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昭通市彝良县威信县水富县全瓷牙怎么样昆明整牙价格德宏州人民中医院冷光美白治疗多少钱 How do you define poverty? How do you quantify that?你如何定义贫穷?你会如何量化它呢?Its a great question. Its hard to quantify depends where you live, what your situation is, how many kids you have, all that. Its a gray area. But we went out here in New York and ask some folks on the streets, just to get a sense of what they think a family of four has to make to fall below that poverty line. Take a listen to their wide range of answers.这个问题很好。很难将它量化,这得基于你所在的地区,家庭情况,有几个孩子,所有这些都得考虑。但是我们出去到纽约大街上问问当地人,问问他们如何看待一个四口之家的贫困标准。听听他们五花八门的回答吧。I would say anything less than 60,000 dollars a year would be poverty for a family of four.我想说,一个四口之家年收入少于6万美元就算作贫穷。Income probably 40,000, 45,000 dollars a year.年收入大概四万至四万五美元。I would say 15,000 to 20,000.我觉得是一万五至两万。I think a family making 80,000 dollars for a family of four is below poverty line.我认为一个四口之家年收入八万美元仍然处于贫困线下。You see, all over the board there, the actual answer, Brook, this shocked me. 22,050 dollars a year for a family of four. Thats according to the number when you look at Medicaid, welfare, food stamps. That is what goes into determining what benefits people get that fall below the poverty line.你看,各种各样的说法,实际的让我很震惊。年收入低于22,050美元的四口之家处于贫困线下。这是根据年的数据,包括医疗补助、福利和食品券在内的数据。人们的收益也是决定他们是否处于贫困线下所要考虑到的因素。The formula hasnt changed in 40 years no matter how the economy has changed, no matter how the job picture has changed. I doesnt factor in critical expenses like housing and your medical expenses until the Obama administration has just announced their development in new way to look at poverty. And its gonna include those essentials. Heres why they say its so important. Take a listen.无论经济如何改变,无论劳动市场如何改变,这种准则在40年内从未改变过。我没有将关键性的因素,例如住房和医疗费用纳入考虑范围,直到奥巴马政府公布的最新的看待贫穷的方式。其中包含这些必要条件。这里将讲述他们为什么觉得这很重要。听听他们是怎么说的。The administration has basically proposed to produce a supplementary poverty measure that will be produced next to the official measure, and will not replace it anyway, but will give us a second lens, another way to look at some of these issues.政府已经建议制定一个定义贫困的补充法案,那将附加在官方规定之后,且无论如何不能替换,但这会为我们提供看待贫困问题的第二种视角。原文译文属!201208/197521Motional Induction电磁感应Last time, we talked about ;motional induction,; a phenomenon by which the ocean generates a magnetic field.上次,我们提到过动生电磁感应:海洋产生磁场的一种现象。It works like this: earth has its own magnetic field. The ocean has plenty of charged atoms in it, in the form of dissolved salt. These atoms are in motion because the ocean flows.地球有自己的磁场,海洋有无数溶解盐形式的带电原子,随着海洋运动而运动。Charged atoms moving through a magnetic field will induce an electric current. And an electric current will, in turn, create another magnetic field. The ocean should generate its own magnetic field.在磁场中运动的带电原子会引起电流,而电流反过来又回形成另一个磁场。这样海洋应该就形成了自己的磁场。You said should. How could we know this ;motional induction; is happening?你说“应该”,我们怎么知道这种动生电磁感应确有其事?Direct evidence came in 2003 from scientists working at the University of Washington and a research institute in Potsdam, Germany. These researchers used a magnetometer on board an orbiting satellite.直到2003年,华盛顿大学和德国波兹坦的某研究学院研究人员将磁力计放在轨道卫星上,实海洋的磁场真是存在。