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楼主:飞新闻 时间:2019年10月20日 12:35:12 点击:0 回复:0
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China-Nestled among tiny farms in this rural outpost outside Shanghai is a huge, supersanitary chicken farm-a bold bet by Tyson Foods Inc. that it can thrive in China by overhauling a decades-old business model. 在上海周边的农村地区散落的小农场中间,坐落着泰森食品公司(Tyson Foods Inc.)的一家超大型、极其清洁的养鸡场。这是泰森食品的一次大胆押注,寻求通过彻底改变存在了几十年的商业模式在中国市场获得成功。 Instead of buying chickens from independent farmers, as Tyson long has done world-wide, the company is spending hundreds of millions of dollars to build its own farms in China. The effort is aimed at making inroads in a crucial growth market by addressing one of the country#39;s most vexing problems: food safety. 泰森食品斥资数亿美元在中国建设自己的养鸡场,而不是从农村散养农户手中收购鸡只,这也是该公司长期以来在全球各地的一贯做法。这样做的目的在于,通过因应“食品安全”这一让中国人最感苦恼的问题,进入中国这个至关重要的增长市场。 On a recent afternoon, 330,000 chickens graze in 16 ventilated buildings, each about the area of two Olympic swimming pools. Video cameras monitor the interiors, where the faint sound of chirps mix with the whir of big fans. Workers don sterilized uniforms and shoes. Every delivery truck entering the grounds is sprayed three times with disinfectant. 不久前的一天下午,记者看到33万只鸡在16个通风良好的鸡舍里进食,每个鸡舍的面积都有两个奥运泳池那么大。有摄像头对鸡舍的内部进行监控,鸡舍内,鸡只的叫声和大型风扇的嗡嗡声夹杂在一起。工人们穿着消过毒的制和鞋。每一辆驶入养鸡场的卡车都要喷三次消毒剂。 Tyson aims by 2015 to run 90 such farms in China and supply its processing plants here almost exclusively with company-raised broilers, as chickens raised for meat are called. Today the Springdale, Ark., company has 20 farms in China. Three years ago, none. The goal is to double production in China to three million birds a week for supermarkets and restaurants to help offset sluggish growth in the U.S. 泰森食品的目标是,到2015年之前在中国运营90个这样的养鸡场,该公司在中国的加工工厂所需的肉鸡几乎完全来自自己的养鸡场。如今,这家总部位于阿肯色州斯普林代尔(Springdale)的公司在中国的养鸡场数量已经从三年前的零增加到20个。泰森食品的目标是,在中国实现产量翻番,达到每周向超市和餐厅供应300万只,以对冲美国市场增长疲软的影响。 #39;We just can#39;t build the [chicken] houses fast enough, and we#39;re going absolutely as fast as we know how to go,#39; says Tyson Chief Executive Donnie Smith. 泰森食品首席执行长史密斯(Donnie Smith)说,我们建鸡舍的速度还不够快,但我们的速度绝对已经在我们力所能及的范围内尽可能地快了。 Tyson has competition. Chinese companies, such as KFC supplier Fujian Sunner Development Co. 002299.SZ +0.09% , dominate the market and are expanding. Many are working to modernize their food-production system, sometimes with their own company farms. Acquiring new technology and safety practices was a reason for this year#39;s .7 billion takeover of U.S.-based pork processor Smithfield Foods Inc. by China#39;s Shuanghui International Holdings Ltd. 泰森食品也面临着竞争。包括肯德基(KFC)的供应商福建 农发展股份有限公司(Fujian Sunner Development Co.)在内的中国公司主宰着这一市场,而且规模也越来越大。很多公司都在努力实现食品生产体系的现代化,一些公司还建立了自己的养鸡场。今年,中国的双汇国际控股有限公司(Shuanghui International Holdings Ltd.)以47亿美元收购美国的猪肉加工商Smithfield Foods Inc.,原因之一就是要获取新的技术和安全操作。 Tyson doesn#39;t disclose its investment costs or revenue by country. But CLSA Americas LLC estimates that Tyson#39;s China revenue was about 5 million in the fiscal year that ended in September and will reach .1 billion by fiscal 2015. 泰森食品不按国别披露其投资成本或营收。不过,CLSA Americas LLC估计,在截至今年9月份的这个财年里,泰森食品在中国的营收大约为7.15亿美元,到2015财年将达到11亿美元。 In the U.S., where Tyson is the largest meat processor by sales, the company contracts with 4,000 farmers to raise the chickens that Tyson processes. The farmers raise about 100,000 birds at a time, shouldering the risk and navigating the logistical hassles. 按销售额计,泰森食品是美国最大的肉类加工厂商,该公司与4,000家农场签订了协议,该公司加工的鸡只由这些农场饲养。这些农场在同一时间内饲养的鸡大约有10万只,农场自己承担风险和物流成本。 But that doesn#39;t fly in China, which is dominated by small-scale farms. Small poultry farms, which may have only a few hundred birds each, are hard to monitor to prevent disease and deter excessive use of the feed additives that speed animal growth. 然而,在主要以小规模养饲养场为主的中国,这种做法行不通。小型家禽饲养场一次可能仅饲养数百只家禽,很难监控并预防疾病,而且也很难防止通过过度使用饲料添加剂来加快家禽生长。 