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宝鸡男性医院宝鸡扶风县治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好Science and technology科学技术Sociable spiders社会性蜘蛛Come into my parlour欢迎来做客A strange example of co-operative behaviour in arachnids一种懂得合作的不寻常的蜘蛛SPIDERS are known for many things.蜘蛛为人熟知的特点很多,Sociability is not one of them.但社会性不在其列。Most spiders are more likely to try to eat their neighbours than befriend them.多数蜘蛛更有可能想吃掉自己的邻居,而非跟它们做朋友。Given that there are at least 43,678 species of the critters, though, it is not too surprising that a few have overcome their natural grumpiness and teamed up to form societies.不过考虑到这种生物至少有43678种,有那么几种能克天生乖戾的性情结群而居也就不足为奇了。So far, about two dozen such social spiders have been identified.目前已知的社会性蜘蛛约有24种。And among them, something really strange has just been found.其中还发现了一些奇特之处。For one type of spider society turns out to involve two different but closely related species.在一种包含蜘蛛的群落中,有两种亲缘关系很近的蜘蛛。It is as though anthropologists had discovered villages populated both by human beings and chimpanzees.这就像是人类学家发现村落中既住着人类也住着黑猩猩。This was discovered by a team led by Lena Grinsted of Aarhus University in Denmark.这一现象由丹麦奥尔胡斯大学莉娜·格林斯蒂德带领的团队发现。They were studying a social species of spider called Chikunia nigra, living near Beratan Lake in Bali.当时他们在研究一种生活在巴厘岛贝拉坦湖畔、名为Chikunia nigra的社会性蜘蛛。Later, as they looked in more detail at their specimens, they realised its genes and genitalia revealed that it was actually two species, according to their findings just published in Naturwissenschaften.后来随着对标本研究的日益深入,他们发现基因和生殖器都表明标本分属两个物种。其研究结果新近见刊于《自然科学》。Exactly what the spiders get out of being social is not clear.社会性对蜘蛛有何益处目前尚不清楚。They do not hunt together.它们并不共同捕食。One explanation may be that the colony is acting like a giant creche.一种可能的解释是,这一群体像是大型托儿所。Ms Grinsted discovered this possibility by experiment.格林斯蒂德女士通过实验得出了这种可能性。First, she identified 19 females who were looking after recently hatched young, and another 20 who had eggs.首先,她找到19只照料新孵化幼虫的雌蜘蛛以及20只刚产过卵的雌蜘蛛。In each case she introduced an intruder, in the form of a spider from the same colony.然后,她将来自同一群体的一只蜘蛛作为入侵者分别引入上述两组个体。Both mothers and mothers-to-be were surprisingly tolerant of what would, in most spider species, be a serious threat.这些蜘蛛妈妈及准妈妈出人意料地表现出容忍性,而不像多数种类的蜘蛛那样将之视为严重威胁。Only 40% of the time did they attempt to chase the intruder away, or bite it.它们只在40%的时间中试图赶走或咬噬入侵者。Ms Grinsted then took another 40 spiders and swapped some of their broods.随后格林斯蒂德女士又取了40只蜘蛛并互换其部分幼虫。The upshot, she found, was that a female was as likely to look after and guard anothers brood as she was her own.她发现雌蜘蛛会将之视为己出,照料、保护幼虫。Which is intriguing, but not all that extraordinary in social groups which are composed of closely related individuals.这一现象虽有趣,但在个体亲缘关系相近的群体中也不算罕见。Except that Ms Grinsted now knows that this cannot always be the case for her spiders, since two different species are involved.只是格林斯蒂德女士现在已知道她的蜘蛛并非如此,因为其中包含两个物种。The species in question are pretty similar, which would seem to rule out another common cause of collaboration: that different creatures bring different adaptations to the party, thus dividing the labour of staying alive into specialisms.