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2019年10月19日 06:39:31    日报  参与评论()人

新宾满族县人民医院割痔疮多少钱抚顺矿务局西露天矿职工医院医院男科A fruit seller has been branded one of the #39;world#39;s best looking vendor#39; after Chinese internet users started sharing one of his photographs. Wang Xianghong was working without his top on at a market in Taipei, Taiwan, when he was snapped by a customer.The image was shared on social media and quickly gathered interest。一位水果摊售货员的照片最近走红于中国互联网,他被称作是“世界上最帅的售货员”。他的名字叫王翔宏,因在台北的一个水果市场赤膊工作期间,被客户拍到并上传到朋友圈后,这组照片便迅速走红于网络。The 20-year-old, who is in his last year at university, follows the #39;hot bean curd seller#39;, the #39;hot cake seller#39; and the #39;pork princess#39; in a series of attractive young men and women who have caught the nation#39;s attention. Xianghong, who is planning to serve in the military after graduating, said he works at the fruit market four times a week。王翔红现年24岁,是一名大四学生。他在继“豆腐型男”“蛋糕型男”“猪肉公主”等一系列男女青年网络红人后,成为新一个吸引全国目光的男青年。王翔宏说他每周来水果店工作4次,且打算毕业后参军。He told local media that many female customers, usually middle-aged women, intentionally approach him while choosing product. He also said he has received dozens of comments about his fit figure。王翔宏告诉记者,很多女性客人,尤其是中年阿姨在挑选水果时故意和他接近。他还说他也听到了很多对于他性感身材的。The owner of the store, known as Chen, said Xianghong is a primary school friend of her son who offered to help when the store became understaffed. As for Xianghong#39;s newfound celebrity status, Chen said the store had not seen an increase in sales. She added that the shop had always done well in the past, with queues regularly forming down the street。水果店的老板陈说,王翔宏是她上小学时的一个朋友的儿子,他们说好在水果店缺人手的时候让他来帮忙。虽然因王的新“名人身份”,陈说水果店的生意也并没有明显的增长。因为店里的生意原本就很好,经常是很多人排队购买。Meanwhile, Chen Yi-ting, or the #39;hottest bean curd vendor#39;, was voted the best looking in a social media poll. He joins Yu Sheng-lun, 20, who became an overnight internet sensation after he was spotted cutting up slices of cake while topless in Neihu, Taiwan.One admirer, described the cake seller as #39;manly, sexy and dead gorgeous#39;。与此同时,陈奕廷,“最红豆腐型男”在一次社交媒体投票中被评为第一帅哥,20岁的于圣伦在台湾内湖赤膊切蛋糕时被拍到,也和陈一样一夜爆红于网络。一位台湾的知名偶像评价“蛋糕型男”是最具男子气概,最性感,最帅的男生。 /201507/385624抚顺市中心医院电话预约 As a child, Chris Cosentino loved using the simple wooden nutcrackers his grandfather made to separate nuts from their shells. And there were always plenty of bowls of nuts sitting around his grandparents’ homes.克里斯·科森蒂诺(Chris Cosentino)从小就喜欢用他祖父做的那个简单的木质胡桃夹子剥坚果。那时候,他祖父母的家中各处总有一碗碗的坚果。“Walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds in the shell,” he said. “It was a very Italian thing.”“那些带壳的核桃、榛子还有杏仁,”他说,“都是很有意大利味道的东西。”Mr. Cosentino, 42, is now a chef who has been a winner on the Bravo series “Top Chef Masters” and who has a new restaurant called Cockscomb opening in San Francisco in a few weeks. These days, he uses a marble mortar and pestle or a woodworking mallet when he needs to crack nuts. But he had a number of suggestions for those who prefer traditional nutcrackers.今年42岁的科森蒂诺已经成为了一名厨师,他曾经是Bravo系列节目“顶级大厨”(Top Chef Masters)中的赢家,而且再过几星期,他的新餐厅Cockscomb就将在旧金山开业了。现在,他在剥坚果的时候会使用一台大理石臼及一把捣杵,或是一把木质锤子。但是他有许多建议,可供那些喜欢用传统胡桃夹子的人参考。At Zinc Details, in the Lower Pacific Heights area of San Francisco, he found several appealing options, including an Andrea Branzi design for Alessi called Scoiattolo (or squirrel). It was heavy, which is a good thing in a nutcracker, he explained, because it means “the nut will give before the nutcracker itself will.”