Such food-safety problems are hindering companies#39; efforts to tap a growing demand for meat in China#39;s emerging middle class. China overtook the U.S. last year as the world#39;s largest consumer of chickens. But since then, a new bird-flu outbreak and other health scares have triggered sharp declines in sales. 中国新兴的中产阶级对肉类食品的需求在不断增长,但上述食品安全问题正在阻碍各个企业为满足这些需求所作的努力。去年,中国取代美国成为全球最大的鸡肉消费国。但之后,新型禽流感疫情爆发以及其他健康问题又导致销售额出现大幅下降。 Yum Brands Inc., which counts on China for about half the company#39;s billion in global revenue, blamed consumer concerns over chicken for weaker sales at Yum#39;s KFC outlets. The company cut ties this year with some small-scale suppliers after several vendors were investigated for using excessive levels of antibiotics. 百胜餐饮集团(Yum Brands Inc.)全球140亿美元的收入中有大约一半来自中国。该公司将旗下肯德基(KFC)餐厅销售额下降归咎于消费者对鸡肉的担忧。由于调查发现一些供应商使用过量抗生素,该公司今年与一些小规模供应商断绝了业务关系。 China#39;s chicken market is central to Tyson#39;s plan to increase its sales from international production by at least 12% annually over the next few years. Tyson, which generated billion in global revenue for fiscal 2013, has processed chicken in China since 2001. Lately, though, the company hasn#39;t turned a profit in the country because of its investments in new farms and processing plants. The company expects to be profitable in China by the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014. 泰森食品计划在未来数年让国际产品销售额每年实现至少12%的增幅,而中国鸡肉市场对该公司实现这一计划十分关键。泰森食品自2001年以来一直在中国加工鸡肉,该公司2013财年全球收入达到340亿美元。但近来,由于该公司对新饲养场和加工工厂进行投资,公司在中国的业务一直未能实现盈利。泰森食品预计2014财年第四季度前在中国实现盈利。 After a decade of purchasing birds from independent farmers, Tyson determined it needed to take over production. #39;It became apparent we have less control over product quality and safety when we buy chickens available on the open market,#39; says Malik Sadiq, the chief operating officer of Tyson#39;s China division. 过去10年,泰森食品一直从独立饲养场那里收购家禽,现在该公司确定需要自己来饲养。该公司中国业务首席运营长萨迪克(Malik Sadiq)说:很明显,当我们在公开市场上购买鸡时,我们对产品质量和安全的控制不够。 Tyson says that while operating farms raises costs, it also gives the company direct oversight of production, enabling it to use biosecurity measures. For example, its chicken houses are covered, unlike at many Chinese farms, protecting the animals from the droppings of migrating birds that can carry diseases such as bird flu. 泰森食品说,虽然经营饲养场会增加成本,但此举也让公司可以直接监控生产,令公司可以采用生物安全措施。比如说,和中国的养鸡场不一样,泰森食品的鸡舍是有屋顶的,这样可以保护鸡群免受迁徙过程中候鸟粪便的污染,候鸟粪便可能携带禽流感等病毒。 Tyson hopes that safe products will help build its retail brand in a country where it is little known. 泰森食品在中国还不为人所熟知,该公司希望安全的产品将有助于公司在中国打造其零售品牌。 The payoff could be significant. Poultry sales here have been growing faster than those of pork, China#39;s favorite meat, in part because chicken is less expensive. Retailers and fast-food companies are expanding and looking for safe suppliers. The bulk of Tyson#39;s chicken sales in China today are to wholesalers and other meatpackers that use the meat in sausage and other products. About 20% of its sales by volume is for the fast-food sector. 这样做可能带来巨大的回报。中国家禽销售的增速超过了中国人喜爱的猪肉,部分原因在与鸡肉相对便宜。零售商和快餐企业正在扩张,都在寻找安全的供应商。目前,泰森食品在中国销售的鸡肉主要面向批发商以及其他将鸡肉用于生产香肠和其他产品的肉类加工商。该公司销量的大约20%是面向快餐行业。 Minnesota-based Cargill Inc. started processing chicken in China this past spring, opening its own farms and plants as part of a 0 million investment. And Illinois-based OSI Group Inc., a supplier to McDonald#39;s Corp., said recently that it had expanded the poultry farms it operates in China through a joint venture. 总部设在明尼苏达州的嘉吉公司(Cargill Inc.)今年春季开始在中国加工鸡肉。作为一项2.5亿美元投资的一部分,该公司在中国开设了自己的饲养场和工厂。麦当劳(McDonald#39;s Corp.)供应商、总部设在伊利诺伊州的OSI Group Inc.不久前表示,该公司通过一家合资企业扩大了其在中国经营的家禽饲养场。 Building farms is complicated and capital-intensive. Gaining rights to China#39;s scarce agricultural land is difficult. Tyson must find plots without neighbors who raise poultry to mitigate the sp of disease. Government approval of leases can take months, if not years, according to industry executives. 建养鸡场不仅复杂,而且需要大量资本。获取中国稀缺的农业用地权十分困难。泰森食品须找到四周没有家禽饲养的地块,这样可减少疾病的传播。业界高管表示,政府对租赁权的审批可能需要数月、甚至数年时间。 