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Alibaba is in advanced talks to buy an approximately 0m stake in the parent company of leading Indian mobile payment platform Paytm, marking the Chinese ecommerce group’s first significant foray into the country’s rapidly expanding start-up scene.阿里巴巴(Alibaba)有意收购印度领先移动付平台Paytm的母公司大约5亿美元的股权,相关谈判已进入深入阶段。此举将标志着这家中国电子商务集团首次大举进军印度迅速扩大的初创企业领域。Both Alibaba Group Holding’s ecommerce arm and its online payments unit Alipay are set to participate in the transaction, which will conclude later this month, three people familiar with the deal told the Financial Times.三名知情人士告诉英国《金融时报》,阿里巴巴集团控股有限公司的电子商务部门和阿里巴巴在线付部门“付宝”(Alipay)都将参与这笔交易,该交易预计在本月晚些时候达成。India enjoyed an ecommerce investment boom in 2014, as prominent Silicon Valley-based funds began pouring fresh funds into fast-growing domestic start-ups, such as e-retailer Flipkart and online marketplace Snapdeal, at multibillion-dollar valuations.印度在2014年期间兴起一股电子商务投资热潮,一些知名硅谷基金开始向快速增长的印度国内初创企业注入新的资金,如电子零售商Flipkart和在线市场Snapdeal,使这些初创企业的估值达到数十亿美元的水平。The arrival of Alibaba, the largest ecommerce group by revenue, is likely to increase excitement over the sector’s prospects. It will also pit the Chinese company against US-based Amazon, which invested bn in its local subsidiary last year.作为全球营收最高的电子商务集团,阿里巴巴的到来很可能会增加各方对该行业发展前景的兴奋心情。它也使这家中国企业形成与美国亚马逊(Amazon)对抗的态势;亚马逊去年对其印度子公司投资了20亿美元。Under the terms of Alibaba’s deal, its two entities will take minority stakes as part of a two-stage investment in One97 Communications, the parent company of Paytm, India’s biggest mobile payments company by market share.按照上述交易的条款,阿里巴巴的两个实体将收购少数股权,作为对Paytm的母公司One97 Communications两阶段投资的一部分。Paytm是印度市场份额最大的移动付公司。Paytm allows Indian phone users to put funds in a mobile wallet, which they can spend on services such as taxi app Uber and cinema service BookMyShow. It claims to have about 20m users.Paytm让印度的手机用户能够将资金转入一个移动钱包,然后用其付各种务,如打车应用优步(Uber)和影院务BookMyShow。它声称拥有约2000万用户。Paytm also launched an online marketplace last year, providing a platform for businesses to sell products online. This is similar to Alipay, China’s leading payment platform by revenue, which Alibaba offers in its home market.去年Paytm还推出了一个在线市场,提供了一个让企业在网上销售产品的平台。这类似于阿里巴巴在本土市场提供的付宝,中国按营收衡量领先的付平台。“The two most exciting sectors in Indian technology are ecommerce and payments, and they [One97] have both,” the person said, on condition of anonymity. “So while the business isn’t as big as Amazon or Snapdeal yet, they have the same parts as the Chinese, so it fits together perfectly.”“印度技术行业两个最令人兴奋的领域是电子商务和付,而他们(One97)两者兼备,”要求匿名的一名知情人士表示。“因此,虽然业务尚未达到亚马逊或Snapdeal那样的规模,但它们同这家中国企业具有相同的组成部分,可以完美地结合在一起。”Although Alibaba is understood to have no plans to launch its own services in India, its likely investment in Paytm follows a string of deals in 2014 by founder Jack Ma, ahead of his company’s blockbuster bn initial public offering in New York last September.尽管阿里巴巴据悉并无计划在印度推出自己的务,但其对Paytm做出可能的投资之前,创始人马云(Jack Ma) 2014年在他的公司于9月在纽约进行250亿美元首次公开上市(IPO)之前,达成了一连串交易。Alibaba could not be reached for comment, while Paytm founder Vijay Shekhar Sharma declined to discuss his fundraising plans. Paytm’s investors include SAIF, Saama Capital and SAP Ventures.记者联系不上阿里巴巴请其置评,而Paytm创始人维贾伊#8226;谢卡尔#8226;夏尔马(Vijay Shekhar Sharma)不愿讨论他的融资计划。Paytm的现有投资者包括软银赛富(SAIF)、Saama Capital和SAP Ventures。