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2019年11月12日 12:33:36

Xun Zi (313 B. C.~238 B. C.), whose given name was Kuang and courtesy name Qing, was born in the State of Zhao and was a key figure in the Confucius school.荀子(约公元前313年~公元前238年),名况,宇卿,时人尊称为“荀卿”,汉代避宣帝讳,称之为孙卿。赵国人,儒家代表人物之一。When studying in the State of Qi, he became one of the celebrated scholars at the Jixia Academy.曾游学于齐,为稷下先生,名望极高。In his late years, he dedicated himself in teaching disciples and writing books, one of which is Xun Zi, an epitome of his thoughts.晚年著书授徒,现存《荀子》一书。Politically, he inherited the Confucian thought of li (rites) and considers li as not merely a moral standard but a necessity of governing the country.荀子的思想主要继承了孔子关于“礼”的思想,核心是实行礼治,把礼由伦理规范上升到一种治国之策。He also called upon the practice of the “royal regulations; which emphasizes li and fa (standards ): the purpose of li is to educate while that of fa is to rule. The practice of them combined means to restrain the evil in human nature.他主张实行“隆礼重法”的“王制”,把礼与维护等级制度的“法”结合起来。礼主要起“化”的作用,法主要起“治”的作用,而礼与法都是为了限制人性之中的恶。A strong critic to Mencius#39; claim that human beings are good by nature, Xun Zi held that human beings are born evil but they are perfectible through education.在人性理论上,苟子持“性恶论”,他猛烈抨击孟子的“性善论”,主张性伪之分,把人性区分为自然之性和道德之性。自然之性与生俱来,称之为性; 道德之性受后天教育熏习而成,称之为伪(伪就是人为的意思)。He believed that people are born with a conflicting mixture of desires that if allowed unfettered, would lead to disaster. It is only through the imposition of li and fa that these desires can be well channeled.他否定有天赋之性善,认为人生而有欲望要求,欲望要求无度量分界则发生争夺。因此要靠礼法加以规范限制。Therefore, Xun Zi valued moralization and education so much that the very first chapter of Xun Zi was named “Encouraging Learning”.所以荀子特别强调人后天的教化和学习,《荀子》的首篇就是《劝学》。On nature, Xun Zi held that the change of the natural world is under the control of objective laws, which have no relations with humanity. He rejected the thought of the existence of a correspondence between human and the universe. This, in fact, leads to the denial of an allegation that royal power is bestowed by the divinity.在自然观上,荀子否定了天人感应的思想,认为自然界的变化是客观规律作用的结果,“天行有常,不为尧存,不为桀亡”,与人事没有任何关系,这实际上也否定了君权天授的思想。Furthermore, Xun Zi believed that even human beings are the products of nature: born first is the physical body, from which spiritual functions are derived.不仅如此,荀子认为就连人类也是自然界的产物,先有了人的形体,即物质实体,然后派生精神作用,“形具而神生”。On the other hand, he affirmed the dominant and positive power of human beings in nature and put forward the thought of “controlling fatality and making use of it;.另一方面,他肯定了人在自然界面前的主导作用和能动作用,尽人事而知天命就能“制天命而用之”,做到人定胜天,这种思想是战国后期人民战天斗地发展生产的反映。 /201510/402712资兴市市立医院男科电话If you#39;re old enough to these words, there#39;s a 99.9% chance you#39;ve said something to piss off a woman. And while we#39;re sure you probably didn#39;t mean to elicit that strong of a reaction, you can probably recall a few cringe-worthy memories when some flippant remark made your girl (or a complete stranger) fly off the handle.如果你是到了一定年纪才来看这篇文章,那很可能是你说了什么不中听的话惹恼了某个女性。不过虽然我们明白你并无心让对方生气,但是你一定也能回忆起几段因为失言而得罪了你的爱人(或者某个陌生女人)的尴尬经历。