Mr. Sadiq, the Tyson operating chief, says the tax revenue the company provides help its case with officials. But analysts say that provincial authorities generally give preference to local companies. When Tyson gets approval, it often pays compensation or rent to current farmers. 泰森食品首席运营长萨迪克说,公司缴纳的税款会有助于完成政府审批。但分析人士说,省级主管部门一般会优先考虑地方企业。泰森食品若拿到审批,往往要向当前用那些地的农民付赔偿金或租金。 China#39;s national government generally has supported the move to larger farms to modernize production and improve food safety. The government also has aided the commercial chicken industry by reducing the number of so-called wet markets, where live birds and other farm products are sold to consumers and where viruses can circulate easily. 中国中央政府一般来说对农场扩大规模以实现现代化生产和提高食品安全的做法持持态度。此外,政府还会通过减少传统市场来辅助商业鸡肉产业。传统市场是指将活禽和其它农产品直接卖给消费者的市场,病毒可轻易传播。 Tyson has had to build roads and bridges and install electrical lines. Cargill is making similar investments, including building 30 miles of roads near its operations in Anhui, a relatively poor eastern province, and splitting the cost with the local government for installing 300 miles of electrical lines. 泰森食品不得不修路搭桥和安装电线。嘉吉目前也在进行类似投资,包位于在中国相对贫困的东部省份安徽该公司农场附近修建30英里(约48公里)的公路,并与当地政府分摊安装300英里(约480公里)电线的费用。 #39;Embarking on these projects in rural China requires just immense complexity,#39; says Christopher Langholz, who heads Cargill#39;s animal-protein business in China. 嘉吉动物蛋白中国区总裁梁厚哲(Christopher Langholz)说,在中国农村开展这些项目极为复杂。 Still, executives believe it will pay off. Retailers are selling upscale labels and imported foods to consumers who believe that such products are safer than what is available at traditional markets. 尽管如此,高管们仍认为此举十分划算。零售商目前在销售高档和进口食品,消费者们认为这些产品比传统市场上的食品更安全。 Tyson says its strategy aly is winning more business from restaurant chains and retailers. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. #39;s chief executive for China, Greg Foran, says Tyson has helped minimize the retailer#39;s risk by providing a safe, controlled supply. 泰森食品说,这一策略已经让公司从连锁餐厅和零售商那里获得了更多业务。沃尔玛连锁公司(Wal-Mart Stores Inc.)中国业务首席执行长高福澜(Greg Foran)说,由于泰森提供了安全可控的产品供应,沃尔玛的风险降到了最低。 Tyson aims to expand retail sales to 20% of its volume in China from 10% today. But that will require building name recognition and persuading consumers to buy packaged breasts and wings instead of entire birds recently slaughtered at market-and to pay more for chicken billed as higher quality. 泰森食品的目标是将在华零售数量占公司销售总数的比例从目前的10%增至20%。但这不仅要建立品牌识别度,还要说消费者购买包装好的鸡胸和鸡翅,而不是在市场上买刚刚屠宰好的整鸡,并且让他们愿意为所谓高品质的鸡肉花更多钱。 #39;Chinese customers don#39;t pay,#39; says James Rice, a former vice president of Tyson#39;s operations in China who now works for a Chinese liquor company. #39;In China, 20% of customers have the purchasing power and the other 80% will buy the cheapest thing.#39; 泰森食品前中国区运营副总裁、现供职于中国某白酒企业的赖斯(James Rice)说,中国消费者不会花这个钱的;在中国,只有20%的消费者有购买力,其余80%则是捡便宜东西买。 Macy Lu, a 40-year-old homemaker in Shanghai, says she bought Tyson chicken recently because the deboned and skinned thighs were more convenient than what she would have bought elsewhere. It was a #39;bit more expensive,#39; she says, but she felt safer buying the Tyson chicken because of the production date on the label. #39;If there is any problem, at least it#39;s traceable.#39; 40岁的上海家庭主妇Macy Lu说,自己近来买的是泰森鸡肉,因为这些鸡大腿无骨无皮,相较其它地方的鸡腿更为方便。她说,泰森鸡肉是要稍微贵一点,但感觉更安全,因为商标上有生产日期。她说,如果有任何问题,至少是可以追溯的。 /201312/268155Thirty-five stories above New York Harbor, Fred Rich can stroll through his groves of Japanese maple, spruce and pine trees or sit under a pergola hung with grape vines, where wild strawberries and thyme grow between the paving stones. There is a hidden alpine garden, an orchard of plum, peach and heirloom apple trees, and espaliered pear trees growing on copper screens.在纽约港35层以上的高空,弗雷德#12539;里奇(Fred Rich)可在自己的日本枫树、云杉和松树林中漫步,亦或坐在挂着葡萄藤的棚架下,棚架的铺地石间生长着野草莓和百里香。这儿有个隐秘的高空花园,一个种着李子、桃子及品种古老的苹果树的果园,园内的梨树则攀伏生长于铜网上。