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哈尔滨市老年医院介绍黑龙江人民医院医生的QQ号码哈尔滨宫颈糜烂一般多少钱 哈尔滨医大一院乳腺专家

哈尔滨市三院在什么位置When economists think about climate change, some think a lot about horse manure. Specifically, they consider the greatmanure crisis of the late 1800s, when the world’s cities relied on horses for transport to such an extent that a public sanitation disaster loomed. Fine minds set to work on a crisis that The Times of London estimated in 1894 was so dire that in 50 years every street in the city would be buried 9ft deep in horse droppings.当经济学家思考气候变化问题时,其中一些人会重点研究马粪。具体来说,他们研究的是19世纪末的马粪大危机。当时世界各地的城市极度依赖马匹作为交通工具,以至于一场公共卫生灾难迅速逼近。1894年,伦敦《泰晤士报》(The Times)估计,50年后这场危机会变得非常可怕,伦敦的每一条街道都将覆盖9英尺厚的马粪,于是一群聪明人开始着手应对这场危机。As it turned out, a simple solution was at hand: not new laws or policies but the motor car, a technical innovation so successful that the equine pollution problem was swiftly overcome.结果,很快就出现了一个简单的解决方法:不是新的法律或者政策,而是汽车。这种非常成功的技术革新让人们迅速解决了马粪带来的污染问题。The lesson is obvious for anyone worried about climate change, say economists such as Steven Levitt. In 2009’s SuperFreakonomics he and co-author Stephen Dubner used the tale to argue that technological fixes are often far simpler and cheaper than doomsayers imagine; and global warming could be addressed by so-called geoengineering, or manipulating the environment to halt rising temperatures.史蒂文#8226;莱维特(Steven Levitt)等经济学家表示,这给任何担忧气候变化的人提供了显而易见的教训。在2009年出版的《超级魔鬼经济学》(SuperFreakonomics)一书中,莱维特和合著者斯蒂芬#8226;杜布纳(Stephen Dubner)利用这个故事辩称,通过技术解决问题往往比末日论者想象的简单得多,成本也低得多;可以用所谓的地球工程来解决全球变暖问题,也就是通过操控环境来遏止温度上升。The dangerous allure of such thinking is a central theme tackled by two other economists: Gernot Wagner, an academic who works for the US Environmental Defense Fund, and Harvard professor Martin Weitzman in Climate Shock: The Economic Consequences of a Hotter Planet.另外两位经济学家认为此类想法具有危险的诱惑力,并作为其著作的主题加以讨论:就职于美国环保协会(Environmental Defense Fund)的学者赫尔诺特#8226;瓦格纳(Gernot Wagner)和哈佛大学(Harvard)教授马丁#8226;威茨曼(Martin Weitzman)合著了《气候冲击:一个变暖星球的经济影响》(Climate Shock: The Economic Consequences of a Hotter Planet)。They are right to do so. Interest in geoengineering ismounting as warming carbon dioxide emissions have continued to rise despite decades of UN climate negotiations, billions of dollars worth of renewable energy subsidies and sporadic attempts to price carbon. The failure of those efforts underlines the fact that climate change is, as the authors point out, the ultimate “free rider” problem. It is hard to get people to limit their own pollution when they bear the costs and the benefits are global.他们这样做是正确的。人们对地球工程的兴趣逐步增长,同时尽管联合国(UN)几十年来一直举行气候谈判,人们投入了数十亿美元为可再生能源提供补贴,偶尔还会尝试碳定价,但造成气候变暖的二氧化碳排放仍在继续上升。这些努力的失败凸显出如下事实:正如两位作者指出的那样,气候变化问题最终是“搭便车”问题。当人们自己承担成本、好处却是全世界共享的时候,他们就很难限制自身造成的污染。Geoengineering, on the other hand, is so cheap that one country alone could conceivably carry out a plan discussed by Levitt and many others: mimic the 1991 eruption of the Mt Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines, which cooled global temperatures by about 0.5C the following year, by shooting sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere to create a giant sunshade.