First, they figured out what the magnetic field of the planet should be. After subtracting this figure, they found there was still some leftover magnetic field.最初,磁力计上的数据让科学家以为是地球磁场作用的。而后,他们发现除去这个因素后,仍然有磁场存在。Next, the team made a computer model of what kind of magnetic field the ocean should generate through motional induction. Sure enough, their prediction matched the excess magnetic field measured by the satellite.研究人员又电脑模拟在动生电磁感应让海洋产生哪种磁场,当然,科学家的推论和卫星上测出的“另一个”磁场吻合。The satellite also found that magneticintensity over the oceans peaked every twelve and a half hours, but not over the land. Can you guess why?卫星还发现,海洋磁场每隔12个半小时就会出现高峰,但是地球磁场不受影响。你能猜到原因吗?Every twelve hours... Oh,I get it—tides!每隔12个半小时?我知道了!是潮汐。Exactly right! The tides rise and fall every twelve and half hours, just as that extra magnetic energy swells and diminishes. This is very strong evidence that motional induction is real... and the ocean has its own magnetism.完全正确!潮汐每隔12个半小时潮起潮落,正好和“另一个”磁场高低峰吻合。这正是磁场感应存在的真凭实据,海洋确实有自己独特的磁力。 /201210/202824昆明柏德烤瓷牙好不好

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昆明市牙齿矫正去哪里医院好Science and Technology The history of AIDS Heroes and villains科技 艾滋病的历史 英雄与熊The story of AIDS involves many larger-than-life characters, good and bad艾滋病的故事涉及一些富有英雄色的人物,有好,也有坏。ANNIVERSARIES are times for reflection, and this one should be no exception, for the 30-year history of AIDS is a mirror in which humanity can examine itself.人们往往在纪念日(进行)反思,这次也会不例外:艾滋病30年的历史是一面能使人类(重新)自我审视的镜子。From questionable scientists to philanthropic billionaires, peoples actions against AIDS, and reactions to it, have shown up the best and worst that humans have to offer.从被人质疑的科学家到仁慈的亿万富翁,人们与艾滋病抗争行动,以及对它的反应,已揭露出了人类所表现出来的善与恶。Such dualism was there from the beginning, in the question of who discovered the AIDS-causing virus.这种二重性从一开始便存在,就在谁发现了艾滋病致病病毒问题上。There were two claimants. One, Robert Gallo, is American. The other,Luc Montagnier, is French.有两个自认有功者:一位是美国的罗伯特盖洛(Robert Gallo);另外一位是法国的吕克?蒙塔尼(Luc Montagnier)。Dr Gallo called his discovery HTLV-3. Dr Montagnier called his LAV. They were in fact the same thing.盖洛士(Dr Gallo)称他发现HTLV-3病毒。 蒙塔尼士(Dr Montagnier)称他发现LAV病毒。It turned out, however, that Dr Gallos virus had come from Dr Montagniers laboratory.HTLV-3病毒和LAV病毒实际上是相同的东西。然而,结果明,盖洛士(Dr Gallo)的病毒是源于蒙塔尼士士(Dr Montagnier)的实验室。It was never conclusively proved how, though a contaminated sample may have been to blame.但是从来没有确凿地据明病毒怎样从蒙塔尼士士(Dr Montagnier)的实验室传播开来,虽然可能追究于受污染的实验样本。And Dr Gallo was exonerated of any wrongdoing by an official investigation and is universally recognised to have done important work on AIDS.经过正式调查,盖洛士(Dr Gallo)摆脱了一切不道德行为的罪名,并被普遍认为他在艾滋病方面做出重大贡献。But only Dr Montagnier won the Nobel prize—eloquent testimony to some peoples opinion of the whole affair.但是,蒙塔尼士(Dr Montagnier)获得诺贝尔奖是对整件事某些看法的最有说力的据。Another source of conflict was whether HIV, as the virus eventually came to be known, was truly the cause of AIDS.另一个冲突的源头在于现在广为人知的HIV病毒是否是引起艾滋病真正成因。At the beginning of the epidemic, that might have been debatable.在艾滋病的刚刚开始盛行时,这可能性是富有争议的。Perhaps HIV was merely a passenger that took advantage of an immune system weakened by another cause?