础上延长,可能是无限期的延长。中国商务部后来已实了这一变动,并指出这是应委内瑞拉的要求而做出的。This de facto debt rescheduling tells us several important things. First, it is another confirmation of Venezuela’s economic and financial distress. To service its Chinese debts at lower oil prices, Venezuela would have had to export comparably more oil. But the country cannot increase oil output quickly. Nor does it have the financial wherewithal to service its Chinese debts in cash instead; foreign reserves are aly under pressure. So something else had to be done.这一实际上的债务延期告诉我们几个重要事实。第一,这再次实了委内瑞拉的经济与金融困局。要在更低油价下偿还中国债务,委内瑞拉将不得不出口更多石油。但该国无法迅速提高石油产量,同样也没有财力以现金偿还中国债务。该国外汇储备已在承压。所以必须采取其他措施。Second, China apparently agreed to the debt rescheduling perhaps because its banks believed in taking the long view. After all, Venezuela has the world’s largest oil reserves – so one day it will pay. But was the rescheduling China’s preferred choice? As the old saying goes: if you owe the bank , you have a problem, but if you owe the bank m, the bank has a problem. Either way, China is unlikely to be a source of fresh finance for Venezuela from now on.第二,中国看来同意了债务延期,可能是因为中国的认为应该放眼长远。委内瑞拉毕竟拥有世界最大的石油储量,所以总有一天它将偿还债务。但债务延期是中国的首选吗?正如古谚所说:如果你欠5美元,那么你将有麻烦,但如果你欠500万美元,那么将有麻烦。不管哪种情况,从现在开始,中国都不可能成为委内瑞拉获得新融资的来源国了。Lastly, Venezuela now has 330,000 bpd of oil – equivalent to almost m a day or bn a year — that it can use for other ends. One use might be to ease the import crunch that has resulted in shortages of so many basic goods, such as toilet paper. Another might be to divert resources to meet international bond payments. Either way, Venezuela is struggling and so far Wall Street is still being paid. But for how much longer?最后,委内瑞拉现在有每日33万桶的石油——折合价格接近每日2500万美元、每年90亿美元——可用到其他用途了。可能用途之一是缓解进口资金紧张,后者已导致诸如卫生纸等众多基本商品的短缺。另外可以转作偿还国际债券之用。不管哪种情况,委内瑞拉都在拼命挣扎。迄今华尔街仍收到该国的还款,但这种状况还能延续多久呢? /201410/338081河南省郑州华山整形美容医院抽脂怎么样A Chinese infrastructure tycoon who is suing local governments for allegedly failing to pay their construction bills said on Monday that he had reached settlement agreements totalling about Rmb700m (3m).状告地方政府拖欠工程款的一位中国基建巨头周一表示,他已达成总额约7亿元人民币(合1.13亿美元)的和解协议。Yan Jiehe, founder of the Nanjing-based China Pacific Construction Group, sued six local governments in January for debts totalling more than Rmb900m. But repayment agreements have now been hammered out with four of the debtors according to Mr Yan, who vowed to pursue the other two administrations in Hunan and Shandong provinces, which owe more than Rmb200m, to China’s Supreme People’s Court “if needed”.总部位于南京的中国太平洋建设集团(China Pacific Construction Group,简称CPCG)创始人严介和1月起诉六个地方政府拖欠逾9亿元人民币款项。严介和表示,他已经与其中四个债务人敲定还款协议,并誓言会继续向湖南和山东省欠了逾2亿元人民币的另外两个地方政府追债,如有必要会把官司一路打到中国的最高法院。“Our lawsuits put a lot of pressure on the governments,” Mr Yan said at a media briefing in Shanghai. “It means that the rule of law really works. I see great hope for China.”“我们的诉讼给相关地方政府造成了巨大压力,”严介和在上海的一个新闻发布会上表示。“这意味着法治确实管用。我看到了中国的很大希望。”Last year Mr Yan was named China’s seventh richest man by the Hurun Report with a fortune estimated at .2bn, while China Pacific Construction is ranked 166th on the Forbes 500 list of the world’s largest companies, with annual revenues of bn.