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2019年07月19日 10:25:50来源:爱知识

Online publishers who knowingly link to illegally uploaded content are liable for copyright infringement, according to a European Court of Justice ruling that could have broad consequences for digital media.根据欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)一项裁决,有意链接非法上传内容的网络出版商,须承担侵害版权的法律责任。这一裁决可能会对数字化媒体产生广泛影响。The ruling, which marks the culmination of a five-year legal fight involving a Dutch blog, Playboy magazine and celebrity nude pictures, draws new lines around what has been a highly contested area of online copyright law.这一裁决标志着一轮持续五年的法律诉讼达到高潮,该案涉及一个荷兰客网站、《》(Playboy)杂志和多张名人裸照。该裁决为网络版权法一个始终极有争议的领域划定了新的规范。Until now, Europe’s top court has tolerated the widesp practice of providing weblinks to unauthorised online content — whether films, pictures, or text — concluding that this did not generally amount to a breach of copyright. 直至目前,对于提供指向未授权在线内容(无论是电影、图片、视频,还是文本)的网页链接的普遍行为,欧洲最高法院一直持容忍态度,认定这么做通常不等于对版权的侵犯。Instead, the website that hosted the underlying content was liable.相反,提供相关内容的网站须承担法律责任。But on Thursday the ECJ decided that linking to such material did infringe copyright unless it was done without the pursuit of financial gain by a person who did not know or could not reasonably have known the illegal nature of the publication.然而,周四欧洲法院裁定,对这类资料的链接确实侵犯了版权——除非此举是由不了解或无法足够了解这一出版活动非法属性的人士,在无盈利目的的情况下实施的。The ruling means that professional publishers must now take steps to ensure that any links to copyright content have been lawfully uploaded. 这一裁决意味着专业出版商如今必须采取措施,确保对于指向版权内容的任何链接,相关内容都是合法上传的。Profit-making websites can be expected to take necessary checks to ensure that the work concerned is not illegally published, according to the judgment.根据这一判决,营利网站默认应采取必要审查措施,确保相关作品不是非法出版。Search engines such as Google aly remove search results that link to websites that host pirated material once informed by rights holders. 谷歌(Google)等搜索引擎已经采取了措施,只要版权持有者告知,就会移除指向提供盗版资料的网站的搜索结果。After Thursday’s ruling, they could be forced to go further by taking down search results featuring publishers that merely link to other websites hosting unlicensed content, according to some copyright lawyers.按照部分版权律师的说法,在周四的裁决之后,它们可能不得不更进一步,撤下指向一类出版商的搜索结果,这类出版商只会提供指向其他非授权内容网站的链接。The case began in 2011 when Geen Stijl, an anarchic Dutch blog and one of the most popular websites in the Netherlands, linked to illegally uploaded naked photos of a Dutch celebrity in Playboy.该案始于2011年,Geen Stijl网站发布了指向非法上传内容的链接,这些非法上传的内容是一位荷兰名人在《》上的裸照。Geen Stijl是荷兰一个无政府主义客,也是荷兰人气最高的网站之一。The pictures were hosted on file sharing website Filefactory, to which the blog linked. 该客文章里的链接指向的照片位于文件分享网站Filefactory。Playboy publisher Sanoma demanded that Geen Stijl remove the link to the photos, but the Dutch website refused.《》出版商Sanoma要求Geen Stijl撤下指向这些照片的链接,却遭到这家荷兰网站的拒绝。In fact, the blog went further and repeatedly uploaded other links to the pictures, with titles such as: Update: Not yet seen the nude pics#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.? They are HERE, and Bye Bye Wave Wave Playboy.事实上,该客更进了一步,反复上传了指向这些照片的其他链接,并带上了更新:还没看过这些裸照……?它们在这里和《》,再见!挥手!之类的标题。Brussels is on the cusp of launching a controversial overhaul of its copyright rules, in which rights holders stand to gain more power. 欧盟目前正要对其版权法规开展一轮争议极大的整改,在这一整改中版权持有者将获得更大权力。Under the plans, news publishers will be given more rights over their content in a move that would force the likes of Google to agree terms before showing snippets of news content.按照这一计划,新闻出版商将围绕其内容被赋予更多权利,此举或迫使谷歌之类的网站在显示新闻内容摘要前同意相关条款。Critics warned that the ruling — combined with the proposed reforms — could have a chilling effect online. 批评者警告称,这一裁决以及拟议中的改革可能会在网上引起恐慌。