#39;There is always something in bloom,#39; said Mr. Rich, who will be dining on fresh arugula, spinach and radishes from his vegetable beds this week. #39;I do my yoga in the morning and the birds sit there and watch.#39;里奇说:“每时每刻总有些东西在盛开。早晨我会在这儿做瑜伽,小鸟就呆在那儿看着。”这一周他将从自家菜圃采摘新鲜芝麻菜、菠菜和小萝卜作为食材。With landscape architect Mark Morrison and a team of engineers, fabricators and organic farmers, Mr. Rich has created a 2,000-square-foot garden irrigated with recycled building water on the rooftop of his .8 million penthouse. Mr. Rich, a 57-year-old partner at the Sullivan amp; Cromwell law firm, declined to say what he spent on his rooftop retreat, which has views of the Statue of Liberty and Governors Island.里奇与景观设计师马克#12539;莫里森(Mark Morrison)、一群工程师、建造工和有机耕种农夫展开合作,在其价值480万美元的顶层公寓的屋顶打造了一个面积为2,000平方英尺(约合185平米)、采用大楼的再生水进行灌溉的花园。今年57岁的里奇为Sullivan amp; Cromwell律师事务所的一名合伙人,他拒绝透露他在这处楼顶避世之所上花费了多少资金。从这个花园可欣赏到自由女神像与总督岛的景致。At its most basic, a green roof consists of a carpet of hard-to-kill plants in a thin layer of soil. Luxury homeowners, however, are opting for bespoke greenscapes as carefully curated-and sometimes as costly-as art collections. With the right design, these eco-chic gardens also add insulation, absorb storm water runoff and deflect heat from the sun.最基础的绿色屋顶由种植在薄薄一层土壤中的生命力顽强的植物构成。不过,豪宅业主却喜欢选择定制绿色景观,它们被当作艺术品一般细致布置,而且它们的造价有时也与后者相当。设计得当的话,这些时尚的生态花园还可隔热、吸收暴风雨造成的水流并折射太阳的热度。Creating the natural look hundreds of feet above the sidewalk demands intricate engineering, sophisticated waterproofing and irrigation systems, custom-designed soil, and occasionally, a crane.在距人行道数百英尺的高空打造自然景观需要精细的工程操作、精密的防水与灌溉系统、专门调配的土壤,而且偶尔还需动用起重机。A block in Manhattan#39;s Chelsea neighborhood is scheduled to be closed to pedestrian traffic later in June while a 150-foot crane lifts 13 species of mature trees onto the roof of Jean-Laurent Casanova#39;s duplex apartment. The big lift is part of a two-year, 0,000 project to create an 1,100-square-foot arboretum reminiscent of the Southern Alps, Normandy and Corsica.曼哈顿切尔西街区的一条街预定将在6月底禁止行人通行,因为届时将有一台150英尺(约合45米)高的起重机要将13个品种的成年大树送上让-洛朗#12539;卡萨诺瓦(Jean-Laurent Casanova)复式公寓的屋顶。这项为期两年、耗资20万美元的工程旨在打造一个面积为1,100平方英尺(约合102平米),令人想起南阿尔卑斯山、诺曼底和科西嘉岛风光的树木园,这辆庞大的起重机是工程的一部分。#39;I love trees. I really want to have shade-almost to have a little forest on both sides of the roof,#39; said Dr. Casanova, a 50-year-old pediatrician and research scientist from Paris who is also a professor at Rockefeller University. Designed by Jacob Lange of Christian Duvernois Landscape, his forest will be set in an undulating landscape of meadow grasses, perennials and creeping thyme, crisscrossed with walking paths.现年50岁的卡萨诺瓦医生说:“我喜爱树木,我非常想要拥有树荫――几乎想要屋顶的两侧有一个小树林。”他是一名来自巴黎的儿科医生和科研人员,同时也在洛克菲勒大学(Rockefeller University)担任教授。他的这个树林由景观设计公司Christian Duvernois Landscape的雅各布#12539;兰格(Jacob Lange)设计,它将被连绵起伏的草坪、多年生植物和蔓生的百里香所环绕,林中还会辟有纵横交错的步行小径。Michael Gerstner created a dense meadow-scape on the roof of his Tribeca penthouse, inspired by New York City#39;s High Line elevated park. #39;I like nature and the presence of nature-I don#39;t like a sterile wood deck,#39; said Mr. Gerstner, 39, who works in investments. He bought the duplex in a converted 19th-century industrial building in 2011 for .1 million, according to city records, and spent two years remodeling it to #39;bring the outside in,#39; at a cost he declined to disclose.受到纽约市High Line空中花园的启发,迈克尔#12539;格斯特纳(Michael Gerstner)在其位于翠贝卡街区的顶层公寓的屋顶打造了一处茂密的草坪景观。他说:“我喜欢自然,喜欢自然现于眼前――不喜欢了无生气的木制露台。”今年39岁的格斯特纳为一名投资业人士。据市政纪录显示,他在2011年以310万美元购得这套复式公寓,公寓位于一栋由19世纪的工业厂房改建而成的公寓楼中。他还花了两年时间改造公寓以“将户外景观引入室内”,但他拒绝透露改造费用。Once a caviar warehouse cooled by giant blocks of ice, the structure was strong enough to support 15,000 pounds of plant and soil. Architect Andrew Franz cut out part of the sloping roof to install a large retractable skylight-the roof garden#39;s access point. Because of the roof#39;s severe pitch, a scaffold structure was built to support the plants and trees, which include birch, ginkgo and a black pine Mr. Gerstner prizes for its #39;sculptural#39; qualities. Juniper bushes, lavender, bright yellow yarrow and Scotch broom frame an ipe-wood deck. Although the plants have been selected for their hardiness in excessive sun and wind, they still require tending. A gardener makes regular visits to the 1,000-square-foot space, and a drip-irrigation system delivers measured amounts of water to different plant zones.