也许HIV病毒仅仅个过客,而造成免疫系统衰弱的真凶另有其人?One once-respected scientist, Peter Duesberg, who did early research on viral causes of cancer, would not drop the idea.曾备受尊重的从事滤过性毒菌引起的癌症的早期研究的科学家彼得?迪斯贝格(Peter Duesberg)没有终止这想法。He insisted—and still insists—that the weakening of the immune system characteristic of AIDS is caused by drug-taking (he blames both recreational drugs and AZT, one of the early anti-AIDS drugs), and that HIV is, indeed, a passenger.他坚持认为——现在仍然坚持——,认为艾滋病的特征免疫系统的衰弱是由吸毒引起的(他把它归咎于毒品和最早抗艾滋病药物之一的AZT药物),因而HIV病毒确实只是个过客。This theory would not have mattered much except that Thabo Mbeki, a former president of South Africa, latched on to it.但南非前总统塔?姆贝基(Thabo Mbeki)对这一观点感兴趣,就会引起重大影响。Since South Africa has the worlds largest number of AIDS cases, and one of its highest infection rates, this was bad news, as was Mr Mbekis health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who was appointed mainly because she agreed with him, and recommended beetroot and garlic as treatment for the disease.由于南非拥有全世界最多的艾滋病患者而且是其最高感染率国家之一,这个前总统对这种理论一感了兴趣,可糟了。他居然还任命曼托查巴拉拉-姆西曼(Manto Tshabalala-Msimang)为卫生部长,只是因为这位认同这位前总统的观点,而且那部长还建议用建议用甜菜根和大蒜来治疗艾滋病。Only with the election of Jacob Zuma, who has himself been publicly tested for HIV (he did not have it), did South Africa return to sensible anti-AIDS policies.直到雅各布?祖玛(Jacob Zuma)当选,亲身公开对HIV病毒进行测试(他没有感染艾滋病),南非在反艾滋病政策才重返理智。Among the heroes, Bill Gates looms large.在众多英雄好汉之中,比尔?盖茨(Bill Gates)赫然耸现。The foundation into which he poured much of his Microsoft fortune took AIDS seriously from the beginning, forming a particularly fruitful partnership with the government of Botswana, one of the worst-affected countries.他用很大一部分微软的财富的捐资建立的基金会从源头治理艾滋病,特别从富有伙伴关系的受灾最严重国家之一的茨瓦纳政府开始。AndNelson Mandela, the heroes hero, also cleaved eventually to the path of righteousness, even while admitting he had not done enough to combat AIDS during his own presidency of South Africa.而纳尔逊?曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)也是英雄中的英雄,在正义的路径上披荆斩棘地前进,即使他承认在他当总统时在与艾滋病抗战上留有余力。Mr Gates and Mr Mandela are easy to admire.盖茨先生和曼德拉先生很值得欣赏。One hero that many AIDS activists have difficulty accepting, though, is George Bush junior.不过。许多艾滋病活动家难以接受,另个英雄,是小布什(George Bush junior) 。Activists do not much like born-again Christians, who take a dim view of the sort of sex lives that help to sp HIV.活动家极不喜欢那些信仰重生的基督徒与其蔑视;性生活能传播艾滋病;的行为。But Mr Bush was responsible for setting up the Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and for making sure it had plenty of money.但是布什先生负责建立艾滋病救济总统紧急计划(PEPFAR),并确保提供充足的资金。PEPFAR is one of the two main organisations, along with the Global Fund, that dish out the cash that rich countries give poor ones to combat AIDS.PEPFAR是两个富裕国家给贫穷国家在与艾滋病抗争上提供现金救济的主要组织之一,与环球基金(Global Fund)齐名。Last year, it spent almost billion on AIDS and the tuberculosis that often accompanies it, and it is responsible for helping half of the 6.6m people now on anti-retroviral drugs.去年,它在抗艾滋病和往往伴随出现的结核病上将近花费70亿美元,而且在逆转病毒药物上六千六百万患者中半数都能受惠。Many activists may be reluctant to give Mr Bush credit. But handsome is as handsome does.许多活动家可能不太愿意嘉许布什的功劳。但是,行为美才是真美。 /201212/213064 昆明口腔医院口腔美容科昆明伯德牙科医院美白牙齿需要多少钱

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