Paytm will use the new funds to invest in infrastructure helping thousands of smaller Indian businesses to use their mobile marketplace, grabbing more of an ecommerce sector that will be worth bn by 2018, according to analysts at CLSA. Only a small fraction of the country’s 200m internet users transact online, according to Jefferies, a broker.Paytm将把新的资金投资于基础设施,帮助成千上万的印度中小企业利用其移动市场,以在国内电子商务行业夺取更大的市场份额。里昂券(CLSA)的分析师们称,到2018年印度电商行业规模将达到440亿美元。据经纪商杰富瑞集团(Jefferies)介绍,目前印度2亿网民中只有一小部分人会进行在线交易。 /201501/354144LONDON — A loyal Volkswagen owner for years, Jane Kelley was “shocked,” she says, by recent revelations that the German company had cheated on emissions tests in the ed States.伦敦——作为大众(Volkswagen)多年的忠实车主,简·凯利(Jane Kelley)说,最近得知这家德国公司被曝曾在美国的排放检测中作弊,令她感到“震惊”。Snug in Ms. Kelley’s garage in North London recently was a white 2013 Passat powered by a 2-liter diesel engine. The company says that as many as 11 million of its cars — Volkswagens, Audis, Skodas and SEATs with diesel engines — were equipped with software designed to fool emissions testers.在凯利位于伦敦北部的家中,车库里最近停放的是一辆配有2升柴油发动机的2013年款帕萨特。大众表示,该公司有多达1100万辆车——包括配有柴油发动机的大众、奥迪(Audi)、斯柯达(Skoda)和西雅特(SEAT)品牌车型——装载有可以误导排放检测员的软件。But as disturbed as she was to learn that Volkswagen had cheated, Ms. Kelley does not necessarily want anything done about it. “Are they going to take my car away and fiddle with the engine?” she said with a worried tone, as she served tea in her sunlit dining room.尽管在得知大众曾经作弊之后感到不安,但凯利却不见得希望有人为此做些什么。“他们会把我的车开走,摆弄它的引擎吗?”她一边担忧地说着,一边在自己阳光普照的餐厅给来客端上茶水。As with at least some European diesel drivers, Ms. Kelley is in no hurry to abandon the car just because it may spew more noxious fumes than she originally thought. “I do feel that it is a very safe car,” she said. She also admires the acceleration of the turbocharged diesel, which she credits with helping her recently escape a potential hazard. “There was a guy weaving, maybe drunk, so I just shot by,” she recalled.和至少一部分欧洲柴油车车主一样,凯利并不想仅仅因为它排放的有毒气体可能比自己原先想象的多,就急着抛弃它。“我真的感觉它是一辆非常安全的车,”她说。她也很中意这辆车的涡轮增压柴油发动机所具备的加速能力,还把它归为自己最近能逃脱一次潜在危险的原因。“当时有辆车左摇右摆的,大概司机是喝醉了,所以我就飞速开了过去,”她回忆道。Ms. Kelley is one of millions of fans of diesel cars across Europe, where fuel prices and taxes make the cost of filling an automobile’s tank much higher than in the ed States. Drawn by diesels’ superior fuel economy over gasoline engines and the lower price of diesel fuel, European consumers have long leaned toward diesel cars — a collective habit that might be difficult to break, despite the new scrutiny the Volkswagen scandal has given to diesel’s dark side.在整个欧洲,像凯利这样的柴油车爱好者有数百万,那里燃油价格和税费高,使得加满一箱油的费用比在美国高出很多。而柴油机节油性能比汽油发动机强,而且柴油价格比汽油低,所以欧洲消费者长期以来一直倾向于购买柴油车——这一共同习惯可能不容易打破,虽然大众丑闻让人们开始重新审视柴油机不好的一面。While diesels have struggled in the ed States to overcome a reputation as smoke-belching clunkers — they represent about 3 percent of the American car market — they have rolled to dominance across the Atlantic. Diesels accounted for more than half the new cars sold in Western Europe last year, compared with 14 percent in 1990.柴油发动机在美国一直难以摆脱“喷烟老机器”的名声——柴油车在美国汽车市场的份额只有大约3%,但在大西洋的对岸却占据主导地位。去年西欧销售的新车有一多半都是柴油车,而这一比例在1990年时还只有14%。Europeans’ embrace of diesels has encouraged manufacturers to improve the engines’ performance, and it has motivated governments, especially those of Germany and France, to support their auto industries’ diesel efforts. Although environmentalists have been sounding alarms for years, the forces propelling diesel were so strong that it might explain why drivers, carmakers and regulators have been willing at times to overlook diesels’ tendency to be bigger polluters than gasoline cars.