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2019年08月20日 06:08:01来源:华龙生活

Silence may be golden, but “the silent treatment” can ruin a relationship, according to a recent study, the online magazine Salon reported.美国《沙龙》网络杂志指出:“沉默是金”的道理没错,但是“沉默对待”却能毁了一段感情。The silent treatment is one of the most common forms of conflict within a relationship, especially a romantic one. Researchers call it the “demand-withdraw” pattern. It happens when one partner repeatedly approaches the other with a request, whether asking for attention or change — or criticism, but is met with avoidance or silence.在一段关系,尤其是爱情关系中,沉默对待是最常见的感情冲突之一。研究者将其称为“要求/退缩沟通”模式。在这种模式下,一方不断提出要求,寻求注意或是希望另一方做出改变,而另一方则沉默或回避。Frustrated by the lack of response, the person who made the demands makes more. The person who withdrew retreats further — initiating a vicious cycle.由于缺乏反馈,于是提要求的一方变本加厉,而退缩的一方则愈发回避,从而形成恶性循环。According to Paul Schrodt, professor of communication studies at Texas Christian University, in the US, engaging in the silent treatment can kill romance.在美国德克萨斯基督教大学从事沟通研究的保罗#8226;施罗特认为,沉默对待将使感情消磨殆尽。Schrodt is the head of a meta-analysis of 74 studies including more than 14,000 participants. The study found the demand-withdraw pattern to be one of the most damaging types of relationship conflict and one of the hardest patterns to break.施罗特领导的一项对14000多名参与者、涉及74个研究的元分析显示,要求/退缩模式是伤害最大的感情冲突之一,也是最难打破僵局的冲突之一。“Partners get locked in this pattern largely because they each see the other as the cause,” Schrodt was ed as saying in ScienceDaily.com. “Both partners see the other as the problem.”正如施罗特在每日科学网站所言,“这种模式下,冲突双方很容易陷入僵局,因为他们都觉得是对方引起了事端,认为问题出在对方身上。”To break the vicious cycle, Schrodt says each partner has to become aware that they are engaging in the silent treatment. They need to know their role in it and the other partner’s point of view. The person making demands usually feels abandoned; the silent person is protecting himself. Each needs to ask, “Why am I behaving this way? How does my behavior make my partner feel?”他说,要想打破这种恶性循环,冲突双方必须意识到自己正处在“沉默对待”之中。他们应知自己所扮演的角色和对方的想法。提要求的一方总有被抛弃之感,而沉默的一方则觉得一直在自我保护。他们双方都应问问自己:“我为何会如此表现?我的行为又会让对方有何感受?”Opening up打破僵局Schrodt suggests talking with your partner about the demand-withdraw pattern and your own part in it. Then trying to stop yourself next time you start to engage in it.施罗特的建议是:与对方谈谈“要求/退缩模式”,以及你在其中扮演的角色,并在下一次陷入此种模式之前,及时悬崖勒马。A Wall Street Journal column talked to other experts about how to break the silent treatment cycle.在《华尔街日报》的一篇专栏文章中,其他专家就打破“沉默对待”模式也提出了自己的建议。Diana Weiss-Wisdom, a psychologist based in California, advises that partners take a break.美国加利福尼亚州的心理学家戴安娜#8226;维斯#8226;威兹德姆建议冲突双方应先冷静一下。“People have to be calm enough to listen to each other,” she says: “Cool your jets, and come back together at a specified time to talk about the feelings underlying the conflict before you try to solve anything.”她说:“人们只有在冷静之时才能听进对方所说,所以,先冷静下,选个具体的时间点先一起说说冲突时的感受,再试着解决问题。”If your demands and requests are being ignored, you’ll need to give your partner space. Try to engage his or her empathy. “The only way to do this is to use the word ‘I’,” says Fran Walfish, another Californian psychotherapist. Say: “This is how I feel when you pull away.” But be careful to avoid labels such as “selfish”, “rude” and “uncaring”.