这栋楼房原为一个采用巨型冰块制冷的鱼子酱库房,它足够坚固,可撑重达15,000磅(约合6,800公斤)的植物与土壤。建筑师安德鲁#12539;弗朗兹(Andrew Franz)将斜屋顶截去一部分,安了一扇可伸缩的大天窗――屋顶花园的入口处。由于屋顶极其倾斜,建筑师搭建了一个架来撑园中的植物和树木,树木包括白桦、银杏和一棵因其“雕塑”质感而备受格斯特纳珍视的黑松。杜松丛、薰衣草、亮黄色的蓍草以及金雀花环绕着一个重蚁木露天平台。尽管这些植物因耐强烈日照和抗狂风而被挑选出来,但它们仍需照料。一名园艺工会定期照管这个1,000平方英尺的花园,滴灌系统会向不同的植物区滴灌经过计量的水分。Among its practical benefits, the meadow cools the duplex in the summer and insulates it during the winter, enabling Mr. Gerstner to leave the building#39;s original wood beams exposed. It has also saved him the cost of a summer rental in the Hamptons.草坪具有一些实际的好处,比如在夏季它能降低复式公寓的温度,在冬季则能保暖,使格斯特纳能够让楼房原有的木梁裸露在外。此外,它还让他省下了夏季在汉普顿斯租房的费用。Residential demand for planted rooftops has grown between 15% to 20% each year over the past decade, according to Ed Jarger, general sales and marketing manager for American Hydrotech, a manufacturer of green-roofing systems whose clients include New York#39;s Lincoln Center and the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. The cost of installing one of his company#39;s garden-roof assemblies-a watertight rubberized asphalt membrane overlaid with a root barrier, insulation, a drainage and water-retention layer, and an engineered growing medium (#39;We don#39;t like to call it dirt.#39;) can range between to a square foot, or more. #39;More high-end single-family homes are putting green roofs on sloped structures, where the roof becomes part of the ground,#39; said Mr. Jarger.绿色屋顶系统建造商American Hydrotech的销售与营销总经理埃德#12539;加格(Ed Jarger)称,在过去10年间,居民对绿色屋顶的需求每年以15%至20%的速度增长。该公司的客户包括纽约的林肯中心(Lincoln Center)和旧金山的加州科学馆(California Academy of Sciences)。该公司的屋顶花园组合包括一个以橡胶涂层的防水沥青膜,它的表面覆盖了耐根穿刺层、隔热层、排水系统和储水层以及经改造的生长介质(“我们不喜欢把它称作土。”)它的造价在每平方英尺30美元至60美元甚或更高。加格称:“越来越多高端独栋住宅在斜顶建筑上安装绿色屋顶,屋顶成为了地面的一部分。”For Ken Hilgendorf, an architect and builder in Los Angeles, a sloped green roof was the solution to a complicated renovation of his home in the city#39;s Westwood section. Set on a hill 30 feet above street level, #39;it was the lowest-cost house in the neighborhood, because the hill was so big,#39; said Mr. Hilgendorf, who paid about 0,000 for it in 1999.洛杉矶建筑师和建造商肯#12539;希尔根多夫(Ken Hilgendorf)在该市的西木区(Westwood)有一所住宅,对他而言,倾斜的绿色屋顶就是这所房子复杂的翻新难题的解决方案。希尔根多夫说,这所房子座落在高出街道30英尺(约合九米)的一座山丘上,“它是这个街区成本最低的住宅,因为那座山丘非常之大”。他于1999年花费约60万美元将它买下。During a four-year renovation, he built a 75-foot-long garage at the foot of the property, then spent ,000 on a green roof and landscaping designed by Stephen Billings of Pamela Burton and Co. A massive earthwork sculpted from 150 cubic feet of #39;fluffy#39; custom-crafted soil, the garage roof is planted with a sycamore tree, ornamental grasses, and a bright green hillock of no-mow grass-a fescue mix that tolerates excessive heat and drought conditions. A thick hedgerow at the lip of the roof prevents anyone from tumbling off the lawn and onto the sidewalk.在历时四年的翻新过程中,他在房子底部建了一个75英尺(约合23米)长的车库,而后又花费54,000美元打造了一个绿色屋顶及环境景观,它们由景观设计公司Pamela Burton amp; Co.的斯蒂芬#12539;比林斯(Stephen Billings)设计。车库屋顶这项庞大的土方工程取用了150立方英尺(约合四立方米)经专门调配的“松软的”土壤打造而成,屋顶上种了一株美国梧桐、观赏草以及一个小丘的鲜绿的免割草――这片羊茅草可耐高温和干旱。屋顶的边缘有一堵茂密的灌木篱 ,可防止人从草坪跌落到人行道上去。#39;It#39;s like you#39;re in a tree fort,#39; said Mr. Hilgendorf.希尔根多夫说:“它就像你呆在一个树木堡垒中。”In New York City, the impact of a green roof on an apartment#39;s resale value is a matter of debate. #39;Every square foot that you sacrifice for landscaping as opposed to usable space is going to make the terrace less valuable,#39; said Michael Vargas, CEO of Manhattan-based Vanderbilt Appraisal Co.在纽约市,绿色屋顶对公寓转手价值的影响到底多大是一个存在争议的问题。曼哈顿房产估值公司Vanderbilt Appraisal的首席执行长迈克尔#12539;瓦尔加斯(Michael Vargas)说:“你用来布置景观而非打造实用空间的每一平方英尺都会让露台贬值。”