To help you know what not to say to any woman from here on out, we asked 10 female comedians about what men say that irritates them the most. Here are their takes on the words that should never leave your lips again—unless you really enjoy the doghouse.为了帮助大家弄清楚女性对哪些来自男性的话最反感,我们询问了10个女喜剧演员。以下是她们的回答。看完这些,你要是不想住窝的话,可千万不要再把这样的话挂在嘴边了。;Are you wearing that?;No.1 “你真的要穿这件衣?”;If you#39;re taking me out somewhere, and you see me with clothes on, then yes, I#39;m wearing that. This is not a hologram outfit under which I#39;m actually naked and about to get dressed in something you won#39;t passive-aggressively tell me you don#39;t like.;“你跟我出门的时候,如果你看见我穿了,那我就是穿了。我并没有裸体穿全息装,我也不打算换上合你口味的衣。”—Fara Greenbaum, comedian, New York City——喜剧演员法拉·格林鲍姆,来自纽约;You should smile more.;No.2 “你应该多笑笑。”;I hate when guys tell me to smile more. Maybe I just got fired today. Maybe I#39;ve just been walking around in 5-inch heels all day. Maybe I#39;m just not impressed with your mesh t-shirt. I don#39;t tell you to do things, like get a haircut. But you definitely need one.;“我很讨厌男人告诉我要多笑笑。我今天不笑,或许是因为我今天被炒了鱿鱼,或许是因为我已经穿5英寸的高跟鞋走了一整天,或许只是因为我对你的网眼T恤无感。我并没有叫你去理发或者做别的什么事,尽管你的确该理发了。”—Chrissie Mayr, comedian and host of Comedy at Stonewall Inn, New York City——喜剧演员、《石墙旅店》主持人克里希·迈尔,来自纽约;A pet peeve is when strangers—always men—tell me to smile. This happens a lot on the NYC subway, and no one on the subway is happy to be taking the subway. While waiting for the train one day, a guy asked me, #39;Why aren#39;t you smiling?#39; and I told him, #39;Because I didn#39;t push you in front of the train yet.#39; “我很受不了陌生人(一般都是男人)让我多笑一笑。这样的事情常常发生在纽约的地铁上,没有哪个坐地铁的人是喜欢坐地铁的。有一天,我在等地铁,一个家伙问我:‘你怎么不笑呢?#39;我回答:‘因为我还没把你推到列车前面去。#39;-Jessica Sager, comedian, New York City——喜剧演员杰西卡·赛琪,来自纽约;You#39;re too pretty to [FILL IN THE BLANK].;No.3 “你太漂亮了,所以不要这样……做”;A friend of mine encountered this pretty recently when a man came up to her after a show she was on and told her she was too pretty to use explicit language during her act. Unfortunately, this sort of comment crops up more than you#39;d think, as well as the notion that women can#39;t be both ‘pretty and funny.#39; This sort of backhanded compliment is guaranteed to incite rage in the recipient because, shocker, I don#39;t like being told what I can and can#39;t do because of the way society may perceive me. And no, I#39;m not too pretty to kick your ass.;“我的一个朋友前不久遭遇了这么一件事:一个男人在她演出结束后对她说,她太漂亮了,不该在台上使用那样露骨的语言。不幸的是,这样的可不少见,好像女性绝对不能‘既漂亮又有趣#39;一样。这样讽刺挖苦的恭维话真的很让人不爽,因为我不喜欢别人按照外界的标准来告诉我可以怎样和不可以怎样。对,我很漂亮,但我一样可以揍你!”—Nikki Black, comedian, Philadelphia, PA——喜剧演员兼项目管理员尼基·布莱克,来自费城;You wanna watch a movie?;No.4 “你想看部电影吗?”;I love movies. But come on, we all know what that means! #39;You wanna watch a movie?#39; translates to #39;Let#39;s bone.#39; Most sentences uttered by men can be translated to #39;You wanna f—?#39; Sure, let#39;s bone but you said we could watch my favorite movie! You can#39;t ask a movie lover to watch a movie unless you plan on finishing the flick. You better be a real good fella if you#39;re going to interrupt Good Fellas.;“我确实喜欢看电影。但是,我们都知道那是什么意思。‘你想看部电影吗?#39;就是‘你想约炮吗?#39;其实男人很多话都有那样的意思。你明明是那个意思,却偏要说‘我们看部喜欢的电影吧#39;。