Jakob Kucharczyk, director of CCIA Europe, which represents the technology industry, said: This case shows that the freedom to hyperlink is under attack.代表高科技产业的计算机与通信行业协会欧洲分会(CCIA Europe)主席雅各布#8226;库哈尔奇克(Jakob Kucharczyk)表示:该案表明,超链接自由正遭受攻击。Following the verdict, a post on Geen Stijl warned: Careful hyperlinking, people — today there is a minefield on the free internet.该判决发布后,Geen Stijl网站上一个网帖警告称:伙计们,小心超链接——如今,自由的互联网上存在着地雷阵。The decision will be welcomed by rights holders, according to Josephine Curry, associate in Taylor Wessing, as it offers some protection against commercial websites.按照泰乐信律师事务所(Taylor Wessing)律师约瑟菲娜#8226;库里(Josephine Curry)的说法,该裁决将受到版权持有者的欢迎,因为它针对商业网站提供了一定程度的保护。 /201609/465999。

  • The printers buzzed to life in every firehouse in New York City last week, and each spit out an identical bulletin. It bore the worst sort of news the Fire Department must relay to its members, the Code 5-5-5-5. A death in the line of duty.上周,纽约市每个消防站的打印机都开始嗡嗡作响,吐出一份相同的通告。上面是消防局必须传达给成员的最坏的那一类消息,代码5-5-5-5,意为有人因公殉职。“With regret, the department announces the death of Battalion Chief Lawrence T. Stack,” the note , “as a result of injuries sustained while operating at Manhattan Box 5-5-8087.”“消防局遗憾地宣布,消防大队长劳伦斯·T·斯戴克(Lawrence T. Stack),因在曼哈顿火警箱5-5-8087执行任务时负伤去世,”通告写道。That box number was grimly familiar to all firefighters. It was followed by the time of the call from that box — 8:47 a.m. — and the date: “September 11, 2001.”消防员熟悉这个令人毛骨悚然的火警箱号码 。紧跟在它后面的是从该箱打来电话的时间——上午8点47分——和日期:“2001年9月11日”。The announcement and the “four fives,” as the code is known, had not, until now, been made for Stack for an important reason: His remains had not been found. For his family, this is the end of a frustrating and ultimately fruitless wait of nearly 15 years.在这之前并未就斯戴克的死发出这样的公告和“四个五”,是源于一个重要原因:没找到他的尸骨。现在,对他的家人来说,这意味着近15年的等待结束了,希望最终落了空。Stack, 58, had served almost 33 years. His funeral will be held Friday at Sts. Philip and James Church in St. James on Long Island, with the expansive pageantry and huge turnout of firefighters and officers that accompany all departmental ceremonies.时年58岁的斯戴克从事消防员工作近33年。他的葬礼将于周五在长岛圣詹姆斯的圣斐理伯与圣雅各伯教堂(Sts. Philip and James Church)举行,消防局各部门也将举行盛大悼念仪式,组织大量消防员和官员参加。Its timing this week, alongside the first funerals of the shooting victims in Orlando, Florida, is accidental, but weighted, bringing an added poignancy. As the country mourns the latest victims of a terrorist attack on its soil, a funeral in New York lays to rest another.时间安排在本周,和第一批佛罗里达奥兰多击案受害者葬礼同期,这属于偶然,但也具有重要意义,让气氛更加伤感。在举国哀悼这片国土上距今最近的恐怖袭击的受害者时,纽约的一场葬礼将让另一名受害者得到安息。Stack’s family came to learn where and how he perished that day. But they put off the funeral, hoping that some trace of him would be identified from what was recovered at ground zero.斯戴克的家人后来得知了他那天去世的地点和死因。但他们推迟了葬礼,希望能从在世贸中心遗址找到的遗骸中发现他。“Weeks turned into months,” said Lt. Michael Stack, 46, one of the chief’s two sons, both firefighters. “Months turned into years. Two years turned into five, turned into 10. Now it’s 15.”“从几周变成了几个月,”斯戴克46岁的儿子迈克尔·斯戴克(Michael Stack)中尉说。“又从几个月变成了几年。先是两年变成五年,再变成10年。现在已经过去15年了。”斯戴克的两个儿子均为消防员。The Catholic funeral Mass requires the presence of remains of the deceased. This requirement was satisfied, unknowingly, by Lawrence Stack, in an act of generosity 18 months before his death.天主教的葬礼弥撒要求现场要有逝者的遗骸。劳伦斯·斯戴克去世18个月前的一次慷慨之举,无意间满足了这个条件。“Mom came home and said: ‘There’s a little boy in East Islip, and he has cancer. I’m going to donate blood. He needs it,#39;” Michael Stack recalled.“我妈回到家说:‘东艾斯利普有个小男孩得了癌症。我要去献血。他需要输血,’”迈克尔·斯戴克回忆说Lawrence Stack joined his wife, Theresa. He added his name to the bone marrow registry as a possible donor on March 6, 2000, and, in doing so, gave a blood sample for type matching. Stack’s marrow was not a match for an immediate transplant, and the blood sample was put into cold storage.