而且两种蜘蛛非常相似,这就排除了合作的另一常见原因,即不同生物在适应该群落过程中发生不同变化,从而为生存进行了专门化分工。Because Ms Grinsted did not know at the time of her experiment that two species were involved, she cannot be sure how many of the fosterings she induced were cross-specific.因为做实验时格林斯蒂德女士并不知道涉及两个物种,因此她现在无法确定有多少幼虫交换是在种间进行的。The two species seem more or less equally abundant, so the chances are it was about half of them.这两个物种似乎一样多,因此可能有一半是种间交换。If colony members are acting as foster mothers in the wild, something most odd is going on.如果在自然环境中该群体的成员也乐于做养母,这就是最奇怪之处:Altruism is not a concept often associated with spiders. Xenophilic altruism is truly bizarre.利他主义这个概念通常与蜘蛛没什么关系;种间利他主义发生在蜘蛛身上,就更让人难以置信了。 /201310/259910宝鸡妇保医院男性专科 宝鸡哪家不孕医院

太白县医院治疗早泄多少钱Browser wars浏览器之战Chrome rules the web谷歌浏览器掌控网络What Google’s browser has in common with Queen Victoria谷歌浏览器跟维多利亚女王的共同点是什么?Aug 10th 2013 |From the print editionEMPIRES rise and fall swiftly on the internet. Google’s Chrome browser, which celebrates its fifth birthday next month, has captured much of the territory of older browsers and is now responsible for about 43% of all the web traffic generated by the world’s desktop computers. When Chrome was launched the dominant browser was Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE), with a 68% share—it is now down to just 25%.网络帝国兴败迅速。谷歌的Chrome浏览器下个月就要庆祝诞生15周年了。它攻城拔寨,抢夺了旧浏览器不少的份额,现在拥有台式机领域网站流量的43%之多。谷歌浏览器发布的时候,占据主导地位的浏览器是微软的IE浏览器,当时台式机市场占有率为68%,现在已经降到了25%。It is only 20 years since Mosaic, the first browser capable of combining words and images in a single page, was made available. Some of its developers went on to launch Netscape, an improved version, in 1994, just as the internet was taking off. But Netscape’s dominance quickly crumbled after Microsoft started bundling IE with its Windows operating system. IE and Microsoft’s other software became so prevalent that in 2000 an American court briefly contemplated breaking the company into two.从第一款能同时显示文本和图像的Mosaic浏览器诞生到现在也不过20年的时间。当年Mosaic的许多开发者继续在1994年开发了改进版的网景浏览器。当时互联网刚要大规模发展。但是网景的主导地位很快被微软取代,因为微软将IE浏览器与其系统绑定销售。微软包括IE在内的很多软件风行一时,以至于2000年的时候,一家美国法院曾经考虑将微软公司一分为二。By 2010, when the European Commission forced Microsoft to start offering Windows users a choice of browsers, many were switching anyway, especially to Mozilla’s Firefox. Now Chrome is increasingly pushing Firefox to the margins. Measuring browser use is difficult and subjective: one source shows that IE is still in front in terms of numbers of visitors to websites. But for e-commerce, share of traffic matters more. By this measure Chrome now dominates much of the planet. Like the boast made of the British empire in Queen Victoria’s time, the sun never sets on its dominions.2010年,欧盟执行委员会强制命令微软为Windows使用者提供浏览器选项,很多用户选择了Mozilla公司的火狐浏览器。现在Chrome浏览器的崛起将火狐推到了边缘。衡量一款浏览器的使用情况既困难又主观。一个来源显示按照访问者访问网站的数量算,IE仍然领先。但是对电子商务来说,信息流量份额才是最重要的。按照流量算的话,谷歌浏览器主导了全球的浏览器市场。就像维多利亚时期大英帝国引以为豪的景象:大英帝国的领土上太阳从不落山。 /201308/252232解放军第三医院泌尿科咨询 宝鸡哪里做包皮手术比较好呢

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