除非你真的打算好好把电影看完,否则你绝不能对一个电影爱好者提出去看电影。如果你想在看《好家伙》的时候中途离开,那么你最好自己是个真正的好家伙。-Jessimae Peluso, comedian and star of MTV#39;s Girl Code——喜剧演员杰西米·佩鲁索,MTV连续剧《女孩密码》演员;You look tired.;No.5 “你看起来很累。”;This makes me irate! (And I never say that word!) This is never okay! No one ever wants to hear that, especially a girl. We aly have enough problems trying to keep things sucked and tucked in all day let alone you telling us we look like we didn#39;t sleep well. Yeah, yeah, I am tired. I#39;m busy walking my dogs, writing a book, touring the country, putting on acrobatic lingerie, and posing for you all while you make yogurt commercials.;“这句话真的让我很不爽(我才不说这样的话)!这根本就很让人讨厌。没有人想听到这话,特别是女孩。我们整天忙这忙那已经够了,不用你来提醒我们的气色有多差。我承认我很累。我忙着遛,忙着写书,忙着旅游,忙着穿杂技,在你拍摄酸奶广告的时候,我还得忙着给你当模特。”-Jessimae Peluso——杰西米·佩鲁索;Have you lost weight?;No.6 “你减肥了吗?”;When a guy says this, or #39;Wow, you look slimmer!#39; my blood starts to boil because, nope, I#39;m the exact same weight I was yesterday. I resist the urge to grab a marker, pants this doofus, circle all his fat and instead say, #39;I haven#39;t lost any weight. But you#39;ve lost any chance of going home with me.#39; The only way this dude can recover is by full-on admitting he was just trying to be nice and didn#39;t know what else to say because I#39;m always looking great. But seriously, don#39;t comment on a woman#39;s weight, ever!;“如果有个男人说,‘哇,你看起来变瘦了!#39;那我简直就要怒发冲冠了,因为我的体重跟昨天差不多。我拼命压住想抓起一马克笔把这蠢货身上的脂肪都圈出来的冲动,说:‘我并没有变瘦。但是你已经失去和我做朋友的机会了。#39;唯一挽救的办法就是,这家伙要诚心诚意地承认,他只是想说点好听的,但是不知道该说些别的什么,因为我一直都很美。不过,说真的,不要一个女人的体重,永远不要!”—Marianne Schaberg, writer and comedian——作家、喜剧演员玛丽安·史嘉伯;Wow, I didn#39;t recognize you with makeup on.;No.7 “哇,你化了妆我都认不出来了。”;It drives me nuts when I wear makeup and a man says to me, ‘Oh my god, I didn#39;t recognize you! You#39;re so pretty.#39; This is the ultimate backhanded compliment. I don#39;t wear make-up at my day job because I don#39;t consider all of life a show. A simple #39;You look very pretty today,#39; is fine. Beyond that, we#39;re not that close, so please keep your comments to yourself. I don#39;t tell you when your bald spot looks extra shiny, don#39;t tell me when I#39;m looking tired or fat or thin. I have a mirror. Believe me, I know.;“要是我化了妆,一个男人对我说: ‘我的天,我都认不出你了!你真美。#39;那我绝对要气炸。这纯粹是挖苦。我白天工作时不化妆,因为我不认为整个人生是一场戏。他只要简单地说:‘你今天真漂亮#39;就很好。别的话就算了,因为我们的关系并没有那么近。所以,不要乱说话。我不会告诉你今天你的秃头有多亮,所以你也别告诉我我看起来很累或是胖了瘦了,我自己有镜子。相信我,我自己知道的。”—Corinne Fisher, comedian, New York City——喜剧演员科琳·费希尔,来自纽约;Can#39;t you take a joke?;No.8 “怎么就这么开不起玩笑?”;Sometimes when men find out I perform stand-up comedy, they think that gives them permission to #39;fake-insult#39; me. When I don#39;t laugh, they ask, ‘Can#39;t you take a joke?#39; to which I say, #39;Can#39;t you tell a joke?#39; Enjoying humor isn#39;t a green light for reciting every sexist joke your uncle told the family at Thanksgiving dinner.;“有时候当男人发现我是个单口相声演员时,他们就会认为自己有权拿我开涮。如果我不赔笑,他们就会问:‘怎么就这么开不起玩笑?#39;我说:‘你就不能自己来个笑话?#39;看滑稽表演并不意味着你可以把你叔叔在感恩节家庭聚餐时说的黄色笑话搬到这里来。”