欧洲人对柴油车的偏好促使汽车厂商进一步提高柴高发动机的性能,也刺激政府,尤其是德国和法国政府,持本国汽车业推广柴油车。尽管环保人士多年来一直在敲警钟,但推动使用柴油机的力量太过强大,它或许可以解释为什么柴油车往往比汽油车的污染大这一点,时常会被驾车人士、汽车厂商和监管机构无视。“Ban diesels? You can’t be serious,” Ségolène Royal, the French environment and energy minister, said recently, responding to a suggestion by a member of the Green Party. “We can’t treat problems of this gravity with ideological slogans at the expense of French interests,” Ms. Royal said, noting that more than half the cars on French roads were diesels.“禁用柴油机?少开玩笑了,”法国环境和能源部长塞戈莱纳·罗亚尔(Ségolène Royal)最近回应一位绿党(Green Party)成员的一项建议时说道。“我们不能以牺牲法国利益为代价,用意识形态口号解决如此重大的问题,”罗亚尔说,她还指出,行驶在法国街道上的车辆有超过一半都是柴油车。In fact, the percentage in France is around 64 percent, even higher than in Germany, with French-made Renault, Peugeot and Citro渀 diesels joining Volkswagens on the road. There has been no indication that the French automakers cheated on emissions tests.事实上,柴油车在法国车辆中的比例大约为64%,甚至比德国还高。除了大众车以外,法国的道路上行驶的还有本国制造的雷诺(Renault)、标致(Peugeot)和雪铁龙(Citro渀)柴油车。没有信息显示,这些法国汽车厂商曾在排放检测中作弊。So far, Volkswagen has not said how it plans to deal with the deceptive software problem, although the German government has set an Oct. 7 deadline for the company to propose a solution. Unlike in the ed States, where lawyers are aly recruiting car owners in hopes of filing class-action lawsuits, there is no similar tradition in Europe that would encourage consumers to collectively demand financial redress.目前,大众还没有对外宣布它计划如何解决这一欺诈软件问题,尽管德国政府已经给出了最后期限,要求它最晚在10月7日拿出解决方案。美国已经有律师在征集车主,以期对大众提起集体诉讼,而欧洲与美国不同,这里没有这类鼓励消费者集体寻求经济赔偿的传统。Volkswagen said on Tuesday that it would prepare a plan by early October to improve the emissions of affected vehicles. Owners will be notified in the weeks and months after the plan has been approved by authorities, the company said.周二,大众表示,它将在十月初准备一项计划,用以改善涉事车辆的排放问题。该公司还表示,它会在这项计划得到当局批准后的几周和几月内,向车主们发出通知。“If there is a recall, I would be happy if my car is not included in it,” said Tony Novak, a retired editor for the B who lives in Reading, England. In Britain, just over half of new cars sold are diesels.“如果他们要召回车辆,我希望自己的车不在此列,”现在居住在苏格兰雷丁市的B退休编辑托尼·诺瓦克(Tony Novak)说。在英国,新销售车辆中柴油车的比例刚刚过半。“Diesels used to be terrible — they used to be dirty and slow,” he said. “Now they are brilliant.” Mr. Novak had owned diesel cars previously, but when he bought his 2014 Volkswagen Golf diesel, “I was really surprised by how good it was — you really notice the difference in acceleration.”“柴油车过去很糟糕——又脏又慢,”他说。“现在棒极了。”诺瓦克以前有好几辆柴油车,但在2014年买了2014年款大众高尔夫柴油车之后,“我特别惊讶于它的优越——加速的时候真的能感觉到区别。”That Volkswagen might have achieved that performance by cheating — it is still not clear whether the company needed the deceptive software to pass Europe’s emissions tests, which are much less strict than the ed States’ — is not what matters most to Mr. Novak. “I worry that if they tweak the computer, the performance will deteriorate,” he said.但大众有可能是通过欺诈而实现较高加速性能这一点,并不是诺瓦克最在乎的。目前还不清楚,大众是否需要在车上安装欺诈软件以通过欧洲的排放检测,后者的标准比美国宽松得多。“我担心他们在计算机上进行调整之后,车辆的性能会下降,”他说。About five million of the affected cars are Golfs, Passats and other Volkswagen-brand cars. An additional two million are Audi brand cars, and the rest or Skoda and SEAT brand cars, or light commercial vehicles.