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Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Spanish football;Well red西班牙足球;别样红;How Spain learned to play the beautiful game;看,西班牙如何玩转足球;La Roja: How Soccer Conquered Spain and How Spanish Soccer Conquered the World. By Jimmy Burns.(《红色风暴》作者:吉米·彭斯; In football, timing counts: it makes the difference between a brilliant tackle and a red card, or a smartly taken goal and a raised offside flag. Jimmy Burnss publishers did not have to think too hard about when “La Roja”, his history of Spanish football, should appear: just before the European football championship, which kicks off on June 8th. The Spanish team won last time, in 2008, and are favourites to win again this year.足球赛场上,时机至关重要。分毫之距,天壤之别。时机决定了是出色抢截,还是被出示红牌。决定了是机智地反越位,还是被裁决为越位。之前,吉米·彭斯的出版负责人无须过于深思《红色风暴》此类描述西班牙足球历史的书应何时出版。就在6月8日开赛的欧洲杯之前,西班牙已经赢得了于2008年举行的上届欧洲杯,并且他们还是今年欧洲杯的夺冠大热。Mr Burns starts and finishes his account with Spains victory in the 2010 World Cup. That and the European win two years before put an end to a sorry pattern of underachievement. Spain had not won a major trophy since 1964. For years their playing lacked harmony. Footballers from Barcelona and Real Madrid, Spains two dominant clubs, fought like dogs in domestic matches. But with wise leadership from successive coaches, a brilliant generation of players is now producing flowing, winning football in the national colours.彭斯由西班牙队夺得2010年世界杯记录起,也以此为结尾。那一次胜利以及两年前赢得的欧洲杯结束了那些让人扼腕的反复失败。在此之前,在1964年之后,西班牙队从未赢过一项重要的荣誉。数年来,他们缺乏和谐的合作。来自巴塞罗那和皇家马德里,这两家西班牙顶级俱乐部的球星,在国内比赛中争执不断。然而随着一个又一个教练的智慧领导,这一代球艺高超的球员正在用一场又一场的胜利延续国家荣誉。In the 19th century British engineers and managers had brought the game to the mining towns of southern Spain and to the industrialising north. The tale quickly became a Spanish one—in the early days, with a strong Basque flavour. Athletic Bilbao provided the core of the team that won the silver medal in the 1920 Olympics in a hard, fast style known as La Furia.西班牙足球故事起源于19世纪,英国工程师和经纪人将足球带到了西班牙南部的矿业城镇以及北部的工业区。很快,在很早的一段时间,这个故事就有了西班牙人的参与,而且带有浓郁的巴斯克风味。1920年奥运会,西班牙队赢得银牌的关键正是毕尔巴鄂竞技队球员带来的硬朗快速球风,也就是众所周知的”旋风式”。Much of the book deals with regional stories and rivalries. Mr Burns, born a stones throw from Reals stadium but a Barca fan and an author of books about both clubs, traces their complicated interconnections with Spanish politics—notably, the civil war and the dictatorship of General Franco. It is a delicate task, involving the links between Barca and Catalan nationalism, Francos use of the game for political ends and the intricate links between Basque nationalism, football and the Catholic church. Mr Burns, who has reported on the land of his birth for many years, ths his way skilfully through it.书中大多记录的是地方故事与竞赛。彭斯出生在离皇家马德里仅有一步之遥的地方,但却是巴萨的球迷。他也撰写过关于这两个俱乐部的书。他的报道描绘了这两家俱乐部与西班牙政治错综复杂的关系,尤其是在内战时期和佛朗哥独裁时期。书里既有探讨巴萨队和加泰罗尼亚人的民族主义之间的联系,又讲述了佛朗哥利用足球比赛达到其政治目的的故事,以及巴斯克民族主义,足球以及罗马天主教错综复杂的关系。这些对他来说,是一项微妙的挑战。彭斯报道他的故乡已有多年,这一次,他通过其高超的采访技术,越过障碍,成功完成这项挑战。Britains pioneers are gone and the national team may rule the world, but Spanish football has been continually refreshed by foreigners. Tours to and from South America taught Spaniards a thing or two in the 1920s. Reals wonder-team of the 1950s was led by Alfredo Di Stéfano, an Argentine, and Ferenc Puskas, a Hungarian. The most exciting player today is another Argentine, Lionel Messi (although he joined Barca as a boy). Mr Burns enthuses about all these and more—notably a Dutchman who played and coached Barca and remains a huge influence. Any football-mad er will envy the author who can write: “The first time I met Johan Cruyff…”英国作为足球开拓者的位置已经消失殆尽。也许其国家队仍将统领世界。然而西班牙足球力量却有外国人源源不断地注入新活力。20世纪20年代和南美的足球比赛,给了西班牙教训。50年代的皇马舰队,有阿根廷球星阿尔弗雷多·迪·斯蒂法诺和匈牙利球王普斯卡什的带领。而当今最让人兴奋的足球运动员则是另一位阿根廷人,莱昂内尔·梅西(尽管他加入巴萨时还是个小男孩)。彭斯对这一切很感兴趣,而且更显然的是,他对一个在巴萨踢过球,执教过,拥有巨大影响力的荷兰人更感兴趣。任何足球狂热读者都会嫉妒这个作者可以这样描绘道,“我第一次遇到约翰·克鲁伊夫......”Like many a football team, however, the book is let down a little by its finishing. Even the modern photos are in grainy black and white. Mr Cruyff is pictured in the orange strip of the Netherlands rather than Barcas red and blue. Arriving at Real, a clichéd David Beckham “like a proverbial phoenix rising from the ashes, calmly ran the gauntlet of the worlds media”. Nevertheless, Mr Burns shows that there is far more to tell about Spanish football than todays success on the field.不管怎样,这本书就像大多数足球队,其结尾部分多少让人失望。更别说书中在现代拍的照片是以木纹黑白照的形式出现。约翰·克鲁伊夫在相片中穿的是荷兰的橙色装而非巴萨的红蓝。大卫·贝克汉姆加入皇家马德里之后,曾有个关于他的陈词滥调,“如众生所知,凤凰涅槃,于媒体林弹雨之前,沉着奔跑”尽管如此,彭斯的书向我们展示了,西班牙足球不仅仅只有胜利,更有许多说不完,道不尽的精足球故事。 /201208/196541。