—Carolyn Busa, host of ;Side Ponytail; in Williamsburg, Brooklyn——布鲁克林区威廉斯堡市节目《侧马尾》主持人卡洛琳·布萨 /201603/430027郴州泌尿科哪家医院专业War of Eight Princes八王之乱The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings was a civil war for power among princes or kings of the Chinese Jin Dynasty from AD 291 to AD 306.八王之乱是皇子和君王之间对于权力的一场内战,这场战争自公元291年持续到公元306年。It devastated the country and triggered the Wu Hu ravaging.它不仅毁掉了国家还引发了“五胡乱华”。The term stemmed from biographies of eight princes collected in chapter 59 of the“ History of Jin Dynasty”(Jinshu).“八王之乱”的说法来源于《晋书》第59章的《八王传记》。The resultant winner was last surviving major prince, Sima Yue.最终的胜利者是活到最后的王子——司马岳。The struggle depopulated northern China and greatly weakened the strength of the Jin Dynasty.战争使中国北方的人口减少并削弱了晋朝的实力。The eight princes included:八位王子包括:Sima Liang (司马亮),son of Sima Yi (司马懿), titled the Prince of Runan (汝南王)司马懿的儿子,淮南王司马亮;Sima Wei (司马讳),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Chu (楚王).晋武帝的儿子,楚王司马玮;Sima Lun (司马伦),son of Sima Yi, fitted the Prince of Zhao (赵王).司马懿的儿子,赵王司马伦;Sima Jiong (司马冏),nephew of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Qi(齐王).晋武帝的侄子,齐王司马冏;Sima Ying (司马颖),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Chengdu(成都王).晋武帝的儿子,成都王司马颖;Sima Yi (司马乂),son of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Changsha(长沙王).晋武帝的儿子,长沙王司马乂;Sima Yong (司马颙),distant cousin of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Hejian.(河间王).晋武帝的堂兄弟,河间王司马颙;Sima Yue (司马越),distant cousin of Emperor Wu, titled the Prince of Donghai (东海王).晋武帝的堂兄弟,东海王司马岳。 /201510/398402临武县人民中妇幼保健医院看泌尿科怎么样

郴州妇幼保健院治疗包皮包茎多少钱郴州治疗无精症大概多少钱Statistics show that Chinese women are #39;fatter#39; than ever before. But most have no idea how to exercise - and would rather take diet pills, fast and play on their phones instead, according to an article published on the Telegraph recently.统计显示中国女性比以往任何时候都要“更胖”。英国《每日电讯报》最近发表的一篇文章称,大多数中国女性不知道如何进行锻炼——她们宁愿吃减肥药、禁食或是玩手机。Today, an average woman in China is 1.57 meters tall and weighs 57kg - 1.7kg heavier than a decade ago.如今,中国女性的平均身高为157公分,平均体重为57公斤——比十年前重1.7公斤。While 57kg might not seem much by Western standards, it is a dramatic change given the short time span in which it#39;s occurred.依照西方标准来看,57公斤似乎并不太重,但鉴于其是在短时间内增长至此的,所以改变依然巨大。A 2009 study showed that British women#39;s weight had increased by 2.5kg from the 1950s. While China does not have an adult obesity problem, yet, there is a worrying trend in child obesity and experts have aly warned of ;an emerging epidemic;. Last year, the Lancet reported that 46 million adults were overweight or obese in China – 27 per cent of women and 28 per cent of men.2009年的一项研究显示,自20世纪50年代以来,英国女性的体重增长了2.5公斤。虽然中国并不存在成人肥胖问题,但儿童肥胖的趋势令人担忧,并且专家也警告过这是“一种新出现的流行病”。去年,英国医学杂志《柳叶刀》曾报道,中国有0.46亿成年人超重或是肥胖——27%的女性和28%的男性都存在肥胖或超重问题。Western women see beauty in strength, while “being thin and weak represents femininity and beauty in China;, says the article. Even with weight loss being the primary motivation, most Chinese women still opt for #39;softer#39; exercises such as brisk walking, yoga and dancing. Anything that builds strength, or muscle definition, is considered unattractive and masculine.文章称,西方女性视力量为美丽,而“在中国,纤瘦和柔弱被视为女性特质和美丽”。即使原始动机是减肥,大部分中国女性仍会选择更为“柔和”的锻炼方式,比如健步走、瑜伽和舞蹈。