David and Henrie Whitcomb#39;s vertical garden redeemed a chunk of unusable space on their 2,500-square-foot wraparound terrace in New York#39;s Greenwich Village. Their penthouse, which public records show was purchased for .7 million in 2007, had #39;a great big 15-foot-high, 15-foot-wide ugly tan brick wall#39; that ruined the view from the master bedroom, said Mr. Whitcomb, who founded Automated Trading Desk, one of the first high-frequency trading firms.戴维#12539;惠特科姆(David Whitcomb)与亨丽#12539;惠特科姆(Henrie Whitcomb)位于纽约格林威治村的寓所有一个2,500平方英尺(约合230平米)的全景式露台,他们的绿色幕 恢复了露台大量不可用的空间。公开记录显示他们于2007年以870万美元购得这套顶层公寓。惠特科姆称,公寓有“一面15英尺(约合4.5米)高、15英尺宽的难看的棕色大砖 ”,它破坏了主卧的室外景观。惠特科姆是最早一批高频交易机构之一Automated Trading Desk的创始人。The Whitcombs, who own a second home in Hawaii, couldn#39;t tear down the wall: It is the 1928 building#39;s chimney. So they transformed the eyesore into the centerpiece of their terrace garden, which also features a grove of Japanese maple, gray birch and serviceberry trees, and an evergreen that can be pushed on a built-in track to a prime spot at their living room window at Christmas.惠特科姆夫妇(他们在夏威夷还有一所度假房)无法拆除这堵砖 ,因为它是这栋1928年的建筑的烟囱。因此,他们把这个眼中钉改造成了露台花园的中心装饰。这个花园也设计有日本枫树、杨叶桦和花楸树林以及一棵常青树,在圣诞节期间,这棵树还可通过内置式轨道被推到起居室窗户的黄金位置。During the 26-month remodeling project, the Whitcombs#39; architect, John Tinmouth, and landscape architect, Linda Pollak, designed a wall of panels with a water feature and recessed slots for 600 plants to bracket to the chimney. Future Green Studio, a New York-based firm specializing in green roofs and green walls, embedded the panels with ornamental grasses and trailing plants in shades of green, silver and purple. The plants are watered by a drip irrigation system.在这项为期26个月的改造工程中,惠特科姆夫妇的建筑师约翰#12539;廷茅斯(John Tinmouth)及景观设计师琳达#12539;波拉克(Linda Pollak)设计了一面面板 ,它包括一处人工水景和用于让600棵植物附着在烟囱上的凹槽。纽约专门从事绿色屋顶与绿色幕 设计业务的Future Green Studio公司在面板上栽种了绿色、银色和紫色色调的观赏草和蔓生植物。这些植物由滴灌系统浇水。#39;I#39;m guessing that it might have been, by itself, a half-million dollar installation,#39; said Mr. Whitcomb. #39;By high summer, it looked absolutely wonderful. Then began the cold weather, and the wind blowing off the steppes of New Jersey. By April, the wind had taken off almost all the plant material and most of the soil.#39;惠特科姆说:“我猜想它本身也许是个价值50万美元的装置。到了盛夏,它看上去美极了。接下来寒冷天气来临,大风从新泽西的大草原刮来。到了4月份,风已经将几乎所有的植物和大部分土壤都刮走了。”Now, the wall must be replanted each spring, #39;based on what plants will survive there, and what plants will hold the soil,#39; said Emma Decaires, the Whitcombs#39; horticulturalist.惠特科姆的园艺师埃玛#12539;德凯雷斯(Emma Decaires)说,现在“根据什么植物能在那儿存活,什么植物能保持水土”,每年春季那面面板 都必须重新种上植物。Luxury developers are responding to city dwellers#39; hunger for free-form green spaces. Completed last summer, DDG Partners#39; new 37-unit condo building in Manhattan#39;s Meatpacking district gives a nod to the abandoned, overgrown buildings that once stood nearby; its marquee is planted with a lush tangle of trees, shrubs and flowering plants that spill through amoeba-shaped cutouts. A two-bedroom apartment there is listed for .5 million.豪宅开发商开始对城市居民对自由形态的绿色空间的渴求做出反应。DDG Partners位于曼哈顿Meatpacking区的包含37套公寓的新共管公寓楼于去年夏季竣工,它也模仿起了曾经矗立在附近的杂草丛生的废弃楼房。它的遮檐上种植了一片繁茂的树木、灌木丛以及呈不规则曲线形散落各处的开花植物。该公寓楼一套两居室公寓的挂牌价为450万美元。The company#39;s 42-year-old CEO, Joe McMillan, lives in a ground-floor apartment at another DDG building in NoHo, where plants and vines creep across the bluestone facade from irrigated window boxes. Although Mr. McMillan#39;s master and guest bedrooms are at street level, they are shielded from view by the living woodland tableaux planted in the recessed windows: a rock garden overgrown with ferns; witch hazel, yew and cypress trees growing out of thick plantings of grape-holly.DDG Partners 42岁的首席执行长乔#12539;麦克米伦(Joe McMillan)住在该公司位于NoHo区的另一栋公寓楼的一层公寓中,植物和藤蔓从有水灌溉的窗台花箱中长出来,攀爬在青石外墙上。尽管他的主卧和客卧都与街道齐平,但它们都被栽在内凹窗内的充满活力的林地景观所遮挡。这个岩石园种满了蕨类植物、金缕梅、紫衫以及从茂密的俄勒冈葡萄丛中长出的柏树。 /201408/321214Large technology companies will experience the same collapse in reputation as banks have endured in recent years unless they rapidly change their policy approach, business leaders have cautioned.