有大约500万涉事车辆是高尔夫、帕萨特和其他大众品牌车型。另有200万辆是奥迪品牌车型,剩下的是斯柯达和西雅特,或轻型商务车。Matthias Müller, a company insider who was appointed chief executive of Volkswagen last week, told top managers late Monday that the deceptive software was activated in only a portion of the 11 million vehicles that have the so-called EA 189 diesel motors. But Volkswagen did not specify how many cars were designed to cheat on emissions tests.上周,大众内部人士马蒂亚斯·穆勒(Matthias Müller)被任命为首席执行官,他在周一晚间告诉公司高层管理人员,在配备所谓EA 189柴油发动机的1100万辆车中,只有一部分车上安装的欺诈软件被激活。但大众没有明确指出,它对多少辆车进行了此类设计,可以在排放检测中作弊。Some industry experts say that the Volkswagen scandal could prove a turning point in the diesel love affair, if the new scrutiny of European emissions standards and testing makes it easier for the environmentalists to be heard.一些行业专家表示,如果对欧洲排放标准和检测的新一轮审视让人们更容易听取环保人士的呼吁,大众丑闻就有可能会成为柴油机热的一个转折点。The premise of the “clean diesel” notion that Volkswagen promoted was partly based on the fact that on a per-mile basis, diesel engines emit less carbon dioxide — a big contributor to climate change — than gasoline engines. But diesel exhausts, unless cleaned in ways that Volkswagen’s software was designed to sidestep, produce larger quantities of other harmful gases — nitrogen oxides — along with fine particles that contribute to stubbornly persistent air quality problems in European cities.大众宣传“清洁柴油”概念,有一部分是基于这样一个事实,即车辆每行驶一英里,柴油发动机排放的二氧化碳比汽油发动机少,而二氧化碳是气候变化的一大因素。但除非像大众那样以特别设计的软件进行欺诈显示出经过“净化”的结果,否则柴油车排放的尾气中会包含更多氮氧化物等其他有害气体,还有更多细微颗粒物质,后者是一些欧洲城市难以消除的空气质量问题的成因之一。“There is a recognition that, fundamentally, it is going to be difficult to control all of the problems with diesel — smoke production is not going to go away,” said Peter Wells, co-director of the center for automotive industry research at Cardiff Business School. “In the very long term, diesel has had its day.”“人们有一种共识,即很难从根本上控制柴油机存在的所有问题——烟气排放不会消失,”卡迪夫大学商学院(Cardiff Business School)汽车工业研究中心联席主任彼得·韦尔斯(Peter Wells)说。“从比较长远来看,柴油机的好日子已经过去。”According to the European Environment Agency, which monitors air quality, 20 to 30 percent of urban residents in Europe are exposed to particle levels — mainly from diesel exhaust fumes — above those considered safe by the European Union, while about 10 percent are exposed to unsafe levels of nitrogen oxides.进行空气质量监测的欧洲环境署(European Environment Agency)的数据显示,有20%至30%的欧洲城市居民被暴露在高于欧盟安全标准的颗粒物质污染中——主要源自柴油机排放的废气,而被暴露于达到不安全标准的氮氧化物中的人群比例约为10%。London and Paris have among the highest pollution levels in terms of nitrogen oxides. In March of this year and last, the smog in Paris reached such levels that the authorities were forced to temporarily limit the number of cars on the road each day.伦敦和巴黎是氮氧化物污染最严重的地区之一。去年和今年的3月,巴黎的烟雾严重到当局被迫暂时对每日上路的车辆数量进行了限制。Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, which is playing host to the ed Nations climate conference in November, is among those who have suggested an eventual ban on diesels in the city.巴黎是即将于11月份举行的联合国气候会议的主办地,该市市长安妮·伊达尔戈(Anne Hidalgo)是建议巴黎最终禁用柴油机的人士之一。The mayor of London, Boris Johnson, plans to establish an ultralow emissions zone in London by 2020 where older diesels will be penalized. A recent report by the environmental committee of the London Assembly, the city’s legislature, said the mayor should consider banning all diesels from the zone.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)计划在2020年结束之前在伦敦建立一个超低排放区,在那里驾驶老一代柴油机车辆上路将被予以处罚。