他在旧金山下太平洋高地(Lower Pacific Heights)的Zinc Details商店里,找到了几件很有吸引力的产品,其中包括安德烈亚·布兰奇(Andrea Branzi)为艾烈希(Alessi)设计的一款胡桃夹子,名为Scoiattolo(或“松鼠”)。这件产品非常沉,但对于胡桃夹子来说却是件好事,他解释道,因为这意味着“坚果在这样的夹子面前会自暴自弃。”It was also functional, he said (“It has two sections for different-size nuts”), and aesthetically pleasing. “You’ve got a squirrel sitting on what looks like a branch cracking a nut. It makes sense and it looks good enough to keep out on the counter.”而且这款产品也很好用,他说(“它有两个部分可以用来夹大小不同的坚果”),而且设计美观,令人愉悦。“就像一只松鼠正坐在树枝一类的地方,剥开一枚坚果。这件产品不但很实用,而且摆在台面上也很好看。”Looks are important to Mr. Cosentino, who has done a certain amount of designing: of clothing (Chef jeans and Meat Feat socks), sporting equipment (a limited-edition skateboard) and kitchenware (a line of knives). “If it’s something that sits out,” he said, “I want people to look at it and think it’s really beautiful.”科森蒂诺非常看重外观,他之前曾做过各种各样的设计:有装类的(Chef牛仔裤和Meat Feat袜),有运动器材类的(一款限量版的滑板),还有厨房用品类的(一系列的刀具)。“如果这件东西是要摆在外面的,”他说,“我希望人们看见它会觉得非常美丽。”The Nusskubus, which he found online from Connox, more than fit that criteria. “If you put it on your counter,” he said, “they’ll think it’s a sculpture.”他上网在Connox商店里找到的一款Nusskubus夹子,则更加符合这一标准。“如果把它放在台面上,”他说,“人们会以为这是一尊雕塑。”He also liked a mushroom-like wooden nutcracker from Stone Creek Trading, which he thought resembled a porcini. “You can hold the top or the bottom to twist it together,” he said. “That’s nice, elegant and simple.”他还喜欢Stone Creek Trading商店里的一款木质胡桃夹子。它的样子像个蘑菇,让他联想到牛肝菌。“你可以拿住顶部或底部,这样一起扭动,”他说,“那很漂亮,很优雅,而且很简单。”No one would describe the brightly colored Robot from SUCK UK as elegant or simple, but Mr. Cosentini was equally enthusiastic about it.大概没人会用优雅或简单来形容SUCK UK商店里的那款色艳丽的Robot夹子吧,但科森蒂诺对这件物品同样推崇。“I love this,” he said. “It looks like he’s digesting the nut in his belly. You turn the crank until the shell breaks and it spews out all the parts. How cool is that?” RIMA SUQI“我喜欢这款产品,”他说,“看起来就好像,他正在消化腹中的这枚坚果。你可以转动这个曲柄,直到果壳破开,然后它就会把所有东西都吐出来了。这样很酷吧?” /201501/352635Between babymoons and business trips, more and more women are traveling during their pregnancies.除了喜月旅行和日常出差,越来越多女性开始在期旅行。At least that’s the anecdotal evidence that Jan Rydfors, an obstetrician-gynecologist and a co-founder of the app Pregnancy Companion, has gathered from his patients. Not the most scientific survey, he would be the first to admit, but nevertheless telling. “I’ve done this over 20 years,” Dr. Rydfors said, “and I do think women feel much more that being pregnant is a healthy state.” He added, “They tend to listen more to their bodies than to dogma, so there’s much more traveling.” (To be done, of course, under the guidance of your doctor.)至少,这是产科妇科医生让·莱德弗斯(Jan Rydfors)通过对自己病人的观察得出的经验之谈。他是应用程序期伴侣(Pregnancy Companion)的联合创办人。他坦承这不是最科学的调查,却是显而易见的现象。“我干这一行20多年了,”莱德弗斯说,“我的确认为女人越来越觉得怀是一种健康状态。”他补充说,“她们更愿意倾听自己身体的声音,而不是教条,所以越来越多妇开始旅行(当然,要在医生的指导下进行)。”Recently Dr. Rydfors gave travel tips for pregnant women, some of which came in handy during trips he took with his expectant wife before the birth of their first daughter. Following are edited excerpts of the conversation.前不久,莱德弗斯给妇们提供了一些旅行贴士。当年他和初次怀的妻子一起旅行时,其中一些秘诀就发挥了作用。下面的对话经过剪辑和浓缩。Q. Any precautions women should take before their trips?