任何锻炼力量或肌肉线条的健身方式,都被视为没有魅力或是太男性化了。Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) also has a big influence on perceptions of the female body and what it#39;s capable of physically. Many in China believe that strenuous exercise is actually bad for women – based on the idea that a woman#39;s body is intrinsically weaker than a man#39;s and requires special nurturing.中医学对女性身体及其生理机能的认知有着深远影响。许多中国人认为剧烈运动对女性不好——这基于“相较于男性,女性体质更为虚弱,需要特殊调养”这一理念。The article comments at last that Chinese society is clearly having a hard time accepting that women are fatter. It#39;s happened so fast that attitudes have not had time to catch up.文章在最后说,中国社会显然很难接受女性正变得越来越胖。这发生得太过迅速,人们的态度还来不及转变。 /201511/411135LIKE California, much of Brazil is gripped by one of the worst droughts in its history. Huge reservoirs are bone dry and water has been rationed in S漀 Paulo, a megacity of 20 million people; in Rio; and in many other places.和加州一样,巴西的大部分地区遭受了有史以来最严重的一次旱灾。巨大的水库完全干涸,在拥有两千万人口的巨型城市圣保罗以及里约热内卢等地,供水开始实行定量配给。Drought is usually thought of as a natural disaster beyond human control. But as researchers peer deeper into the Earth’s changing bioclimate — the vastly complex global interplay between living organisms and climatic forces — they are better appreciating the crucial role that deforestation plays.干旱通常被看做是自然灾害,超出人类的控制范围。但是通过深入探究地球不断变化的生物气候——生物和气候力量之间巨大复杂的全球性相互作用——研究者们现在可以认识到,砍伐森林在其中扮演着关键角色。Cutting down forests releases stored carbon dioxide, which traps heat and contributes to atmospheric warming. But forests also affect climate in other ways, by absorbing more solar energy than grasslands, for example, or releasing vast amounts of water vapor. Many experts believe that deforestation is taking place on such a large scale, especially in South America, that it has aly significantly altered the world’s climate — even though its dynamics are not well understood.砍伐会释放森林储存的二氧化碳,二氧化碳吸收热量导致大气增温。但是森林也会以其他方式影响气候,比如说,通过比草原吸收更多的太阳能,或是通过释放大量水蒸气等方式。许多专家认为,如此大规模的森林砍伐,特别是在南美洲,已经显著地改变了世界气候——尽管人们还没能很好的理解其动态。“A lot of people are scrambling to make observations in the Amazon this year, with the expected big El Ni漀 coming,” said Abigail L. S. Swann, an eco-climatologist at the University of Washington. “It’s expected to drive significant drought over the Amazon, which will change how much water trees have available.”“由于预计大厄尔尼诺现象的到来,很多人今年都争着到亚马孙进行观察,”华盛顿大学的生态气候学家阿比盖尔·L·S·斯万(Abigail L. S. Swann)说,“厄尔尼诺现象预计将导致亚马孙地区明显的干旱,这将改变可以供应林木的水量。”Humans have long settled in places where there is adequate and predictable precipitation, and large forests play a crucial role in generating dependable amounts of rainfall. Trees take up moisture from the soil and transpire it, lifting it into the atmosphere. A fully grown tree releases 1,000 liters of water vapor a day into the atmosphere: The entire Amazon rain forest sends up 20 billion tons a day.人类很早就定居在降水充足且稳定的地方,大片森林在产生稳定降雨量过程中起到关键作用。树木可以吸收土壤中的水分并将之蒸发,使水分进入大气层。一棵成年的树,一天能将1000升的水蒸气释放到大气中:整个亚马孙雨林每天释放200亿吨之多。The water vapor creates clouds, which are seeded with volatile gases like terpenes and isoprene, emitted by the trees naturally, to form rain. These water-rich banks of clouds travel long, wind-driven distances, a conveyor belt for the delivery of precipitation that scientists call flying rivers.