该市立法机构伦敦议会(London Assembly)下设的环境委员会发布的最新报告写道,市长应该考虑在该区域禁行所有柴油车。But environmental efforts must contend with deeply rooted diesel economics. Automotive fuel in Europe costs several times as much as in the ed States, mainly because of higher taxes. The average price of gasoline in London in August, for example, was 521 pence, or about .92, per gallon. In most of Continental Europe, diesel sells for about 15 percent less than gasoline.但环境保护方面的努力必须和根深蒂固的柴油经济相抗争。在欧洲,汽车燃油费用比美国高好几倍,主要是因为税费更高。比如,8月份伦敦汽油平均价格是每升521便士(约合50人民币)。在欧洲大陆大多数国家,柴油的价格大约比汽油低15%。Part of that difference is because the taxes that help keep fuel prices high are typically lower on diesel fuel.之所以有这种差别,部分原因在于导致欧洲燃油价格高的税费,在柴油类别中通常相对更低。In Germany, the lower taxes on diesel fuel amount to an annual subsidy of 7 billion euros, or about .8 billion, for diesel owners, said Daniel Moser, a transportation analyst for the environmental group Greenpeace.环境保护组织绿色和平(Greenpeace)的交通运输分析师丹尼尔·莫泽(Daniel Moser)表示,在德国,柴油税费更低,其差额总计相当于给所有柴油车车主提供了每年高达70亿欧元的补贴。“These policies are not in accordance with what we would have to do to protect the environment and people’s health,” he said.“这些政策与我们为保护环境和人们的健康所该做的事,是不一致的,”他说。And then there are vehicle tax breaks that various governments offer to diesel owners, because of the cars’ lower emissions of carbon dioxide.而且,欧洲各国政府还制定了给柴油车车主减免车辆税的政策,因为这些车辆排放的二氧化碳更少。Also, new diesels are often only slightly more expensive than their gasoline counterparts. In Britain, a Volkswagen Golf Match with a 1.4-liter, turbocharged gasoline engine sells for 20,955, or about ,800, while a similar model with a 1.6-liter diesel engine sells for 21,960, according to Carbuyer, a British website.而且,新柴油车的价格往往只比同等汽油发动机车辆略微高一些。英国汽车网站Carbuyer的数据显示,在英国,一辆配备1.4升涡轮增压汽油发动机的大众高尔夫Match售价为20955英镑(约合20.2万元人民币),而类似车型的1.6升柴油发动机车售价为21960英镑(约合21.2万人民币)。With all those factors taken into account, owning and operating a diesel car in Europe is the more affordable way to go.考虑到所有这些因素,在欧洲购买和驾驶一辆柴油车要更划算。In the ed States, with much lower gasoline prices, “there is no point at the margin, buying a diesel,” said Garel Rhys, a professor emeritus at Cardiff University. He said Europeans’ embrace of diesels made perfect sense. “Essentially, growth came because consumers are economically rational individuals,” Professor Rhys said.在美国,因为汽油价格低得多,“没必要购买柴油车,”卡迪夫大学荣休教授加勒尔·里斯(Garel Rhys)说。他还表示,欧洲人更接受柴油车是完全说得通的。“从本质上讲,购买柴油车的人数会增加,是因为消费者在经济考量上都是比较理性的个体,”里斯说。But a continued yen for diesels may not necessarily translate into an abiding love of Volkswagen, for some Europeans at least.但是人们对柴油机有持续购买欲望,不一定就意味着他们会永远喜爱大众,至少对一些欧洲人来说是这样。Jon Devereux, who drives a diesel-engine Volkswagen Touareg, manages a hotel in Milford on Sea, in southern England. Each winter, he takes the four-wheel-drive vehicle to his winter home in the French Alps. The Touareg, he said, has “been brilliant for 10 years.”在南英格兰米尔福德港(Milford)经营酒店的乔恩·德弗罗(Jon Devereux)拥有一辆配备柴油发动机的大众途锐(Touareg)。每年冬天,他都会驾驶这辆四驱车去他在法国阿尔卑斯山的冬季别墅。他说,这辆途锐“在过去十年表现得一直很不错。”But when it comes time to replace it, his next diesel will not be a Volkswagen. The emissions scandal has soured Mr. Devereux on the carmaker. “Would you buy a VW car or any car in the VW group?’’ he asked.但说到替换这辆车,他要买的下一辆柴油车不会是大众。这起排放丑闻让德弗罗对这家汽车厂商感到失望。“你会买一辆大众车或大众集团旗下的任何品牌吗?”他问。 /201510/402135I’ve just taken an eye exam — not in a spiffy doctor’s office with fancy contraptions, but in my living room with my smartphone and laptop.