劳伦斯·斯戴克和妻子特蕾莎(Theresa)一同前往。2000年3月6日,他把自己的名字写在了骨髓登记簿上,表示愿意捐献。在这个过程中,他提供了一份血液样本,用于配型。斯戴克的骨髓与一位须立即接受骨髓移植的受者不符,于是他的血液样本被冷藏了起来On the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, Stack was in his office in Brooklyn near the waterfront, filling out a report on a recent fatal fire that brought three Code 5-5-5-5 transmissions. That fire, in a Queens warehouse on June 17, 2001, became known for the day it happened: the Father’s Day fire.2001年9月11日上午,斯戴克在布鲁克林滨水区附近的办公室里整理报告,是关于前不久的一场火灾的。火灾发生在2001年6月17日,导致消防系统发出了三次5-5-5-5代码。因为当天的日期,那场火灾也被叫做父亲节大火。Word arrived at the office immediately after the first plane hit the north tower of the World Trade Center. Stack and others hurried to the roof with binoculars. They saw the second plane strike the south tower.第一架飞机撞击世界贸易中心的北楼后,消息立刻传到了办公室。斯戴克和其他人急忙拿着双筒望远镜上到了屋顶。他们眼看着第二架飞机撞向南楼。“He lowered his binoculars and said, ‘Guys, I think they’re going to need us,#39;” Michael Stack said, recalling what he has been told of that day.“他放下望远镜说,‘伙计们,我想他们需要我们,’”迈克尔·斯戴克回忆说。他从其他人那里了解到了当天的情况。Michael Stack hurried to the World Trade Center site that day. “I came up, and I go, ‘Oh my God,#39;” he said. “It was just so vast. So big.”那天,迈克尔·斯戴克赶去了世界贸易中心的现场。“我来到这里,喊着‘啊,天哪,’”他说。“实在太大了。太大了。”He knew from the accounts of others that his father was dead, and he returned to the pit, day after day.他是从其他人的叙述中得知父亲去世的。他日复一日地回到现场。“Dig and look, search, hope,” he said. “That’s what I had in mind. I’m going to find him.”“挖、找、搜索,心存希望,”他说。“我当时的想法就是,我要找到他。”Nothing.但什么都没找到。“I always wanted that department phone call,” saying remains had been found, he said. The family visited a memorial site in Hauppauge on his birthday and sang to him. But it wasn’t like visiting a grave.他说,“我总是希望接到消防局打来的电话,”说找到他的遗体了。家人会在他生日那天去霍波格的一处纪念地,给他唱歌。但这和扫墓不一样。Finally, last year, Theresa Stack said enough. “She drew a line in the sand where she said, ‘We’re not doing it past 15 years,#39;” Michael Stack said.最终,特蕾莎·斯戴克在去年说够了。“她做出了决定,说‘已经过去15年了,我们不能再这么下去了,’”迈克尔·斯戴克说。The Office of Chief Medical Examiner has identified 65 percent of remains recovered from the World Trade Center. The rest is damaged enough that current identification technology is of no use, and remains in storage.首席法医办公室(Office of Chief Medical Examiner)已经确认了65%的世贸中心遗骸的身份。剩下的受损严重,目前的辨认技术没有用,至今存放在库房里。The New York Blood Center examined its list of donors after Sept. 11 and discovered that 143 firefighters who died that day had signed up to be marrow donors, most of them while still in training as rookies. The center notified the families and set aside their blood samples; over the years, it has given the small vials of blood to some relatives. Some put the vials in their freezers at home. Some bury them at funerals, as with Firefighter Michael Paul Ragusa in 2003.9·11事件后,纽约血液中心(New York Blood Center)检查了捐献者名单,发现有143名在当天牺牲的消防员做过骨髓捐献登记。他们中的大部分是尚在接受培训的新手。该中心通知了家属,并将他们的血液样本挑了出来。这些年里,该中心把那些装着血液的小瓶还给了遇难者的亲属。一些人把它们放在了家中的冷柜里。一些人在葬礼上把它们埋入土中。2003年消防员迈克尔·保罗·拉古萨(Michael Paul Ragusa)的葬礼上就出现了这一幕。Theresa Stack and her sons visited the blood center last year. The center located Lawrence Stack’s blood in a storage facility in Minnesota. The vial will be buried Friday at Calverton National Cemetery in recognition of Stack’s service in the U.S. Navy.去年,特蕾莎·斯戴克和儿子去了血液中心。中心在明尼苏达州的一处库房找到了劳伦斯·斯戴克的血液。周五,小瓶将被葬在卡尔弗顿国家公墓(Calverton National Cemetery),这一待遇是因为斯戴克曾在美国海军役。;We will have someplace to go,” Theresa Stack, 71, said Thursday.“我们以后也有地方去了,”71岁的特蕾莎·斯戴克周四说。 /201606/449938。