另一方面,地球工程的成本非常低廉,可以说单个国家就能实施莱维特和其他许多人讨论过的一种方案:模拟1991年菲律宾皮纳图(Pinatubo)火山的喷发。那次火山喷发向平流层喷射了大量二氧化硫,制造了一个巨大的遮阳罩,使全球气温在接下来的一年里大约降低了0.5摄氏度。The cost could be lower than that of cutting emissions, say Wagner and Weitzman, while the impact could be huge — which, they argue, means geoengineering turns the standard economics idea of climate change on its head, from a “free rider” to “free driver” problem.瓦格纳和威茨曼表示,地球工程的成本的确可能比减排低,而影响却是巨大的——他们认为,地球工程彻底颠覆了经济学上对气候变化的标准看法,从“搭便车”问题变成了“随便开”问题。But the risks of such geoengineering are myriad — from ozone depletion to fast-rising temperatures should Mt Pinatubo-style techniques ever stop — because the underlying emissions causing warming would continue.但这种地球工程存在诸多风险,从臭氧层破坏到一旦停止皮纳图式的做法就会导致气温快速上升,因为引发气候变暖的潜在排放仍将持续。A further obstacle to reducing emissions is the lack of certainty about precisely how much warming they will cause. This is another theme of Climate Shock, a title chosen to highlight one widely misunderstood aspect of climate change: it is not enough merely to stabilise annual emissions. They have to be slashed to near zero to bring down C02 concentrations, which in 2013 rose to 400 parts per million, well above the 280 ppm of pre-industrial times.减排的另一个障碍是,对碳排放引发气候变暖的程度缺乏明确认知。这是《气候冲击》一书论述的另一个主题。作者之所以选择这个标题,是为了强调一个被广泛误解的气候变化问题:仅仅稳定年度排放量还不够。要降低碳浓度,碳排放量必须被大幅削减至接近零排放的程度。2013年碳浓度已经升至400ppm,远高于工业时代前280ppm的水平。Dissecting the latest scientific findings about how much global temperatures are likely to rise as C02 in the atmosphere doubles, the authors conclude there is about a 10 per cent chance of temperatures eventually exceeding a catastrophic 6C. Homeowners take out insurance policies against devastating fires that are almost always less likely than this.如果大气中的二氧化碳含量翻倍,全球气温可能会上升多少?两位作者仔细分析了最新的科学发现。他们的结论是,现在气温升幅大约有10%的几率最终会超过6度,而气温上升6度就会引发巨大灾难。房主会投保预防毁灭性大火,而实际上出现这种大火的几率几乎总是低于10%。The correct economic solution has been well understood for years, they argue: stop subsidising fossil fuels by about a ton of C02 globally, and create a price of at least a ton. But Climate Shock advises economists to stop demanding a global carbon price and start working on more politically possible solutions, such as fuel economy standards. That sounds dull compared with geoengineering. But it is also infinitely safer.多年来,人们已对经济方面的正确对策了如指掌,他们主张停止在全球征收每吨约15美元的碳税(那样是在补贴化石燃料),碳价至少应提高至每吨40美元以上。但是《气候冲击》一书则建议经济学家不要再制定全球碳价,开始探寻更偏政治的可能解决方案,比如制定燃油经济标准。与地球工程相比,这样的举措听起来有些枯燥,但它也安全得多。This is not a book for people deeply versed in climate policy, few of whom will find its contents remotely shocking. For the intelligent lay er wanting a lively, lucid assessment of the economic consequences of global warming, however, it is well worth ing.这本书不是为那些深谙气候政策的人准备的,他们不会觉得这本书的内容多么令人震惊。这本书对全球气候变暖的经济影响进行了生动而清晰的评估,对于那些想要一览此类内容的聪颖的一般读者,该书非常值得一读。The writer is the FT’s environment correspondent本文作者是英国《金融时报》环境记者Climate Shock: The Economic Consequences of a Hotter Planet, By Gernot Wagner and Martin Weitzman, (#163;19.95, .95)《气候冲击:一个变暖星球的经济影响》(Climate Shock: The Economic Consequences of a Hotter Planet),赫尔诺特#8226;瓦格纳与马丁#8226;威茨曼合著,售价19.95英镑/27.95美元 /201504/368832哈尔滨市第六医院妇科专家大夫 Australian flag carrier Qantas has been named the world`s safest airline in a report published by AirlineRatings.com on Wednesday.