问:开始旅行前,妇要做哪些准备?A. Something I recommend to all of my patients: Get a copy of your prenatal chart and a letter from your O.B. clearing you for travel, with your due date. In case there are any medical problems, doctors would have an idea of how the pregnancy has been going. Your hotel or the American Embassy should have a list of doctors that are recommended, and most medical professionals anywhere understand basic English. I’d also recommend getting a flu shot because on a plane you’re around a lot more people, you’re touching a lot of surfaces, you’re more prone to get an infection. Keep in mind it takes two weeks for the flu shot to really start working.答:我给所有病人提的一个建议是:带上你的产检表以及产科医生的旅行准许函,上面会有你的预产期。万一你的身体出现问题,医生们能从中得知你的怀状况。酒店或美国大使馆通常会提供推荐医师名单,不管在哪里,大多数医务人员都懂基础英语。我还建议你打一针流感疫苗,因为在飞机上,你周围有很多人,你会触摸很多东西,所以更易染上感冒。记住:流感疫苗打完两周后才能真正开始发挥作用。Anything to pack?问:要带哪些东西?It’s not a bad idea before you go to ask your doctor for a prescription of azithromycin, an antibiotic for travel diarrhea that’s safe for pregnant women, and an over-the-counter antidiarrheal medication like Imodium to take along with you. With travel diarrhea, it’s more the loss of liquid than the infection that’s worrying. If you become too dehydrated, it can affect amniotic fluid and blood flow to the baby. If you have a lot of diarrhea, pure coconut water — it has a little sugar and a lot of electrolytes — is a great way to rehydrate.答:出发前让医生给你开一份阿奇霉素的处方是个不错的主意。阿奇霉素是一种治疗旅行腹泻的抗生素,妇也可以安全使用。再带一种非处方的止泻药,比如易蒙停(Imodium)。旅行腹泻令人担忧的主要是脱水,而非感染本身。如果你严重脱水,可能会影响胎儿的羊水和血流。如果你严重腹泻,纯椰汁是补水良品,因为它只含一点糖,却含有很多电解质。My wife had terrible morning sickness, and it did get worse during the travel partly because a lack of sleep makes you a little more nauseous. She was aly taking the anti-nausea medication Scopolamine, so she took a little more to max out her dosage. You can ask your O.B. about the Scopolamine patches behind your ear, which are very good and safe to use.我妻子晨吐严重,旅行时的确又加重了,部分原因是缺乏睡眠让她更易恶心。当时她已经吃了缓解恶心的东莨菪碱,所以她又吃了一点,用到了最大剂量。你可以让产科医生给你开一点贴在耳后东莨菪碱贴,它很有效,也够安全。Any tips for the plane? 问:坐飞机时要注意什么?When you’re pregnant, you tend to sweat more, pee more and drink a little less because you’re nauseous. It’s easy to get dehydrated in a plane, especially because it’s very dry. Drink as much as possible. Also, your clotting factors are elevated from the pregnancy hormones; that along with being dehydrated, your blood becomes more viscous, more prone to blood clots. Walk up and down the aisle at least once every hour to make sure blood is circulating. To help with swelling, wear loosefitting shoes and, in the last trimester, maybe some support hose.答:怀期间,容易出汗,小便频繁,因为恶心而不爱喝水,再加上飞机上特别干,你就更容易脱水,所以你要尽量多喝水。另外,激素会增加你的凝血因子,再加上脱水,你的血会变得更稠,更易形成血栓,所以至少每隔一小时在过道上走一走,确保血液循环。为了应对肿胀问题,你可以穿上宽松的鞋子,在最后三个月,也可以穿上护腿长筒袜。What’s the latest you recommend pregnant women to travel?问:期旅行最晚可以到几月?Term is 37 weeks, so the very, very latest, I’d say, is 36 weeks. A lot of airlines use that cutoff, some earlier, so make sure you double check. If it’s a long flight, I usually recommend 32 to 34 weeks. Toward the end, you swell up so much, and it’s uncomfortable if you’re on a plane.答:37周后就要分娩了,所以最晚最晚是第36周。很多航空公司以此为截止日期,有些更早,所以你一定要仔细算好。如果是长途飞行,我通常的建议是32至34周。到后期,你的腹部隆起很多,坐飞机也会不舒。 /201412/345434抚顺一院专家预约