在去年的胡润百富榜(Hurun Report)上,严介和被列为中国第七大富豪,身家估计达到142亿美元。同时太平洋建设在福布斯(Forbes)世界500强企业排行榜上位居第166位,年营收达到600亿美元。The lawsuits, believed to be the first of their kind in China, highlighted the massive debts accrued by local governments which borrowed money to build infrastructure and prop up economic growth in the wake of the global financial crisis.这些诉讼据信是中国首批状告地方政府欠债的诉讼,它们突显出,全球金融危机过后,中国各地的地方政府因举债建设基础设施、扶持经济增长而积累了巨额债务。According to the National Audit Office, local governments had accumulated Rmb18tn in debts as of June 2013, with Rmb2.8tn due this year中国国家审计署的数据显示,截至2013年6月,地方政府积累了18万亿元人民币债务,其中2.8万亿元人民币债务将在今年到期。In a belated effort to tackle the potential crisis, the Chinese government has authorised local administrations to issue Rmb1tn worth of municipal bonds in an effort to roll over some of the debt. Beijing also instructed state banks on May 15 to continue to fund public infrastructure projects even if the finance vehicles backing them were behind on their interest or principal payments.为应对这场潜在的危机,中国中央政府姗姗来迟地授权地方政府发行1万亿元人民币的市政债券,以便滚转一部分债务。北京方面在5月15日还指示国有继续向公共基础设施项目提供资金——即便这些项目背后的融资工具拖欠了利息或本金。In an interview with the Financial Times in February, Mr Yan said that his company had sued the six local governments to send a signal to other administrations that owed China Pacific Construction as much as Rmb50bn. He described the tactic as “striking the mountains to shake the tigers”.严介和在2月份接受英国《金融时报》专访时表示,他的公司起诉六个地方政府之举,是向其它地方政府发出一个信号,这些政府总共欠了太平洋建设高达500亿元人民币。他形容这种战术是“敲山震虎”。At Monday’s briefing, Mr Yan said that his gambit had been successful, with his company’s accounts receivable from local governments declining to Rmb40bn over recent months against a “normal” level of about Rmb30bn.严介和在周一的发布会上宣布,他的策略是成功的,他的公司的对地方政府应收账款在近几个月已下降至400亿元人民币,而“正常”水平是大约300亿元人民币。The construction tycoon, who made his fortune in a sector traditionally dominated by state and military-backed firms, said one local government in central Hebei province that owed him Rmb140m had previously protested it had no money. But it coughed up Rmb40m shortly after China Pacific Construction filed the lawsuits and has also agreed to repay the outstanding Rmb100m.这位建筑业巨头在一个传统上由政府和军方持的企业主导的行业发了财。他表示,河北省一个欠他1.4亿元人民币的地方政府此前曾抱怨其无钱付款。但在太平洋建设提起诉讼后不久,该地方政府就拿出4000万元人民币,并同意偿还剩余的1亿元人民币。“Before it was hard to get even Rmb4m from them and government officials were nowhere to be found when we visited,” Mr Yan said. “After the suit, our staff were received by their top leaders.”“以前,从他们那里拿到400万元人民币都很难,在我们上门时,政府官员们跑得一个人都找不到,”严介和表示。“打官司后,我们的工作人员见到了他们的最高领导。”He added that another county government had agreed to pay off its debt in monthly instalments of Rmb6m after it was threatened with legal action.他补充说,在威胁采取法律行动后,另一个县政府已同意以每月600万元人民币按月分期偿债。The governments targeted by China Pacific Construction could not be reached immediately for comment.记者一时联系不上被太平洋建设索债的地方政府请其置评。 /201505/377182郑州/市第二人民医院去痣多少钱

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