同样来自加州的心理学家弗兰#8226;沃尔费什则建议:如果你的要求总是被忽视,那么你需要给对方一些空间,试着引起他/她的同情。而这样做的唯一方法就是用“我”打头的句子,对他/她说,“我被你决绝时就是这样的感受”。但是,要慎用一些标签性的词语,比如“自私、粗鲁、漠不关心”等。If you are the one who withdraws, acknowledge your need to pull away, and tell your partner that you need space. “At least the other person won’t feel shut out,” says Warren Kennaugh, a behavioral scientist based in Sydney, Australia. “It’s the non-explanation that drives them to a high level of discomfort.” Try to approach your partner more. “Be courageous about how you feel,” Kennaugh says.来自悉尼的行为学家沃伦#8226;肯诺的建议是:如果你是退缩的一方,那么你需要承认自己在逃避,同时告诉对方你需要空间。至少让对方不再感到被拒绝,因为不解释往往会让对方更难过。试着接近对方,勇敢地告诉他/她你的感受。” /201409/327363。

  • One day, the father lets eight year-old son send a letter, the son took the letter , the father then remembered didn’t write the address and addressee‘s name on the envelope.有一天,父亲让八岁的儿子去寄一封信,儿子已经拿着信跑了,父亲才想起信封上没写地址和收信人的名字。After the son comes back, the father asks him: “You have thrown the letter in the mail box?”儿子回来后,父亲问他:“你把信丢进邮筒了吗?”“Certainly”http://mag.e-say.com.cn/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/笑话2.jpg“当然”“You have not seen on the envelope not to write the address and the addressee name?”“你没看见信封上没有写地址和收信人名字吗?”“I certainly saw nothing written on the envelope.”“我当然看见信封上什么也没写”“Then why you didn’t take it back?”“那你为什么不拿回来呢?”“I also thought that you do not write the address and the addressee, is for does not want to let me know that you do send the letter to who!”“我还以为你不写地址和收信人,是为了不想让我知道你把信寄给谁呢!” /201311/262931。
  • WHEN CHEF ENRIQUE OLVERA OPENED his restaurant, Pujol, 13 years ago, his only goal was to serve #39;solid, tasty food#39; and be #39;the best restaurant in the neighborhood,#39; he says. But that neighborhood was Mexico City#39;s Polanco, the dining epicenter for a city of 8.5 million, and Olvera#39;s budget was so small that his wife had to paint the walls. Since then, Pujol has far surpassed its initial aims: It#39;s now widely thought of as Mexico#39;s finest restaurant-and the 36th best in the world, according to the much-scrutinized S. Pellegrino rankings; and Olvera, who trained at New York#39;s Culinary Institute of America before returning home, is the country#39;s most well-known chef. He reached his position by making his cuisine #39;fancier and fancier, and more complex#39; over time. Pujol now serves a tasting of innovative, sophisticated food that wouldn#39;t look out of place at England#39;s Fat Duck or New York#39;s Momofuku Ko. Olvera is also one of the leading exponents of Mexico#39;s new gastronomy, which combines elaborate, cutting-edge technique with a strong emphasis on local ingredients to create a cosmopolitan cuisine that#39;s at once international yet unmistakably Mexican-paralleling the direction of Mexico City itself. 墨西哥名厨恩里克#12539;奥尔韦拉(Enrique Olvera)于13年前开办了自己的餐厅――Pujol,他说他当时唯一的目标就是做出“货真价实、美味可口的食物”,打造“全社区最棒的餐厅”。不过,这个社区可是墨西哥城的波兰科(Polanco),它是这个拥有850万人口的城市的餐饮中心,而奥尔韦拉的预算又非常少,他的妻子都不得不亲自上阵刷 。自那以后,奥尔韦拉取得的成绩已远超他最初的目标,如今Pujol已被普遍认为是墨西哥最好的餐厅,而且还在备受关注的 培露(S. Pellegrino)评级中位列全球最佳餐厅的第三十六位。