抚顺哪家妇科医院好An unusual method for producing antibiotics may help to solve an urgent global problem: the rise in infections that resist treatment with commonly used drugs, and the lack of new antibiotics to replace ones that no longer work.耐受常用药物治疗的感染日渐增多,却缺乏新型抗生素来替代那些不再有效的药物,这已成为全球亟待解决的问题。一种生产抗生素的特殊方法或可对此有所助益。The method, which extracts drugs from bacteria that live in dirt, has yielded a powerful new antibiotic, researchers reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday. The new drug, teixobactin, was tested in mice and easily cured severe infections, with no side effects.研究人员在周三的《自然》(Nature)杂志上报道,这种从生活在泥土里的细菌中提取药物的方法生产出了一种新的强力抗生素。在小鼠试验中,这种新药——teixobactin可以轻松治愈严重感染,且没有出现副作用。Better still, the researchers said, the drug works in a way that makes it very unlikely that bacteria will become resistant to it. And the method developed to produce the drug has the potential to unlock a trove of natural compounds to fight infections and cancer — molecules that were previously beyond scientists’ reach because the microbes that produce them could not be grown in the laboratory.更妙的是,研究人员称,这种药物具有独特的作用机理,使其几乎不会引起细菌耐药性。而且,这种生产药物的方法或许还能成为一把钥匙,打开蕴藏着可抵抗感染和癌症的天然化合物大宝藏——要知道,在此之前,由于能产生这些化合物的微生物不能在实验室中生长,科学家们对它们一直只能望而兴叹。Teixobactin has not yet been tested in humans, so its safety and effectiveness are not known. Studies in people will not begin for about two years, according to Kim Lewis, the senior author of the article and director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University in Boston. Those studies will take several years, so even if the drug passes all the required tests, it still will not be available for five or six years, he said during a telephone news conference on Tuesday. If it is approved, he said, it will probably have to be injected, not taken by mouth.Teixobactin尚未接受过人体试验,因此它的安全性和有效性尚属未知。该文章的责任作者,美国东北大学抗微生物药物发现中心(Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University,位于波士顿)主任基姆·刘易斯(Kim Lewis)称,要展开人体研究大概还需要两年左右。他还在上周二的电话新闻发布会上说,这些研究将花费数年时间,所以即使该药物通过了所有必需的测试,也还需要五六年的时间才能面世。如果能通过审批,他说,该药物很可能采用注射给药,而非口。Experts not involved with the research said the technique for isolating the drug had great potential. They also said teixobactin looked promising, but expressed caution because it has not yet been tested in humans.几位未参与该研究的专家表示,这种用于分离药物的技术具有巨大的潜力。他们还说,teixobactin看起来前途无量,但因为毕竟它尚未经过人体试验,他们也都表现出了谨慎的态度。Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, called the research “ingenious” and said “We’re in desperate need of some good antibiotic news.”范德堡大学(Vanderbilt University)的传染病专家威廉·沙夫纳(William Schaffner)士称这项研究“新颖独特”,并表示“我们迫切需要一些有关抗生素的好消息”。Regarding teixobactin, he said: “It’s at the test-tube and the mouse level, and mice are not men or women, and so moving beyond that is a large step, and many compounds have failed.” He added, “Toxicity is often the Achilles’ heel of drugs.”至于teixobactin,他认为:“它尚且处于实验室和小鼠试验水平,而小鼠距离人类还有很远的距离,许多化合物都没能成功跨越这一大步。”他又补充道:“毒性往往是药物的‘阿喀琉斯之踵’(译注:指致命弱点)。”Dr. David A. Relman, a professor of medicine at Stanford, said by email, “It illustrates the amazing wealth and diversity of as-yet-unrecognized, potent, biologically-active compounds made by the microbial world — some of which may have real clinical value.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的医科教授大卫·A·瑞尔曼(David A. Relman)士在一封电子邮件中写道:“该研究揭示,微生物界可生产出丰富多样的、我们尚未认识、且具有生物活性的强效化合物——其中的一些可能具有实际临床价值。”Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people a year in the ed States and kill 23,000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization warned last year that such infections were occurring all over the world, and that drug resistant strains of many diseases were emerging faster than new antibiotics could be made to fight them. Compounding the problem is the fact that many drug companies backed away from trying to develop new antibiotics in favor of other, more profitable, types of drugs.