我刚刚接受了一次视力检查——不是在医生办公室里,也没有用什么昂贵高级的奇妙玩意儿,整个检查就在我的起居室里进行,使用的是我的智能手机和笔记本电脑。A new site called Opternative promises the high-tech, hands-off equivalent of a refraction test — one of the exams performed by an eye doctor to measure a prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses — in the comfort of your own home.通常,眼科医生通过验光(即屈光检查)来为患者开配镜(普通或隐形眼镜)处方。如今,一个名为Opternative的新网站承诺,他们的新技术可以让人们舒舒地在自己家里完成类似的检查过程。To do the test, you need to have smartphone, a computer and at least 12 feet of space. You also have to be between the ages of 18 and 40. Unfortunately, I don’t make the cut, but for the purpose of experiencing this service first hand, I shaved an even 10 years off of my real age and did the test anyway. What’s a little white lie for science?要进行这项检测,需要有一部智能手机、一台电脑和至少12英尺(约合3.65米)的空间。此外,受试者的年龄须在18岁至40岁之间。不幸的是,我并不符合这个要求,但为了亲身体验这项务,我把自己的真实年龄减去了10岁。出于探讨科学的目的,撒个善意的小谎应该不要紧吧?The actual exam is simple. You start by stepping 10 feet away from your computer — which Opternative calibrates and walks you through using a credit card and your own shoe size. Once you are set up, it’s an easy dive into the D.I.Y. exam. The test includes a series of visual tests, some with one eye covered, looking at various shapes, patterns, numbers and letters on the screen. You’re guided through the process with audio and prompts, and respond to questions by clicking through multiple-choice questions using your smartphone as a remote control for the test.实际的检测过程非常简单。首先,你需要走到距离电脑10英尺(约合3.0米)处——Opternative会借助信用卡和你自己的鞋码指导你准确把握这一距离。搞定这步之后,就可以轻松进入这一自助式(D.I.Y.)视力检查的其余步骤了。整个测试包括一系列的视力检测(有的要求你遮住一只眼睛),电脑屏幕上将出现各种各样不同的形状、图案、数字和字母,你将在口述和书面提示的全程指导下,使用智能手机作为遥控器,点击多项选择题的选项来回答问题。At the end of the test, it asks you to fill out your medical and eye history, choose glasses or contacts (), or both (), and then wait for an ophthalmologist licensed in your state to review the exam and issue a prescription. Easy right? You’ll have a digital eye prescription within 24 hours.在测试结束后,它会要求你填写你的病史和眼科病史,并选择想要配普通眼镜还是隐形眼镜(需付40美元),又或者两者皆要(需付60美元)。之后,你只要等着你所在州的持执业眼科医生审核检查结果,并开出处方就行了。很容易对不对?24小时之内,一张数字化的眼科处方就到手了。Except, that’s not what happened to me.只不过,我的经历却并非如此。Shortly after finishing the exam, I received a series of emails from someone at Opternative support, advising me to go see an eye doctor in person. The company promptly refunded my and offered to help me find a trusted doctor in my area. They also helpfully recommended that I pick up a pair of +1.50 ing glasses.在完成检查后不久,我收到Opternative发来的多封电子邮件,劝告我亲自去拜访一下眼科医生。公司迅速退还了我那40美元,并提出愿意帮助我在我所在地区找一个值得信赖的医生。此外,他们还周到地建议我配一副屈光度为+1.50 D(150度)的老花镜。Wait. Rejection. What happened?等等!先别忙。这是怎么回事情?With my permission, Aaron Dallek, the company’s co-founder, spoke with the California-based ophthalmologist who reviewed my exam to find out why he chose not to issue a prescription. There were apparently a few red flags from my medical history that kept me from fooling the system.经我允许后,Opternative公司的联合创始人阿龙·达莱克(Aaron Dallek)与常驻加州的一位眼科医生进行了沟通,询问他为什么在审核我的检查结果后选择不出具处方。原来,是我的病史中存在危险信号(red flag),害我没能成功糊弄过这个系统。First, I hadn’t ever seen an eye doctor in person, other than doing regular eye checks with my family physician. Second, I had mentioned some fuzziness around lights while driving at night, and some ing issues when my eyes are tired. While those symptoms are perfectly common for a 44-year-old (my real age), they are cause for concern for someone who reports their age as 34, which is what I did.