国际独立航空评级网站AirlineRatings.com于本月6日发布了一份含(2015年)全球十大最安全航空公司榜单的报告,澳大利亚航空蝉联榜首。Using a system that takes into account audits from aviation governing bodies and governments, as well as fatality records, Qantas was named as the safest and most experienced airline going into 2015.根据美国联邦航空、国际民航组织等航空监管机构和各国政府的安全审计,以及各航空公司的失事纪录组成的评价体系,AirlineRatings.com分别评选出了2015年最安全航空公司和最安全的廉价航空公司榜单。Qantas, who is in its 95th year of operation, was hailed for“an extraordinary record of firsts”in terms of its safety history and ranked the best of 449 airlines, including low-cost carriers, assessed by the website.拥有94年运营经验的澳大利亚航空从该网站监控的449家航空公司(含廉价航空)中脱颖而出,再次高居最安全航空公司榜首。它蝉联的理由是:在飞行安全史上“非凡的记录”。The website went on to marvel at Qantas’ fatality-free record in the jet era, given the aforementioned statistics.该网站认为,根据统计数据,澳航最令人惊讶的成绩莫过于自喷气式飞机时代至今零死亡率的飞行记录。AirlineRatings.com praised Qantas for the way in which it monitors the engines of its aircraft using satellite communications, saying“doing so allows the airline to detect problems before they become a major safety issue.”AirlineRatings还称赞了澳航使用卫星通信监控飞机发动机的技术,称其“可在出现严重安全事故之前及时监测到安全问题。”The remainder of the top 10 in terms of the world`s safest airlines was Air New Zealand, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Emirates, Etihad Airways, EVA Air, Finnair, Lufthansa and Singapore Airlines.其余九大世界最安全航空公司为:新西兰航空、国泰航空、英国航空、阿联酋航空、阿提哈德航空、长荣航空、芬兰航空、汉莎航空和新加坡航空。The report follows the worst year for fatal air accidents over the last decade, with AirlineRatings.com mentioning the Malaysian Airlines Flights MH370 and MH17, in addition to the AirAsia Flight QZ8501, as the industry’s worst incidents.该报告还表示,过去的一年无疑是近十年来航空史上最黑暗的一年:马航MH370(失踪)、MH17(被击落),以及亚航QZ8501(失联)都是航空史上最悲惨的空难。However, despite the record amount of deaths, the overall number of accidents throughout 2014 was at an all-time low. ;Certainly, 21 fatal air accidents with 986 fatalities -- higher than the 10-year average -- is sickening,;the report said. ;However, the world`s airlines carried a record 3.3 billion passengers on 27 million flights.; ;Two of the crashes last year -- MH370 and MH17 -- were unprecedented in modern times and claimed 537 lives.; ;Flashback 50 years and there were a staggering 87 crashes killing 1,597 when airlines carried only 141 million passengers -- 5 percent of today`s number.;虽然2014年全年的空难数量创下历史新低,但是空难死亡人数很高。报告称“21次空难, 986人遇难,这一高于过去十年的平均纪录无疑令人胆寒。去年一年共有航班2700万次,运送旅客33亿人次。仅马航MH370和MH17这两次空难就造成了537人遇难。即使回到 50年前,飞行旅客人数(1.41亿)只有今天的5%,空难数量高达87次,死亡人数才只有1597人。” /201501/353290哈尔滨治囊肿多少钱

七台河市治疗宫颈糜烂医院Barack Obama has declared cyber threats from abroad a “national emergency”, as he took action to impose sanctions on overseas actors engaging in cyber attacks that threaten the US’s national security or economic health.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)宣布来自国外的网络威胁是“国家紧急状态”,他采取行动,对发动网络攻击、危及美国国家安全或经济健康的海外行为主体实施制裁。The US president’s executive order gives his government new powers to #173;target significant cyber threats that affect critical infrastructure, disrupt the availability of websites or networks, or steal trade secrets or financial information, such as large troves of credit card data.