据美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的数据显示,在美国,每年至少有200万人感染耐药菌,其中23000人因此死亡。世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)警告说,去年,此类感染在世界各地都有发生,许多疾病的耐药菌株正在以比能克制它们的新抗生素更快的速度不断出现。众多制药公司纷纷放弃研制新的抗生素,将研发重点转向了更有利可图的其他类型的药物,使得这一问题进一步地复杂化了。The new research is based on the premise that everything on earth — plants, soil, people, animals — is teeming with microbes that compete fiercely to survive. Trying to keep one another in check, the microbes secrete biological weapons: antibiotics.这项新研究建立在一个前提之上,即:地球上的一切——植物、土壤、人、动物——都充斥着在激烈的竞争中求生存的微生物。为了牢牢抑制住自己的竞争对手,微生物们分泌出了生物武器:抗生素。“The way bacteria multiply, if there weren’t natural mechanisms to limit their growth, they would have covered the planet and eaten us all eons ago,” Dr. Schaffner said.沙夫纳士指出:“按照细菌那种繁殖方式,要是没有一种自然机制来限制它们的增长,早在亿万年前它们就会覆盖整个地球,把我们全都吃干抹净了。”Scientists and drug companies have for decades exploited the microbes’ natural arsenal, often by mining soil samples, and discovered lifesaving antibiotics like penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, as well as some powerful chemotherapy drugs for cancer. But disease-causing organisms have become resistant to many existing drugs, and there has been a major obstacle to finding replacements, Dr. Lewis said: About 99 percent of the microbial species in the environment are bacteria that do not grow under usual laboratory conditions.数十年来,科学家们和制药公司都在利用微生物这座天然兵工厂(这些微生物通常是从土壤样本中发掘筛选而来),并发现了青霉素、链霉素、四环素等多种拯救了无数生命的抗生素,以及一些可用于治疗癌症的强力化疗药物。然而,致病微生物开始对多种现有药物产生耐药性,要寻找替代性药物,却存在一个重大障碍,刘易斯士解释道:自然环境中约99%的微生物物种都无法在普通的实验室条件下生长。Dr. Lewis and his colleagues found a way to grow them. The process involves diluting a soil sample — the one that yielded teixobactin came from “a grassy field in Maine” — and placing it on specialized equipment Then, the secret to success is putting the equipment into a box full of the same soil that the sample came from.刘易斯士和他的同事们发现了一种可以培养这些微生物的方法。具体程序包括稀释土壤样本(生产出teixobactin的土壤样本来自“缅因州的一片草地”),并将其放在专门的设备上。然后,就是成功的秘诀:将该设备放进满满一盒与样本来源相同的土壤当中。“Essentially, we’re tricking the bacteria,” Dr. Lewis said. Back in their native dirt, they divide and grow into colonies. Once the colonies form, Dr. Lewis said, the bacteria are “domesticated,” and researchers can scoop them up and start growing them in petri dishes in the laboratory.“从本质上讲,我们是在糊弄那些细菌,”刘易斯士说,让它们以为自己回到了家乡的泥土中,于是就可以自然而然地分裂,生长成菌落。一旦形成菌落,代表这些细菌已经被“驯化”了,这时研究人员就可以将它们采集起来,开始在实验室的培养皿中培养。The research was paid for by the National Institutes of Health and the German government (some co-authors work at the University of Bonn). Northeastern University holds a patent on the method of producing drugs and licensed the patent to a private company, NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals, in Cambridge, Mass., which owns the rights to any compounds produced. Dr. Lewis is a paid consultant to the company.这项研究由美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)和德国政府(一部分共同作者在波恩大学[University of Bonn]工作)资助。东北大学对这种生产药物的方法持有专利并将其授权给了一家私营公司NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals(位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市),该公司对使用该方法生产的任何化合物持所有权。刘易斯士是该公司的有酬顾问。