水蒸气形成云,云中带着树木自然散发的萜烯和异戊二烯这样的挥发性气体,可以形成雨。这些富含水量的云随风移动很长的距离,形成一条降水传送带,科学家称之为“飞翔的河流”。The sky-borne river over the Amazon carries more water than the Amazon River itself. It begins as moisture that builds over the Atlantic Ocean, and then flows westward over the emerald crown of the Amazon, where it picks up far more moisture. The laden clouds eventually bump up against the Andes and are steered south and then east, which means rain for Bolivia and Brazil.亚马孙上空的“河”比亚马孙河本身的水还多。它开始是聚集在大西洋上空的湿气,然后向西掠过亚马孙的“冠”雨林,在那里吸收大量的水分。满载的云层最终撞上了安第斯山脉,并转向南部然后向东,这就形成了玻利维亚和巴西的降雨。One way forests may move water is known as “biotic pumping.” As water transpires into the atmosphere above the forest, the theory holds, it creates a low-pressure system that sucks in air surrounding it, eventually and continually pumping moisture inland from the ocean. Cutting down forests degrades these low-pressure systems, essentially turning off the pump. Large-scale deforestation is thus believed to be a major contributor to the extreme drought in Brazil.森林转移水的一种方式被称为“生物泵”。该理论认为,水蒸发到森林上空的大气中,创造了一个低压系统,吸入周围空气,最终不断将湿气送入内陆。砍伐森林会减弱这些低压系统,基本上关闭这个”泵“。大规模森林砍伐因此被认为是巴西极端干旱的主要原因。Scientists have long known that vegetation has a profound effect on weather. In 1907, officials built a 2,000-mile-long fence across Australia to keep invasive rabbits from crossing from the wild outback into farms. On the side with native vegetation, rain clouds formed in the sky above, but the farm-field skies were clear. The “bunny-fence experiments” charted a decline in rainfall of 20 percent on the cultivated side. Researchers are still trying to explain why, but the leading theory is that the darker native plants absorb more heat and release it into the atmosphere, along with energy and water vapor to form clouds.科学家们很早就知道了植被对天气的深远影响。1907年,官员们建造了一个横贯澳大利亚、长达2000英里的篱笆,用来阻止内陆具有破坏性的兔子进入农田。有原生植被的一边,天空中形成了雨云,但农田上空却是晴朗的。“兔子围栏实验”显示开垦的一边降雨量下降了20%。研究人员仍在试图解释为什么,但主要理论是,颜色较深的原生植物吸收更多的热量,并释放到大气中,随热量一起释放的还有用来形成云的能量和水蒸气。Today’s researchers mainly rely on computer modeling to understand the effects of deforestation, a difficult task because there are so many complex pathways through which trees control climate: precipitation, carbon storage, large clouds of complex chemical emissions and absorption of the sun’s energy.如今研究人员主要依靠计算机建模来了解森林砍伐的影响,这是一项艰巨的任务,因为树木控制气候的途径多且复杂,包括降水、碳储存、大片云团复杂的化学释放以及对太阳能量的吸收等。“This area is a frontier,” said David Schimel, an eco-climatologist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the author of “Climate and Ecosystems,” “but a frontier because it’s difficult, not because it’s neglected.”“这是一个边缘领域,”美国航空航天局喷气推进实验室(Jet Propulsion Laboratory)的生态气候学家、《气候和生态系统》(Climate and Ecosystems)一书的作者大卫·希米尔(David Schimel)说。“但主要是因为这个领域很困难,而不是因为无人关注。”In the last year alone some 2,000 square miles of the Amazon — roughly the size of Delaware — were lost to clearing, largely for planting soybeans and raising cattle. A growing number of scientists are warning that wide-scale deforestation — about 20 percent of the Amazon forest is gone aly and nearly that much is degraded — may aly be directing precipitation away from places long accustomed to it.