  • Chinese consumers fuelled a travel and tourism boom last year, despite the country’s economic slowdown. 尽管中国经济增速放缓,但是去年中国消费者引发了一场旅游观光热潮。 Chinese tourists spent 5bn outside mainland China in 2015, according to figures from the World Travel amp; Tourism Council, a 53 per cent rise from the 0bn spent in 2014. 世界旅游业理事会(WTTC)的数据显示,2015年中国游客在中国内地以外地区的消费额达2150亿美元,较2014年的1400亿美元增长了53%。 While outbound Chinese tourism has been growing strongly in recent years, yesterday’s figures represent a sharp acceleration. 近年来中国出境游一直增长强劲,而昨天公布的数据更是代表了急剧的加速增长。 “[Chinese] outbound tourism is growing like crazy,” says David Scowsill, president and chief executive of the WTTC. “There were some significant shocks last year, in the stock market and the currency, but it didn’t slow the growth of travel and tourism. Once people have started to travel, they are reluctant to give that up.” “中国出境游像疯了一样地增长,”WTTC的总裁兼首席执行官戴维斯科斯尔(David Scowsill)称,“去年中国在股市和汇市经历了一些显著冲击,但是并未拖累旅游业增长。一旦人们开始旅行,他们就不愿停下脚步。” However, the surge in Chinese outbound tourism has widened the country’s trade deficit in the sector. The number of foreign tourists visiting China inched up to 56.9m in 2015, a rise of only 2.2 per cent in two years, said the UN World Tourism Organisation. Provision愀氀 figures from the body suggest these visitors spent about .5bn in China — a rise of just 1.1 per cent over 2014. 然而,中国出境游迅速增长使得中国在该领域的贸易赤字扩大。联合国世界旅游组织(UN World Tourism Organisation)表示,2015年赴中国旅游的外国游客数量微升至5690万人,两年仅增长了2.2%。该组织提供的临时数据显示,这些游客在中国消费了约575亿美元——较2014年增长了仅1.1%。 According to the WTTC, China’s tourism exports — the revenues received from foreign visitors — were a fraction higher than this at bn. However, this was still just 2.6 per cent of the country’s total export revenue, compared with a global figure of 6.1 per cent. WTTC表示,中国旅游业出口额——来自外国游客的旅游收入——略高于上述外国游客消费额,为610亿美元。但这仍然仅占中国出口总收入的2.6%,相比之下全球该比例为6.1%。 Factoring in domestic travel within China, the travel and tourism sector accounted for just 7.9 per cent of gross domestic product in 2015, the WTTC said, below the global figure of 9.8 per cent. The trade body says the industry, directly and indirectly, supported 65m jobs in China last year, 8.4 per cent of total employment, below the global figure of 9.5 per cent, or 284m jobs. WTTC称,将境内游算在内,2015年中国旅游业占国内生产总值(GDP)的比例仅为7.9%,低于9.8%的全球水平。该行业机构称,去年旅游业在中国直接和间接提供了6500万个工作岗位,占就业总数的8.4%,低于9.5%的全球水平(即2.84亿个工作岗位)。 However, the WTTC believes China’s travel industry, aly the world’s second-largest after that of the US, will ex瀀愀渀搀 by 7 per cent a year over the next decade, outstripping global growth of 4 per cent and overtaking the US by 2024. 但WTTC认为中国旅游业——已然是仅次于美国的全球第二大旅游业——将在未来十年中每年增长7%,超过4%的全球增速,并将在2024年超过美国的规模。 To attract more foreign tourists, Mr Scowsill suggests China needs to copy the US by creating a visa waiver progra洀洀攀, introducing an electronic visa pro挀攀猀猀椀渀最 system and launching a China-wide marketing fund, rather than leaving marketing to individual provinces. 为了吸引更多的外国游客,斯科斯尔建议中国仿照美国,建立免签计划、引入电子签处理系统、并启动全国范围的推广基金,而不是让各省自行推广旅游业。 Beijing also needs to free more airspace for tourist flights, says Mr Scowsill. “Given the growth of [China’s] airlines, there is a tremendous strain on the air traffic systems. That is because the military are managing the airspace.” 斯科斯尔称,北京方面还需要为旅游航班开放更多空域。“考虑到(中国)航线的增长,空中交通系统面临巨大压力。这是因为军方管理着空域。” However, the surge in the number and spending power of China’s outbound tourists is not lifting all boats. The WTTC reported “severe declines” in tourism revenues in 2015 in Macau (down 32 per cent), South Korea (down 10.2 per cent) and Hong Kong (off by 8.4 per cent), each of which are highly reliant on visitors from mainland China. 不过,中国境外游在游客数量和消费能力上的增长并没有使所有地区受益。WTTC报告称,2015年、韩国和香港的旅游收入“严重下滑”,分别下滑了32%、10.2%和8.4%,以上地区均高度依赖中国内地游客。 /201603/433007。
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