首先,除了接受家庭医生的定期眼部检查之外,我从来没有亲自拜访过眼科医生。第二,我曾提到在夜间开车时觉得灯光周围有一圈模糊,当我眼睛疲劳时阅读也会出现问题。虽然对于一个44岁(我的实际年龄)的人来说,这些症状相当常见,可出现在一个34岁(我虚报的年龄)的人身上,就难怪医生会担心了。Even though I fooled no one, in my quest to test Opternative, I still found the process to be straightforward and relatively hassle-free. Opternative is best suited for the person who finds themselves between eye exams and simply needs a new pair of glasses or wants to try a new brand of contact lenses. And the firm says it plans to expand its test to the over-40 crowd next year.不过,我的本意只是想体验一下opternative,所以虽然没能蒙混过关,我仍然感觉这个检查十分轻松简单。Opternative最适合那些想配副新眼镜,或想尝试下某个新品牌的隐形眼镜,不巧正赶上两次眼科检查的中间时段的人。该公司称,他们计划明年将该检查的适宜受试者扩大到40岁以上人群。Now some bad news. You’ll need 25 uninterrupted minutes to take the test. Unfortunately, it’s also not covered by insurance, and it’s only available in 30 states so far. Most important, it’s not a comprehensive eye exam so it’s not a good option for people who have an unusual symptom or are worried about their eye health, including diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts and diabetes.现在,我们再来说一些坏消息。这项检查需要连续进行25分钟。而且,不幸的是,目前只有30个州可以享受这项务,费用还不能从医保里报销。最重要的是,它并非全面的眼科检查,如果存在异常症状或者担心自己患有青光眼、白内障或糖尿病等眼部疾病,它绝非你的明智选择。Even so, for people who are candidates for the service, the company says the results are statistically equivalent to a traditional in-person exam. The firm says data from a clinical trial showed that participants achieved at least 20/25 vision with the prescription generated by the Opternative self-test. Those results are statistically equivalent to a traditional in-person exam.即便如此,该公司表示,对于适宜的受试者,检查结果的准确性在统计上与传统的当面检查不相上下。他们还称,临床试验的数据显示,参与者采用Opternative自助验光生成的处方后,矫正视力至少可以达到20/25。从统计上来说,这些结果与传统的面对面检查相当。Opternative does have a disclaimer at the bottom of its homepage: “Opternative’s service does not include any type of eye health exam. Our service only provides patients with a refractive eye exam, which measures a person’s prescription for glasses or contact lenses.”Opternative还在其主页底部做出了如下声明:“Opternative的务不包括任何类型的眼部健康检查。我们仅为患者提供验光务,以及依此开具的配制普通眼镜或隐形眼镜的处方。”Even so, the American Optometric Association does not support online eye exams. The A.O.A. president, Dr. Steven Loomis, has said he’s concerned that eye patients may try to skip in-person appointments entirely once they get a taste of digital convenience.即便如此,美国视光协会(American Optometric Association, A.O.A.)并不持在线的眼科检查。A.O.A.的主席史蒂文·卢米斯(Steven Loomis)士表示,他担心一旦眼疾患者尝到了数字化检查的方便之处,就会完全略过约见正规眼科医生当面看诊的“麻烦”。“Opternative knows it’s not offering anyone an eye exam, yet they claim that they are,” Dr. Loomis said in an email. “We actively oppose inferior and outright bad patient care, and instances when technology can be abused in a way that leaves patients misled, misinformed or confused about the state of their own health.”“Opternative明知自己无法为任何人提供眼科检查,却声称自己做得到。”卢米斯士在一封电子邮件中说。“我们强烈抵制水平低劣的患者医护,反对滥用技术误导患者,以致令他们搞不清自己的健康状况。”Adding to the criticism from the optometry community is a lawsuit alleging one of Opternative’s co-founders used proprietary information from the National Board of Examiners in Optometry for a different website business. The complaint, which isn’t related to Opternative’s online eye exams and has been settled, does seem to have created a public relations challenge for the firm.