Teixobactin is the most promising candidate isolated from 10,000 strains of bacteria that the researchers screened. In test tubes, it killed various types of staph and strep, as well as anthrax and tuberculosis. Tested in mice, it cleared strep infections and staph, including a strain that was drug-resistant. It works against bacteria in a group known as “Gram-positive,” but not against microbes that are “Gram-negative,” which include some that are major causes of drug resistant pneumonia, gonorrhea and infections of the bladder and bloodstream. Dr. Lewis said researchers were trying to modify the drug to make it work against Gram-negative infections.Teixobactin是研究人员从10000株细菌菌株中筛选分离出来的最有前途的候选药物。在试管中,它可以杀死多种类型的葡萄球菌和链球菌,以及炭疽和结核病的病原体。在小鼠身上测试时,它可以清除链球菌感染和葡萄球菌,其中也包括耐药菌株。它可以作用于一类被称为“革兰氏阳性”的细菌,但对“革兰氏阴性”细菌(如耐药性肺炎、淋病、膀胱和血液感染的某些主要致病菌)无效。刘易斯士表示,研究人员正试图对该药物进行改良,希望它也可以用来治疗革兰氏阴性菌感染。Twenty-five other drug candidates were also identified, but most had drawbacks like toxicity or insolubility, Dr. Lewis said, adding that one, though toxic, may work against cancer and will be tested further.刘易斯士说,他们还识别出了二十五种其他的候选药物,但它们大多存在毒性或不溶性之类的缺点,但他也补充说,其中一种虽然有毒,但可能具有抗击癌症的效果,他们将对其进行进一步的测试。Teixobactin attacks bacteria by blocking fatty molecules needed to build cell walls, which is different from the way most antibiotics work. Those molecules are unlikely to change and make the microbes resistant, the researchers said. But if resistance does occur, Dr. Lewis predicted, it will take a long time to develop.Teixobactin与大多数抗生素的机理不同,它是通过阻断脂肪分子,从而阻碍细菌细胞壁的合成来发挥作用的。研究人员表示,脂肪分子不容易发生变异,因此不容易令微生物产生耐药性。刘易斯士预言,假若确实会出现耐药性,也将需要很长很长的时间。Dr. Relman said the argument against resistance was reasonable. But he cautioned that “unsuspected mechanisms of resistance” sometimes develop, and that the only way to tell would be to monitor carefully what happens as the drug is used more and more.瑞尔曼士认为上述关于耐药性的论述具有合理性。但他也警告说,有时候,“耐药性会以出人意料的机制产生”,在药物推广的过程中仔细监测是发现它们的唯一方式。Dr. Lewis said he hoped the research would point the way to a new approach to searching for novel antibiotics. Until now, he said, scientists have assumed that resistance would inevitably develop, and that the only solution would require scrambling to develop new antibiotics in hopes of keeping up.刘易斯士表示,他希望这项研究能指引出一条寻找新型抗生素的新路。迄今为止科学家们一直假设耐药性的产生不可避免,唯一的解决办法就是争分夺秒地开发新的抗生素,期望可以跟上菌株演化的速度。“This gives us an alternative strategy,” he said. “Develop compounds to which resistance will not develop.”“这项研究向我们提供了另一种策略,”他说,“开发不会引起耐药性的化合物。” /201502/360136抚顺中山医院割包皮要多少钱 抚顺市抚顺县妇幼保健院治疗包皮包茎多少钱

抚顺市新抚区第二医院治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好THIS season millions of Americans will celebrate with turkey on the table. The turkey is, after all, the native North American animal that Benjamin Franklin considered “a much more respectable bird” than the scavenging bald eagle. But while the eagle landed on the country’s Great Seal and the turkey gets pride of place at our holiday dinners, neither bird can claim to have changed American culture more than their lowly avian cousin, the chicken.这个季节,千百万美国人在庆祝节日时,餐桌上都摆着火鸡。毕竟,火鸡是北美本土的物种,本杰明·富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)认为它与翻找腐肉的白头鹰相比,是一种“远更值得尊重的鸟”。尽管白头鹰登上了美国的国徽,火鸡也骄傲地成为节日餐桌上举国同享的美味,但这两种鸟对美国文化产生的影响,都比不上它们身份低微的表亲——家鸡。English settlers arriving at Jamestown in 1607 brought a flock of chickens that helped the struggling colony survive its first harsh winters, and the bird was on the Mayflower 13 years later. But the popularity of the Old World fowl soon faded, as turkey, goose, pigeon, duck and other tastier native game were plentiful.