美国总统的行政命令赋予其政府新的权力,打击那些影响了关键基础设施、扰乱网站或网络的可用性、窃取商业机密或财务信息(比如大量信用卡数据)的严重网络威胁。US officials declined to name potential targets of the new sanctions but said, as an example, that the executive order could be used against individual hackers hired by companies or countries.美国官员不愿指明新制裁的可能目标,但表示举例来说,该行政命令可被用于打击受公司或国家雇佣的个体黑客。The US has aly ratcheted up its response to cyber breaches, imposing additional sanctions in January on agencies and officials in North Korea, which it blamed for the breach at Sony Pictures Entertainment last year. In May 2014, it indicted five Chinese soldiers for hacking into six US companies.美国已经逐步加大了针对网络侵入的回应力度,今年1月美国向朝鲜的机构和官员施加额外制裁,指责他们要对去年索尼影视(Sony Pictures Entertainment)受到的网络攻击负责。2014年5月,美国对5名中国军人提出刑事罪名,称其非法侵入6家美国公司的计算机系统。It is unclear whether the new authority will be used in cases that could raise political tensions, such as sanctions against Chinese officials.目前还不清楚这项新的权力会不会被用于可能引发政治紧张的情况,比如对中国官员施加制裁。The new authority closes gaps that have posed a challenge to US law enforcement, such as cyber threats from countries that do not have extradition treaties with the US, lack strong cyber security laws or turn a blind eye to such attacks.这项新的权力弥补了对美国执法部门构成挑战的空白,比如网络威胁的发源地国家与美国没有引渡条约,缺乏强有力的网络安全法律,或者对此类攻击视而不见。The US hopes the executive order will encourage other countries to consider such sanctions, said Michael Daniel, special assistant to the president and cyber security co-ordinator. Potential punishments include freezing assets under US jurisdiction, such as bank accounts, and prohibiting US citizens or entities from engaging in transactions with those under sanctions.美国总统特别助理兼网络安全协调员迈克尔#8226;丹尼尔(Michael Daniel)表示,美国希望这项行政命令将鼓励其他国家考虑此类制裁。可能的惩罚包括冻结在美国管辖范围的资产,如账户,以及禁止美国公民或实体与受制裁目标进行交易。A spate of devastating cyber breaches at JPMorgan Chase, Target, health insurer Anthem and others has prompted the Obama administration to encourage more information sharing on cyber threats between government agencies and with the private sector.根大通(JPMorgan Chase)、Target公司、医疗保险公司Anthem等企业接连遭到的破坏性网络攻击,促使奥巴马政府鼓励政府机构与私营部门分享更多网络威胁信息。Legislation that would encourage such exchanges is again being considered in Congress. Similar bills have stalled in the past because of privacy concerns but lawmakers are hoping recent hack attacks will give new momentum to the proposals.美国国会正再次考虑关于鼓励此类信息交流的立法。出于隐私担忧,过去类似法案曾不了了之,但立法者们希望近期的网络攻击将给予相关提案新的动力。“Cyber threats pose one of the most serious economic and national security challenges to the ed States, and my administration is pursuing a comprehensive strategy to confront them,” Mr Obama said in a statement.奥巴马在一份声明中表示:“网络威胁对美国经济和国家安全构成最严重的挑战之一,我的政府正在推行一项综合策略来应对这些威胁。”Dmitri Alperovitch, co-founder of cyber security firm CrowdStrike, said he was optimistic the new sanctions would “raise the cost to our cyber adversaries and establish a more effective deterrent framework to punish actors”.网络安全公司CrowdStrike的联合创始人德米特里#8226;阿尔佩罗维奇(Dmitri Alperovitch)表示,他看好新的制裁措施,它们将“增加我们的网络对手的成本,建立一个更有效的威慑框架来惩罚那些行为主体。” /201504/368046 黑龙江省哈尔滨市中心医院妇科专家大夫肇州县无痛人流要多少钱

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