仅仅在过去一年,亚马孙河地区就有约2000平方英里(约合5180平方公里)的森林遭到砍伐,面积和一个特拉华州相当,土地被用以种植大豆和饲养牛群。越来越多的科学家警告称,大规模的滥砍滥伐——亚马孙地区有20%左右的森林已经消失,另有约同等面积的森林逐步退化——可能已经产生影响,使一直以来有充足降水地区的雨水向别处转移。One Princeton study suggested that deforesting the Amazon could potentially contribute to drought in places as far away as California, while other research indicated that recent droughts in Texas and New Mexico might be linked to cutting in the Amazon. Despite the uncertainty embedded in these and other studies, “There’s lots of evidence that changing the water cycle in the Amazon would have global consequences,” Dr. Schimel said. “It’s a fairly robust notion.”普林斯顿大学的一份研究显示,砍伐亚马孙森林可能导致远至加利福利亚州等地的干旱;而其他研究表明,最近德克萨斯州和新墨西哥州发生的干旱可能和亚马孙地区的滥砍滥伐有关。尽管这类研究存在固有的不确定性,但“大量据显示,改变亚马孙河地区的水循环会导致全球性的后果,”希米尔说,“这是一个相当扎实的见解。”AND its impact could potentially accelerate. In a recent report, Antonio Donato Nobre, a veteran climatologist with Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research, warned that if just 40 percent of the Amazon region is deforested there could be an abrupt large-scale shift to grasslands, which could substantially alter global weather patterns “and cause a breakdown of the current climate system.” If deforestation continues, he has said, S漀 Paulo will most likely “dry up.”而且,其影响可能会加速呈现。在近期的一份报告中,安东尼奥·多纳托·诺步雷(Antonio Donato Nobre)警告说,如果亚马孙地区被砍伐的森林达到40%,该区可能突然出现大片区域退化为草地的情况,这可能给全球的天气规律造成巨大改变,“并使得现在的气候系统崩溃。”诺布雷和巴西国家空间研究所(National Institute for Space Research)合作,常年从事气候学研究。他还说,如果滥砍滥伐持续下去,圣保罗极有可能“干涸”。In the broadest sense, scientists say, forests represent a kind of ecological infrastructure that helps maintain comfortable living conditions on the planet, whether by taking up and holding carbon dioxide, cleaning water through their roots, preventing floods by stabilizing soil — or, in this case, by regulating climate.科学家说,从最广泛的意义上来说,森林代表了一种生态基础设施,它们吸收和控制二氧化碳,其树根能净化水质,并可以巩固土壤,或者像本文中提到的这样,对气候进行调节,从而避免洪水,帮助维持地球的舒适生存环境,Dr. Nobre and other climate experts are urging an immediate halt to deforestation, as well as large-scale planting of new forests, as a way to essentially nurse the Amazon back to full health and stabilize its pivotal role in climate.诺布雷和其他气候学家正在呼吁人们立即停止砍伐森林,以及通过大规模再植森林,使亚马孙河地区恢复到健康状态,使其在气候中的重要作用稳定下来。Gordon Bonan, a scientist at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., and the author of “Ecological Climatology,” said reducing deforestation and replanting forests should be priorities not just in Brazil but in North America and beyond for many reasons, including the health of climate systems. “The pace of change is far outpacing our understanding of what the change is doing,” he said, “and by the time we do understand it’s probably going to be too late.”戈登·伯南(Gordon Bonan)是一名就职于科罗拉多州尔德的美国大学大气研究联合会(University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)的科学家,出版过《生态气候学》(Ecological Climatology)一书。他认为应当把减少滥砍滥伐和进行森林再植作为第一要务,这不仅是对巴西而言,对整个北美都是如此。气候系统的健康是众多的原因之一。“变化的速度已远远超过我们对变化本身的理解,”他说,“而等到我们真正理解的时候,很可能为时已晚。”