在回国之前,奥尔韦拉曾在纽约的美国烹饪学院(Culinary Institute of America)接受培训,现在他是墨西哥最负盛名的大厨。他通过逐步使他的菜式“越来越新奇、越来越复杂”坐上了今日的位置。现在Pujol推出了一系列有创新性、精细复杂的菜品,把它们放在英格兰的Fat Duck餐厅或纽约的MomofukuKo餐厅也不会显得上不了台面。奥尔韦拉还是墨西哥新烹饪法的主要代表人物之一,该烹饪法将精妙前沿的技术与对本地食材的注重结合在一起,以此创造出既国际化同时又无疑具有墨西哥特色的世界性的菜肴,这一点与墨西哥城自身的发展方向不谋而合。 A visit to the 48-seat Pujol reveals a space-age kitchen containing 27 cooks, including a number of stagiaires who have flown thousands of miles to work for free-one spends hours picking cilantro flowers with tweezers; another is making his fifth attempt to perfect an apparently simple dish. As Pujol has become a place that attracts free labor (#39;if you want to stage here now, you have to wait until 2014,#39; says Olvera), the chef has begun to think more about bringing Mexican cooks home from the U.S. He#39;d like them to move past the glass ceiling that exists in America (despite the number of Mexicans working in U.S. restaurants, #39;you rarely see a Mexican head chef in a New York kitchen,#39; Olvera points out) and advance their careers on their home turf. As Olvera guides his cooks through lunchtime service-#39;Hey, make that blob of sauce more the size of a walnut#39;; #39;You: pull your hat down#39;-he talks about coming home, tradition and innovation, and how a Disney movie changed one of the world#39;s best restaurants. Pujol餐厅共有48个座位,它的超现代的厨房中现在有27名厨师,包括一群从数千英里之外飞来免费干活的实习厨师。其中一名实习厨师要花数个小时用镊子挑选香菜花,另一人则在第五次尝试使一道表面上简单的菜品变得完美。由于Pujol已成为一个能吸引免费劳力的地方(奥尔韦拉称:“如果你想在这儿实习,那得等到2014年了。”),奥尔韦拉已经开始考虑要将墨西哥厨师从美国吸引回国。他希望他们能绕过存在于美国的“玻璃天花板”(尽管有大量墨西哥厨师在美国的餐厅工作,但奥尔韦拉指出“你在纽约的餐厅很少能看到一位墨西哥主厨”),回到自己的国家发展他们的事业。他一边指导厨师们准备午餐――“喂,把那团酱弄成一个核桃的大小”;“你,把帽子拉低些”――一边谈论著有关回国、传统与创新的问题,以及一部迪斯尼(Disney)的影片如何改变了这家位列全球最佳的餐厅。 ENRIQUE OLVERA: #39;Mexico City is changing quickly, and restaurants are in a really good spot. There#39;s more attention from the rest of the world on Mexican food. Fifteen years ago, I wouldn#39;t have thought it would be considered a high-level cuisine and valued the same as Italian or Spanish food-especially in Mexico. Foreigners have always liked our food, but they thought of it as very causal, almost like street food. Now they#39;re realizing there#39;s sophistication to it, and there#39;s potential to make not just tasty food but also food of a very high quality. 墨西哥城在迅速改变,餐饮处于一个非常有利的位置,世界其他地方更关注墨西哥美食了。放在15年前,我不会想到它会被人视为高端菜系,会和意大利菜和西班牙菜受到同样的重视――尤其是在墨西哥。外国人一直都喜欢我们的食物,但以前他们认为它是非常简便随意的,几乎就像街边小吃一样。现在他们意识到它也有精妙复杂之处,它不仅能够提供美味的食物,也能够提供品质非常高的食物。 This is a cosmopolitan city with influences from Europe, the local culture and the U.S. It#39;s a very nice mix of the three components, and Mexicans are starting to fall in love with that mix. If you look at Pujol, with the decoration and the food, it#39;s Mexican-you feel like you are in Polanco; you don#39;t feel like you#39;re in New York-but it#39;s not all pink with mariachis and crap like that, because that#39;s not Mexico City. 这是一个国际化都市,受到欧洲、本土文化及美国的影响。它是这三个要素的绝佳融合体,如今墨西哥人开始喜欢上了这种融合。看看Pujol,它的这些装饰和食物,你会发现它是墨西哥风格的,你会感觉自己身在波兰科,不会觉得自己在纽约。但是,它一点也不低俗,没有像墨西哥流浪乐队那样的低俗表演,因为这不是墨西哥城的风格。 