大型科技公司恐将重蹈近年来的覆辙,遭遇声誉危机,除非他们迅速改变经营策略,商业领袖警告称。Their warning was directed at the influential heads of technology companies, such as those in Silicon Valley, who were told they needed to recognise that self-regulation would not be sufficient to stave off public alarm about issues such as privacy.他们的警告针对有影响力的科技公司负责人,如硅谷的企业家们。他们指出,这些企业家需要承认,自律措施不足以避免公众对隐私等问题的恐慌。“Self-regulation, no matter what you do, is just not going to be good enough [for tech companies],” said Paul Achleitner, chairman of the supervisory board of Deutsche Bank. Addressing the Davos economic forum, he pointed out that a self-regulatory approach had been previously employed by banks — but notably failed to quell the political backlash against their over-reach.“不管你做什么,自律(对科技公司来说)都将是不够完善的,”德意志(Deutsche Bank)监事会主席保罗#8226;阿赫莱特纳(Paul Achleitner)说。他在达沃斯经济论坛的演讲中指出,自律方式先前已被所采用——但很明显这未能平息政治上对过度行为的强烈反对。His comments come as opposition grows, particularly in Europe, to the cultural dominance of US tech giants such as Google and Facebook, fuelled by concerns about widesp US internet surveillance and corporate tax avoidance.他发表此番言论之时,反对美国科技巨头如谷歌(Google)和Facebook文化主导权的声音正在增加,尤其是在欧洲。对无所不在的美国互联网监控以及企业避税的担忧助长了这些反对声音。Google became a target last month for the European Parliament, which backed a motion calling on regulators to consider breaking up the company. The European Commission has also reopened an antitrust probe into the search giant. Uber, the taxi app company, has also faced protests from incumbent groups across Europe.谷歌上个月成为欧洲议会(European Parliament)的目标,后者持一项呼吁监管机构考虑分拆该公司的议案。欧盟委员会(European Commission)也重新启动了针对这家搜索巨头的反垄断调查。出租车应用公司优步(Uber)则面临来自欧洲各地传统企业的抗议。“Never assume that because something has been common practice [in the past] it will not be judged harshly in the future,” Mr Achleitner said. He argued that just as bankers had been surprised by the speed at which political attitudes towards them had changed during the 20th century financial revolution, tech leaders could be shocked by a similar shift in the “technology revolution” of the 21st century.阿赫莱特纳说,“永远不要因为某些事情(在过去)已经成为惯例,就以为它不会在未来受到尖锐的批评。”他认为,正如在20世纪金融革命中家惊讶于政治态度的快速改变,科技业领袖也会在21世纪的“技术革命”中被类似的转变所震惊。Fadi Chehadé, president of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the main entity that organises web domains, said that the collapse of trust in technology companies could be “just as big” as it had been for banks. “It’s real [as a threat],” he said, adding that most tech leaders had been far too complacent about the reputational risks.互联网名称与数字地址分配机构(ICANN)总裁法迪·切哈德(Fadi Chehadé)表示,对科技公司信任的崩塌可能与的遭遇“一样严重”。“这是真实的(作为一种威胁),”他说,大多数科技公司负责人都对声誉风险过于自满。The comments are striking because in recent years the level of trust in technology companies has been extraordinarily high, relative to banks.由于近年来对科技公司的信任程度相对于已经处于相当高的水平,所以这些颇为引人注目。 /201501/356551

One of my parents’ favourite ice-breakers is, “So, have you eaten?” It doesn’t matter what time of day it is or which meal, specifically. Rather than asking each other how we are, we’d end up spending most of the time describing our dinners over the phone.我父母最常用的破冰语就是“你吃了么?”并不特定局限于一天的什么时间段或者哪一顿饭。不是互相聊聊最近如何,我们只会在电话里花大把时间谈论下吃饭的话题。Like many Asian families, we’d become incredibly proficient at ing cryptic emotional signs. There may not be big hugs and open praise, but once in a while, mum would put an unexpected fried egg in our noodles or dad would try and make conversation by asking us to pronounce, then spell every street name he’s ever had trouble remembering. Those, as we’d try to explain to our friends, are their ‘affectionate’ sides.同许多亚洲家庭一样,我们能精妙的读懂含蓄的情感表达。也许没有热情的拥抱和赞扬,但间或你会在面条下意外的发现母亲特意准备的煎蛋,父亲也会尝试和你聊聊他记不住的街道名称让你为他发音与拼写一下。当我们和朋友们谈及时,这些场景便成为他们“深情”的表现。From time to time, my sister and I would wonder whether it’s time we started challenging the awkward PDE (public display of emotion) policy at home. But the sheer difficulty of trying to make our parents break character after years of polite reticence would end up holding us back.