英国殖民者在1607年抵达詹姆斯敦的时候,带来了一群鸡。鸡帮助处境艰难的殖民地度过了最初几个凛冽的寒冬。13年后的“五月花号”(Mayflower)上也带了鸡。不过,由于火鸡、鹅、鸽、鸭及其他更美味的本地禽类琳琅满目,鸡这种旧大陆家禽变得不再那么受人关注。This proved a boon for enslaved Africans. Fearful that human chattel could buy their freedom from profits made by selling animals, the Virginia General Assembly in 1692 made it illegal for slaves to own horses, cattle or pigs. Poultry, though, wasn’t considered worth mentioning.不过,这对从非洲贩运来的奴隶倒是个好消息。由于担心作为私产的黑奴通过贩卖动物来赚钱赎身,弗吉尼亚议会(Virginia General Assembly)在1692年颁布法令,禁止黑奴拥有马、牛、猪。不过,他们认为家禽不值一提。This loophole offered an opportunity. Most slaves came from West Africa, where raising chickens had a long history. Soon, African-Americans in the colonial South — both enslaved and free — emerged as the “general chicken merchants,” wrote one white planter. At George Washington’s home, Mount Vernon, slaves were forbidden to raise ducks or geese, making the chicken “the only pleasure allowed to Negroes,” one visitor noted. The pleasure was not just culinary, but financial: In 1775, Thomas Jefferson paid two silver Spanish bits to slaves in exchange for three chickens. Such sales were common.这个法律漏洞提供了一个机会。许多黑奴来自非洲西部,在那里养鸡有很长的历史。很快,如一位白人种植园主所写到的,南方殖民地的非裔美国人,包括奴隶和自由人,就成了“常见的鸡贩”。在乔治·华盛顿(George Washington)的家弗农山庄(Mount Vernon),奴隶们被禁止养鸭子或鹅,一位来访者写道,于是鸡就成了“黑人获准拥有的唯一乐趣”。这种乐趣不仅涉及口腹,也涉及金钱。在1775年,托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)花了两个西班牙雷亚尔,从黑奴手中买来了三只鸡。这样的交易颇为普遍。Black cooks were in a position to influence their masters’ choice of dishes, and they naturally favored the meat raised by their friends and relatives. One of the West African specialties that caught on among white people was chicken pieces fried in oil — the meal that now, around the world, is considered quintessentially American.黑人厨师可以影响主人对菜肴的选择,而他们自然更喜欢朋友和亲戚养殖的禽肉。油炸鸡块这道西非特色菜,就这样在白人当中受到了欢迎。而现在,这种吃法在全世界都被认为是典型的美国菜。Slaves laid the foundation for the American appetite for chicken, but it was the forced opening of China by the West in the 1840s that made the modern bird possible. American ships brought specimens of Asian chickens never seen in America. Breeders crossed the large and colorful exotics with their smaller but hardier Western counterparts to produce a bird that could lay more eggs and provide more meat. The results were famous varieties, like the Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red, that appeared just as the nation began to industrialize.黑奴为美国人热爱鸡肉的胃口奠定了基础,不过现代家鸡的问世,却要归结于1840年以后中国迫于西方压力而开关通商。由此,美国舰船带回了其本土前所未见的亚洲鸡。人们又将这些体格较大、色斑斓的鸡,与体格较小但适应力更强的西方鸡杂交,进而培育出了下蛋更多、产肉也更多的鸡种。其结果就是,在美国即将开始工业化时,普利茅斯石鸡(Plymouth Rock)和罗德岛红鸡(Rhode Island Red)这样的著名品种问世了。Still, chicken rearing in the ed States remained a small-scale family business; American meat-eating tended toward pork and beef, with chickens used mostly for eggs.不过,养鸡当时在美国仍然是一种小规模的家庭生意。美国人食肉的习惯也倾向于猪肉和牛肉,养鸡主要是为了下蛋。That began to change with the arrival of millions of Eastern European Jews, who relied on chicken as a meat source. By 1900, New York City boasted 1,500 kosher butcher shops, stocked by train cars filled with live chickens that arrived mainly from farms in the Midwest, where rural women, who ran much of the poultry business at the time, took advantage of the growing demand.随着数百万东欧犹太人的到来,这一点也开始发生转变,他们依赖鸡这种肉质来源。到1900年,纽约市有多达1500家犹太洁食(kosher)屠宰铺,出售的肉食主要来自中西部的农场出产,通过火车运来的活鸡。当时养殖禽类的生意主要由农村妇女经营,她们抓住时机回应了扩大的需求。