At the restaurant we used to do a lot of reinterpretations of traditional Mexican dishes, but then we got tired of it and started trying to create new dishes with a very strong Mexican base. Until two or three years ago, all the ingredients had to be Mexican and they also had to be authentic, so, for example, we wouldn#39;t use parsnip. But you know that movie Ratatouille? In the beginning, the head chef, Gusteau, is on TV and he says, #39;You cannot limit your creativity because of the place that you were born,#39; and I remembered that later and figured it was true. So we started incorporating ingredients that are originally from other parts of the world. We said, #39;If it grows in Mexico, fine, we use it.#39; For example, now a lot of Mexicans eat broccoli. It#39;s the second-largest crop in the center of the country, so why shouldn#39;t we do broccoli? We brought in a little more of our own vision. That was the first year we got on the list of #39;The World#39;s 50 Best Restaurants.#39; 以前我们的餐厅常常做很多重新诠释传统墨西哥菜肴的菜品,后来我们感到厌烦,开始尝试创造拥有非常厚重的墨西哥传统根基的新菜品。直到两三年前,所有的食材还都必须是墨西哥的,而且必须是正宗的,比如说我们就不会采用欧洲萝卜。你知道《美食总动员》(Ratatouille)这部电影吗?影片一开始,厨师长古斯多(Gusteau)就在电视上讲道,‘你不能让你出生的地方限制了你的创造力’,后来我想起了这句话,明白了事实确实如此。因此,我们开始混入源自世界其他地区的食材。我们说:“如果它生长在墨西哥,那好,我们就用它。’比如说,现在很多墨西哥人都吃西兰花了。它是我们国家中部地区的第二大作物,所以我们为什么不用西兰花做菜呢?我们加入了更多一些我们自己的想象。那是我们登上“全球50大最佳餐厅”榜单的第一年。 Most people think they have to choose between tradition and doing modern food. We do both-they can coexist nicely in a dish and definitely on a . You always cherish where you come from, but I also have the need for new sensations, and to improve on those old traditions. It#39;s not just about innovation for its own sake-it#39;s to get to a better dish. For example, when you nixtamalize corn to make tortillas, the traditional recipe is to boil the corn with limestone, let it sit overnight outside, then grind it at the mill. But perhaps you can get to a better masa if you sous-vide the corn at 65 degrees, without the huge temperature shock. You might, so why not do it? You try it, and if it#39;s better, you change it; if it#39;s not, you keep doing the traditional style. If you were an architect, it would be really stupid to be building houses like you were 50 years ago. The kitchen#39;s the same thing. If you want tradition to be alive, you have to keep doing things with it. Time will tell who#39;s doing good stuff. 大多数人都认为他们必须在传统菜与现代菜之间做出选择。我们两样都做,它们能很好地共存于一道菜中,当然也能在同一份菜单上共存。人总是珍视自己的传统,但我也需要新感觉,也需要改进那些旧传统。这不只是为了创新而创新,而是为了做出一盘更美味的菜。例如,如果你想用 性溶液处理玉米去做玉米粉圆饼,传统方法是煮玉米时加入石灰石,接下来把玉米放在外面凉一晚,然后再去磨坊将它磨成粉。然而,假如你在华氏65度的温度下用真空低温烹饪法对它进行处理,没有了剧烈的温度变化,磨出来的粉或许会更好。你能这么做,那么为什么不去做呢?你可以去试试,如果效果更好,你就改变方法;如果效果并没有更好,那你就继续按传统方式做。假如你是位建筑师,如果你还像50年前一样建房子是非常愚蠢的行为。厨房之事也是一样,如果你想让传统延续下去,你就得不断地对它进行改进,时间会告诉大家谁做的是好事。 The Mexican cooks in the U.S. didn#39;t go there to cook; it#39;s just poor people that have no opportunities, that don#39;t see a future in Mexico, so they go to the U.S. Once they arrive, they have very few options for work. My dream-and I think it#39;s the dream of a lot of people here-is that they don#39;t need to go there and feel unwanted. If they go, it#39;s fine, but they should be hired. People should call you and say, #39;I want you to come and work at my restaurant,#39; like they do with other nationalities. It#39;s the nature of how it works and I understand that. But if we can change that a little it#39;d be nice. 