While it is true that vast tree planting, which reroutes groundwater on a huge scale and absorbs far more energy than an unforested landscape, can have complex and potentially negative effects, “On balance,” if done properly, “it’s a positive strategy for climate change,” he added.诚然,大量植树造林会大规模地改变地下水的流向,而且比无植被地区吸收更多养分,这可能产生复杂甚至负面的影响。“总体而言,”如果处理恰当的话,“这是应对气候变化的积极措施,”他接着说。Some people aren’t waiting for further research and are hoping to geoengineer local climates with new forests. Bishop Fredrick Shoo, the bishop elect of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania, has been planting trees with 100,000 of his parishioners upwind of Mount Kilimanjaro for 12 years, in hopes of cooling the hot, dry winds that are melting the mountain’s glaciers. During that time, he estimates, they have planted 3.7 million trees.有的人已经不再等待更多的研究,而希望通过再植森林人为改造当地气候。坦桑尼亚福音信义会(Evangelical Lutheran Church)的当选主教弗雷德里克·休(Fredrick Shoo)已经和10万教民沿乞力马扎罗山植树12年,吹经此地的风炽热而干燥,会融化山上的冰川,他们希望此举能降低风的温度。他估计在这段时间里,他们大概种植了370万棵树。“My hope is we’ll be able to restore the forests of Kilimanjaro and save the water sources of Kilimanjaro,” said Bishop Shoo, known as the tree bishop. “We have a moral obligation to take care of creation and to be sure coming generations have a good place to live.”“我希望我们能恢复乞力马扎罗的森林,并保护这里的水源,”人称“树主教”的休说,“我们有保护天地万物的道德义务,并保子孙后代有一个良好的生存空间。” /201510/403300郴州有哪些医院Zhao Shuli (1906~1970) was a Chinese novelist and short-story writer.赵树理(1906~1970),小说家。Zhao#39;s familiarity with rural life in North China and his fascination with folk literature and art determined the substance and style of his later writings.赵树理对北方农村生活的熟稔和对民间文学艺术的痴迷决定了他的写作内容和写作风格。After attending a teachers college, he taught in primary schools.上了师范之后,赵树理任小学教师。To supplement his earnings he began writing short stories for local newspapers. 为了补贴家用,赵树理开始给当地的报纸写短篇小说。A zealous promoter of folk literature and art, he wrote a considerable number of rhythmic talks, mini-tales, and sketches.赵树理是一个热心促进民间文学艺术的人,写了大量的说唱、小故事和短剧。He made his name by his short stories ;Hsiao Erh-hei chieh-hun; (1943; ;Little Blacky#39;s Wedding;) and ;Li Yu-ts#39;ai pan-hua; (1943; ;The Rhymes of Li Yu-ts#39;ai;).赵树理的成名作是短篇小说《小二黑结婚》(1943)、《李有才板话》(1943)。They were followed in 1946 by the novel Li-chia-chuang te pien-ch#39;ien (;The Changes in Li Village;) and the stories ;Fu-kuei; (;Lucky;), ;Ti-pan; (;Land;), and ;Tsui-liang-ch#39;ai; (;The Tax Collector;).1946年赵树理创作了长篇小说《李家庄的变迁》和短篇小说《福贵》、《地板》和《催粮差》。His works were widely and his native humour and grace appreciated by even the barely literate.赵树理的读者面很大,他民族式的幽默感和气质甚至连文盲也很欣赏。After 1949 he continued to write prose and edited two magazines.1949年以后赵树理继续写作散文,并且编辑了两本杂志。His novel San-li-wan was published in 1955. His style remained easy, plain, and graceful.赵树理1955年发表《三里湾》,文风仍然是浅显、易懂、优美。He was the recognized leading writer of the ;Shan-yao-tan (Potato) School.;赵树理是公认的“山药蛋派”领袖.His best-known works have been translated into English, Russian, and Japanese, and his collected works were published in the 1980s.他的名作已经被翻译成英语、俄语和日语,其选集已于2o世纪80年代出版。 /201603/430041郴州市割包皮多少钱

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