除了上述来自眼科学界的批评之外,还有人提起诉讼,控告Opternative的创始人之一在另一项网站业务中使用了美国国家视力测定术考核委员会(National Board of Examiners in Optometry)的专有信息。该投诉虽与Opternative的在线视力检查无关,且已经达成了庭外和解,但它确实对该公司的公关能力提出了一大挑战。What does all of that have to do with the convenience of getting a prescription for glasses or contacts? Nothing for me. Heeding Opternative’s advice, I made an appointment with an eye doctor, and spent two hours in his office and more than 0 to end up back where I started: With a pair of ing glasses and the knowledge that my eyesight just isn’t what it used to be.但比起可以便捷地获得普通或隐形眼镜处方,上述种种又有什么大不了的?反正我是觉得没什么关系。我听取Opternative的建议约见了眼科医生,在他的办公室待了两个小时还花了500多美元,最后的结果也不过是回到了原地:配一副老花镜,并承认自己的视力已经不如以往。I personally did not feel misled by my online eye exam experience, but I am not surprised that eye doctors are wary about online services. Other medical professionals have expressed similar reservations about telemedicine, but a number of new digital services are now delivering online consultations anyway. It was only a matter of time before the eyes have it too.我个人觉得并没有被这次的在线验光误导,不过眼科医生对在线务持谨慎态度也并不令我感到惊讶。其他的医学专业人士也对远程医疗表示了类似的保留意见,但无论如何,目前有若干个新兴的数字务在提供在线咨询。眼科出现此类务只是个时间迟早的问题。 /201510/402723

The Earliest and Longest Man一made Canal一Jinghang Canal京杭大运河Jinghang Canal is called canal for short. It is known as the greatest chi-na ancient project with the Great Wall. Since being founded in 5th ten-tury,the canal has had two large-scale expeditions within Sui and Yuan two dynas-ties. Having the length of 1794 kilometers,15 times longer than Suez Canal and 32 times Panama Canal,Jinghang Canal is the main sea line combining the north and the south in our country.京杭大运河简称运河,与万里长城并列为中国古代最伟大的工程之一。始建于公元前5世纪,后经隋、元两次大规模扩建。全长1794千米,是苏伊士运河的16倍,巴拿马运河的33倍,是中国重要的一条南北水上干线。The canal begins from Beijing and ends in Hang Zhou crossing Tianjing,He-bei,Shangdong,Jiangshu and Zhejiang,linking not only Haihe River,the Yellow River but also Huaihe River and Yangtze River. So it is the second prime channel only following Yangtze River in China.它北起北京,南至杭州,经过北京、天津、河北、山东、江苏、浙江六省市,沟通了海河、黄河、淮河、长江、钱塘江五大水系,是中国仅次于长江的第二条“黄金水道”。Though the canal cannot be wholly open to navigation currently,its seasonal navigation length has reached 1100 kilometers,mainly distributed in the south of Huanghe River. It reduces the burden of railway goods transportation,especially for the short and middle distance transportation of coal and building material,mak-certain difference in promoting the district economic and enforcing the north-communication. The canal continues to play an important role in ocean ship-目前,大运河虽不能全程通航,但季节性通航里程已达1100千米,主要分布在黄河以南的山东、江苏和浙江三省。对分担铁路的货流,特别是承担煤炭、建材等的中短途运输任务,对发展地区经济,加强南北交流,起到了一定的作用。今天,大运河将继续发挥其重要的作用。The whole course of the Great Canal covers seven sections:the one from the city zone of Beijing to Tongxian County is called the Tonghui River, from Tonpxian County to Tianjin called the North Canal,from Tianjin to Linqing called the South Ca-nal,from Linqing to Tairzhuang called the Lu Canal,from Tairzhuang to Huaiyin called the Central Canal,from Huaiyin to Yangzhou called the Inner Canal,and across the Yangtze River the one from Zhenjiang to Hangzhou called the Jiangnan Canal.京杭大运河是由人工河道和部分河流、湖泊共同组成的,全程可分为七段:(1)通惠河:北京市区至通县(今北京通州区);(2)北运河:通县至人津市;(3)南运河:天津至临清;(4)鲁运河:临清至台儿庄;(5)中运河:台儿庄至清江;(6)里运河:清江至扬州,人长江;(7)江南运河:镇江至杭州。 /201512/410685

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