在美国的墨西哥厨师当初去那儿并不是为了做厨师的,他们只是没有机会、在墨西哥又看不到未来的穷人,所以他们去了美国。到了那儿之后,他们可选择的工作非常少。我的梦想是――而且我认为这也是很多人的梦想――有一天他们不需要跑去那儿感觉自己是多余的。如果他们去了,没问题,但是他们应该有就业机会。应当有人打电话给他们说,‘我希望你来我的餐厅工作’,就像他们对待其他族裔的人一样。当然,事情的发展原本就是这样的,我也理解这一点,但是如果我们能对它做一点点改变,那也是不错的。 I don#39;t think cooks abroad realize Mexico has changed cuisinewise. And when they come back they see there#39;s this huge potential. I think we should sp the word that there are good restaurants here in Mexico. If you compare the amount of money you make and the quality of life, it#39;s almost the same. Yes, in New York you might earn ,000 as a pastry chef, and here you might earn ,000, but the rent is much cheaper, you don#39;t have to be sending money home and you#39;re with your own people. Most of the cooks here have worked in Europe or the States, and when they come back they appreciate the ingredients more and they see the possibilities of working with Mexican products. I also like the idea of Mexicans leaving Mexico and coming back because I did it myself. You realize what you like about your own country when you#39;re outside it.#39; 我觉得在国外的厨师没有意识到墨西哥在烹饪方面发生了变化。他们回来时就会发现这儿原来有这么巨大的潜力,我认为我们应当向世界传播墨西哥也有好餐厅的消息。如果你对收入的数量与生活的质量进行比较,在墨西哥和在国外几乎都是一样的。是的,在纽约做糕点厨师你或许能挣60,000美元,在这儿也许你只能挣3,000美元,但是这儿的房租要便宜得多,你不必把钱寄回家,而且你能和自己的家人呆在一起。我们这儿的大多数厨师都曾在欧洲或美国工作过,他们回来后对于食材有了更多的理解和认识,能看到利用墨西哥食材进行烹饪的种种可能。我也喜欢墨西哥人离开自己国家然后再回来,因为我自己就是这么做的。当你身处异国时,你会明白你喜欢自己国家的哪些方面。 /201310/261401。
  • Three hours of TV a day #39;doubles early death risk. Watching TV for three hours a day can be deadly – doubling your risk of dying early, warn researchers.研究人员警示大家:每天看电视三小时是有致命伤害的——让早死的风险提高一倍。A new study from Spain adds to evidence that time spent in front of the box is potentially life-threatening.来自西班牙的一项新的研究发现也符合这一论点:看电视的时间是有潜在生命威胁的。Researchers believe too much sitting – as opposed to insufficient activity – may be a new risk factor for premature death and illness such as diabetes and heart disease.研究人员认为久坐——和运动不足不同——可能会是早死和诸如糖尿病、心脏病等疾病的风险因素。Professor Miguel Martinez-Gonzalez, chair of the Department of Public Health at the University of Navarra in Pamplona, who led the study, said ‘Television viewing is a major sedentary behaviour and there is an increasing trend toward all types of sedentary behaviours.米格尔·马丁内斯-冈萨雷斯教授,现任位于西班牙潘普洛纳市的纳瓦拉大学公共健康学院主席,领导了这项研究。他讲道,“看电视是项主要的久坐行为,且现在各种形式的久坐行为都开始增加了。”‘Our findings are consistent with a range of previous studies where time spent watching television was linked to mortality.’“我们的发现和一系列之前的研究发现相符,看电视和死亡率有关。”Researchers assessed 13,284 young and healthy Spanish university graduates, average age 37, to investigate possible links between three types of sedentary behaviour and risk of death: television viewing time, computer time and driving time.研究小组调研了13284名健康年轻西班牙大学毕业生, 平均年龄为37岁,以此研究三种久坐行为:看电视时间、用电脑时间和开车时间与死亡风险的关系。The participants were followed for around eight years, when there were 97 deaths, including 19 deaths from cardiovascular causes, 46 from cancer and 32 from other causes.调研对象被追踪了大约8年,期间97人死亡,其中19人死于心血管病46人死于癌症,32人因其他原因死亡。