Their market soon extended beyond immigrant Jews. Millions of people were leaving their Midwestern and Southern farms for factory jobs in the expanding cities in the North. Finding a reliable and cheap source of protein was critical. Pork and beef were expensive for urban shoppers, and there were not enough eggs produced in the ed States to satisfy their appetites. The chicken business started to take off.市场很快就拓展到了犹太移民社区之外。千百万人离开美国中西部和南部的农场,到不断扩张的北部城市寻找工厂的工作。要找到可靠廉价的蛋白质来源至关重要。猪肉和牛肉对城市里的消费者来说太昂贵了,而且美国出产的蛋也不足以满足美国人的胃口。于是养鸡产业开始飞速发展。World War I gave chickens another boost, when beef and pork stocks were diverted to the troops. Then, in 1923, an entrepreneurial Delaware woman named Celia Steele began sending the first broilers to New York, birthing a multibillion-dollar industry. For the first time, chickens began to be sold solely for their meat on a mass scale.第一次世界大战也给养鸡业带来了另一个助推,那时牛肉和猪肉储备转到了军队手中。1923年,特拉华州一位名叫西莉亚·斯蒂尔(Celia Steele)的女企业家,开始向纽约供应首批批量饲养的肉鸡,进而催生了一个价值数十亿美元的产业。这是鸡第一次因为它的肉,而被大规模出售。The rise of the chicken continued through the Great Depression, when chicken farming helped many farmers get by. Henry A. Wallace, a sometime vegetarian pacifist from Iowa who also served as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s agriculture secretary and vice president, argued that the chicken was the savior of poverty-stricken rural Americans. The company he helped found in the 1920s is now the world’s largest single producer of egg-laying hens. Finally, in the 1950s, engineers and scientists created a bird that could grow quickly with minimal feed — and the chicken we know today emerged.鸡的兴起一直贯穿了大萧条(Great Depression)时期,那时的养鸡产业帮助许多农户度过困境。富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)麾下的农业部长和副总统亨利·A·华莱士(Henry A. Wallace)一度食素,也是一名和平主义者。来自艾奥瓦州的华莱士认为,对于陷入贫困的美国农村,鸡是一个救星。他在1920年代帮助建立的公司,现在是世界上最大的蛋鸡饲养企业。最后在1950年代,工程师和科学家培育出了一种耗费饲料很少但增重很快的鸡。今天我们所知的鸡就是这时产生的。Today chicken is cheap, and it has become America’s favorite meat. In the land of the hamburger, we eat more of it than beef. And while we enjoy turkey at Thanksgiving, over the course of the year we will consume five times as much chicken.今天的鸡肉价格低廉,也已经成为美国人最喜欢的肉类。在这个汉堡包的国度,我们吃的鸡肉却比牛肉还多。尽管我们会在感恩节时享用火鸡,但全年消费鸡肉的总量却是火鸡的五倍。The bonanza of cheap meat and eggs has been a boon in many ways, but it has come at a largely hidden cost. Billions of chickens, both layers and broilers, live in vast warehouses locked behind fences and unprotected by federal regulations, which don’t consider poultry raised for food as animals. Then there are the low-paid workers who labor in the cold and dark of processing plants with high rates of injury, and the environmental degradation that sullies our waterways. And today’s industrial bird is a relatively tasteless food that we must relentlessly flavor with sauces, marinades and rubs.廉价肉蛋的丰富供应,在很多方面都是好事,但其中也存在常常不为人知的成本。数十亿只肉鸡和蛋鸡都饲养在巨大的仓库里,锁在笼子里,不受联邦法规的保障,因为联邦法规不把食用禽类视为动物。此外,还有薪水微薄的工人,他们在冰冷阴暗的加工厂里劳作,工伤率极高,相应的环境影响也污染了我们的河道。今天工业饲养的肉禽比较寡淡无味,所以我们必须要极力腌渍、蘸酱汁、撒调料。So as we celebrate and give thanks this season, take a moment to consider the lowly chicken, and how its story and that of our country are so deeply entwined. The bird that gets little respect is the creature that has given us more than we know.所以,我们在这个时节表达感谢时,请花些时间想一想身份低微的鸡,也考虑一下鸡肉的历史与这个国家的历史联系多么紧密。这种极少受人尊重的家禽,为我们做出了很多贡献,可我们却知之甚少。 /201412/345442 顺城区医院肛肠医院抚顺市第三医院肛肠医院

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