不时的我和我的(或)会想,我们是否应该在家挑战下这个奇怪的关于公开表达感情的规矩。但让父母改变多年儒雅含蓄的性格难上加难,总是让我们望而却步。A scene from the film #39;Eat Drink Man Woman#39;.“饮食男女”其中的一幕Plus, there’s always the possibility that too much affection could backfire. Earlier this year, Global Times reported that young people telling their parents ‘I love you’ over the phone have left many parents ‘bewildered’ and in shock.此外,太多的情感外放也可能会带来意料之外的结果。年初环球时报报道,一些年轻人在电话里对着父母说“我爱你”,导致了许多父母的“不知所措”和异常震惊。One viral from Anhui TV station showed what happened after a group of Chinese university students told their parents ‘I love you’ for the first time in their lives. Instead of a montage of hugs and teary faces set to a score of Katy Perry’s ‘Roar’, the declaration of love were mostly met with comments like, “What’s going on?” “Are you drunk?” or as one father put it, “I’m going to a meeting, so cut the crap.”一个广为流传的安徽电视台的视频,记录了当一群大学生在电话里第一次告诉父母“我爱你”后的反应。这段关于爱的表白并未引发类似于凯蒂-佩里的‘怒吼’乐谱里那些蒙太奇的拥抱或者流泪的表情,表白的大学生们得到的大部分回复是“发生了什么事?”“喝醉了吧?”,甚至有一位父亲在说完“我马上要开会了,废话少说”后就直接挂掉了。Peking University sociologist Xia Xueluan explained that the parents#39; responses reveal Chinese parents “are not good at expressing positive emotions” and “are used to educating children with negative language”. Meanwhile, writers at Business Insiders were quick to attribute the fear of the L word to “Confucian teaching, or the remnants of 20th Century Communism. “ 北京大学社会学系教授夏学銮解释道,视频中这些父母的回应表明了中国的父母“并不擅长积极的情感表达”,他们“习惯于用消极的语言来教导孩子”。Business Insiders的作者很快将对爱字的拘于表达归结于“儒学,或者是20世纪共产主义残留(的影响)”。From a sociological perspective, studies have also found that the phrase ‘I love you’ tends to be used less in a high context culture where “expectations are high and well documented”. While in the West (low context society), relationships are often managed with ‘I love you reminders’ to reassure someone of their importance, in high context culture, “intensely personal and intimate declarations can seem out of place and overly forceful.”从社会学角度分析,研究发现“我爱你”这种表述在高语境文化中运用得更少,因为“这些期望将会被更高更好的记录”。在西方(低语境社会)人际交往间的维护,往往会通过‘我爱你提醒’来向别人表达他们的重要性,对比于此,高语境文化中“频繁的个人及亲密表白会显得不合时宜与过于强硬”。But surely those theories alone can’t account for why so many Chinese parents – my own included – don’t find the phrase to be an adequate expression of familial love? An alternative (and more practical) reason could be the formal nature of ‘I love you’ in the Chinese language. For one thing, in English, we can bookend a conversation with a casual ‘love ya’. But the Chinese phrase ‘Wo ai ni’ is more of a blunt and powerful signifier of commitment, rather than affection.但仅仅这些理论并不能解释为什么大部分中国父母(包括我的父亲母亲)认为这并不是一个恰当的亲情表达语句?另一种(更加适用的)解释则为“我爱你”在中文语境中非常正式。一个小例子,在英文中我们可以用一个轻松的“爱你~”来开始一段对话,但在中文语句中“我爱你(拼音)”更像是一个坦率有力的承诺的表达,而非仅仅是感情(的表达)。In this sense, the nuance of parental love is often better expressed through action. In a markedly more uplifting titled ‘Asian Parents and the Awkward ‘I Love You’”, interviewees reveal the various ways their parents attempt to show their love: from the way a father tirelessly provides to the fact that one parent gives her the “good cuts of meat when they go out and eat”.基于上述意义,父母的爱的精妙之处能通过行动更好的表达。在一个更加笑料十足的视频“亚洲父母与别扭的‘我爱你’”中,受访者讲述了很多他们父母试图表达关爱的方式:其中一位父亲乐此不疲的坚持通过 “在外出就餐时父母中的一方要为她准备健康的肉食”这样的方式表现他的爱。In all their awkwardness, Chinese parents have a knack of showing their affection with irony. They will scream at you for spending too much money on them. And will fight to their deaths in the middle of a restaurant for the right to get the bill.在所有的这些别扭中,中国父母非常擅长用一种讽刺的意味来表达爱。他们会责备你在他们身上花了太多钱。会在餐厅中间跟拼了老命似的同你争夺账单的付款权。As blogger Cindy writes, “Chinese families know how to love fiercely. They do it through immense generosity, unwavering loyalty, and a lot of food. We love differently, not better, not worse, but definitely different.”正如主辛迪写道,“中国家庭知道如何热情的去爱,他们的爱是无私的慷慨、坚定的忠诚与大桌的食物。我们赋予爱不同的表达方式,非关更好,亦不会更坏,只是与别不同。” /201403/279694

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