The risk of premature death was twofold higher for those watching three or more hours of TV a day compared to those watching one hour or less.每天看电视3小时及以上的人,其早死风险比看电视不超过1小时者高出一倍。This twofold higher risk was also apparent after accounting for many other variables related to a higher risk of death, says a report published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.《美国心脏学会期刊》发表的一篇报告显示,在考虑了很多其他增加死亡风险的因素后,看电视3小时及以上加倍早死风险这一论点仍然显而易见。Researchers found no significant association between the time spent using a computer or driving and higher risk of premature death from all causes.研究人员发现,用电脑和开车的时间与早死风险之间未见明显关联。Researchers said further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanisms that may be involved.研究人员表明,尚需更多研究以确认用电脑和开车背后的生物学机制。Prof Martinez-Gonzalez said ‘As the population ages, sedentary behaviours will become more prevalent, especially watching television, and this poses an additional burden on the increased health problems related to aging.马丁内斯-冈萨雷斯教授讲道,随着人口老龄化,久坐行为日益普遍,尤其是看电视。人日渐衰老后健康问题会增多,而看电视造成了“额外的健康负担”。‘Our findings suggest adults may consider increasing their physical activity, avoid long sedentary periods, and reduce television watching to no longer than one to two hours each day’ he added.“根据研究发现,建议成年人多运动,少久坐,每天看电视的时间控制在一到两小时内。”他补充道。In the UK, the average amount of time spent watching TV is four hours a day compared with five hours in the US.在英国,人们每天看电视的平均时间是4小时,美国是5小时。Previous research found people who watch six hours of TV a day cut short their lifespan by five years compared with someone who watches no TV.先前研究发现,和不看电视的人相比,每天看6小时电视的人寿命会减少5年。People who sit for longer have bigger waist sizes, and higher levels of cholesterol, blood sugar and triglycerides.久坐的人,腰围更大,胆固醇、血糖和甘油三酯的含量也更高。The average adult spends 90 per cent of their leisure time sitting down and less than half of adults meet World Health Organisation physical activity recommendations.成人平均90%的空闲时间都是坐着的,且做到“世界健康组织”身体运动推荐的不到一半。In the UK, adults are urged to do 150 minutes of activity a week to promote health.英国鼓励成人每星期做150分钟的运动以增进健康。Other work suggests sedentary behaviour is linked to obesity, high levels of bad blood fats and other heart disease risk factors, and more opportunities for grazing on junk foods.其他研究显示久坐会导致肥胖 ,坏血脂指数提高,罹患其他心脏疾病的风险增加,还会让人摄入更多垃圾食品。US research earlier this year found young men who watch TV for just three hours a day have half the sperm count of men who rarely watch TV.美国今年初的研究显示,年轻男子每天看电视超过3小时的,和很少看电视的相比,精子数量会少一半。 /201406/308578。
  • The modern maraschino cherry is “a real cherry with the cherry flavor removed,” explains Darcy O’Neil, a chemist and the author of “Fix the Pumps,” a history of the soda fountain. The original version, by contrast, was a marasca cherry — a sour, dark variety cultivated on the coast of Dalmatia (now part of Croatia) beginning in the mid-19th century. It was brined in ocean water, then preserved in a liqueur made from its own juices, as well as leaves and ground-up pits.现代的酒渍马拉斯奇诺樱桃(maraschino cherry,特指冰淇淋、鸡尾酒,奶油蛋糕等物上的装饰性红樱桃——译注)是一种“去掉了樱桃味的樱桃”,化学家达西·奥尼尔(Darcy O’Neil)说,他曾出版讲述冷饮机历史的《修好水泵》(Fix the Pumps)一书。马拉斯奇诺樱桃是用欧洲酸樱桃制成的,二者截然相反。欧洲酸樱桃又酸又黑,是19世纪中期在达尔马提亚(今克罗地亚境内)培育出来的。制作方法是将它用海水浸泡,之后用同一种樱桃的汁液、叶子和碾碎的籽制成的甜酒腌渍。The fruit first arrived on American shores as a luxury import around the turn of the century, along with a cheaper version made primarily in France using sugar and dyes. Large shipments of European cherries that had been preserved but not fully transformed into maraschinos were also sent to the ed States — American cherries were considered unacceptable because of their mushier texture — where they, too, were made into less rarefied versions of the Croatian original.在19世纪与20世纪之交,这种果子作为一种奢侈的进口物品来到美国大洋两岸,此外还有一种较为便宜的法国制造品种,用糖和颜料浸渍而成。美国樱桃被认为质地较软,无法用来制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃,于是大量欧洲半成品樱桃也被运往美国,在美国本土加工制作,但没有克罗地亚的原产品那么正宗。Americans happily gobbled up imitation marascas, usually flavored with vanilla or almond. But when information about how they were made was leaked, outraged articles followed. “Maraschino Cherries Violate Pure Food Law,” ran one 1907 headline. According to another report, the fruit was smoked in sulfur and packed in a noxious chemical brine before shipping; once in the factory, it was soaked in sugar syrup, flavored and dyed red with aniline, a toxic colorant made of coal-tar byproducts. So many maraschino impostors — some alcoholic and some not — hit the market that in 1912, the Food and Drug Administration issued an official statement on the difference between a real maraschino and an imitation.美国人开心地吃着这些仿制樱桃,通常是配香草和杏仁一起吃。但是当制作过程泄露后,开始出现愤怒的抨击文章,1907年,一篇文章题为“马拉斯奇诺樱桃触犯纯净食品法”。另一篇报道写道,这些樱桃经过硫磺烟熏,在运输前被浸泡在一种臭名昭著的化学制剂里。在工厂,它们被浸入糖浆,用苯胺调味和染上红色——苯胺是一种有毒的着色剂,由煤焦油的副产品制成。大量冒牌马拉斯奇诺樱桃涌入市场(有些是酒渍的,有些不是),1912年,美国食品和药物发表了一份官方声明,澄清真假马拉斯奇诺樱桃的不同之处。None of these alarming findings stopped people from eating the candied treats. It wasn’t long before American cherry growers, particularly in Oregon, where there were vast orchards, looked for ways to break into the market. Ernest Wiegand, a horticulturist at Oregon Agricultural College (now Oregon State University), focused on figuring out how best to preserve the shape and structure of local cherries to the standards Americans expected. “Preserving them with alcohol causes them to shrink,” O’Neil explains. “They become hard and wrinkled, and they don’t look like a plump, beautiful cherry.” In 1925, Wiegand discovered that adding calcium salts to the preserving brine firmed up the fruit. With a few modifications, this is still the method used to make maraschinos today. And while the maraschino we know has long been a kind of Frankenstein’s monster of the fruit world, in a Manhattan or on a sundae it offers a certain reliable comfort. “It’s got this burst of sweetness and sugar and childhood in it,” O’Neil says. “And those are good associations.”这些警告并没有阻止人们继续食用这种甜品。不久后,美国樱桃种植者,特别是拥有大片果园的俄勒冈州的种植者们找到办法打入这个市场。厄内斯特·维甘德是俄勒冈农业学院(今俄勒冈州立大学)的园艺学家,他致力于让本土樱桃的形状和质地在腌渍过程能够达到美国人期待的标准。“用酒精腌渍会让它们缩水,”奥尼尔说,“会让它们变硬起皱,看上去就不像美丽丰满的樱桃了。”1925年,维甘德发现,在腌渍液中加入钙盐,会让樱桃变得质地坚实。经过若干调整,这个方法如今仍应用在制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃的工序中。我们熟悉的马拉斯奇诺樱桃早已成为水果界的弗兰肯斯坦怪物,但当它随曼哈顿鸡尾酒和圣代冰淇淋一起端上来的时候,还是让人有种安心的舒适感。“它包含了关于甜蜜、糖果和童年的感觉,”奥尼尔说。“这些都是美妙的联想。” /201410/338308。
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