Science and technology科学技术Mimicry模仿The first sparrowhawk of spring春天第一只雀鹰To obtain better access to warbler nests, cuckoos mimic raptors为了更好地抢占莺的巢穴,杜鹃通常会模仿成猛禽的样子THE resemblance between cuckoos and sparrowhawks has been a cause of comment since ancient times.杜鹃和雀鹰之间的相似性自古以来就是引发的原因。As the photographs above show, the two birds are similar in size, shape and plumage,正如上面的照片显示的两只鸟,它们在大小,形状和羽毛上都很相似,and both have a conspicuous pattern of bars on their breasts—a pattern found on many species of hawk,二者的胸前都有突出的条纹—许多鹰类都有这种类型的条纹,but not on the cuckoos relatives.但杜鹃的亲戚中却没有。Until now, though, no one has thought to take that observation any further, and test whether the one is truly mimicking the other.虽然现在还没有人对此进行更深入的观察,并实杜鹃是否真的在模仿对方。Cuckoos would have good reason to do so,杜鹃有很好的理由去模仿鹰,since the warblers and other small birds in whose nests they lay their eggs are understandably frightened of hawks,由于莺和其它的小型鸟类在它们的巢中产卵,自然这些小型鸟类就很害怕鹰,并且对鹰敬而远之。and give them a wide berth. Such leeway would make it easier for a female cuckoo to lay where she chose.这样的空当就给了雌杜鹃自由选择巢穴产卵的机会。Nick Davies and Justin Welbergen, a pair of ornithologists at Cambridge University, have now corrected that omission.尼克·戴维斯贾斯汀·韦伯尔根是剑桥大学的鸟类学专家,它们现在补充了这种遗漏。They have tested the idea that cuckoos mimic hawks—or, at least, that warblers think cuckoos look hawklike.它们已经实了杜鹃会模仿鹰—或者说,至少在莺看来,杜鹃非常像鹰。As they report in the latest edition of Behavioral Ecology, they have found that it is true, but only up to a point.就像它们在最新一期的Behavioral Ecology上报道的那样,它们已经发现这是正确的,但至少在某种程度上可以这么讲。To carry out their test, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen put stuffed birds near reed-warbler nests,为了进行它们的测试,戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士将几种鸟类标本放到了莺的芦苇巢附近,to observe the nestholders reactions.用来观察这些巢主人的反应。They used three species: sparrowhawks, cuckoos.他们用了三种鸟类:雀鹰,杜鹃,还有鸽子。The breast of each stuffed bird was adorned with a piece of white silk.每种鸟类的胸前都用一块白色的丝绸装饰。Some pieces of silk were left plain.一些丝绸偏左放置。Others had bars drawn on them with a felt-tip pen.其它条纹则用记号笔画制而成。Once the stuffed birds were in place, the two researchers recorded the reactions of the nestholders.一旦将这些鸟类标本放置好,这两位研究人员就记录巢主人的反应。In particular, they measured how closely the nestholders were willing to approach the stuffed intruder,他们会专门评估这些巢主人对于不速之客的接近程度,and also how noisily the intruder was mobbed, in an attempt to drive it away.以及围攻入侵者并试图将其赶走的激烈场景。The barring, they found, was crucial.他们发现了一个非常关键的例外。Though the warblers could clearly tell the difference between the species,虽然莺类可以很清楚地分辨出这些鸟类的不同,in the cases of all three types of stuffed bird those decorated with stripes were approached more cautiously and mobbed less than those without stripes.对于那些装饰了条纹的三种鸟类标本,它们更谨慎地接触,并且围攻那些没有条纹的鸟类。Hawk-like stripes do, then, provoke what is, from a cuckoos point of view, the desired reaction:从杜鹃的角度来看,鹰状条纹所起的主要作用就是它所希望看到的:less of the sort of behaviour that is likely to interfere with her egg-laying mission.如果缺乏这种行为会则会影响到杜鹃的产卵任务。Not perfect mimicry, but good enough to be useful.虽然这种模仿不甚高明,但已经足够用了。Probably, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen have caught cuckoo and warbler in the middle of an evolutionary arms race.也许戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士已经注意到了杜鹃和莺正处于一个进化的军备竞赛中。Come back in 10,000 years and cuckoos and sparrowhawks may be indistinguishable.回到10000年前,杜鹃和雀鹰或许就难以分辨了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/233256。

Business Telecom networks Twos company商业 电信网络 双巨头In an industry with a cost leader and a price leader, is there room for others?当一个行业里既有成本领导者又有价格领导者的时候,其它公司还有市场空间吗?REVOLUTIONS in technology bring benefits to millions, but the companies that make them happen do not always thrive.技术上的革新总是给数百万人带来好处,但是那些实现技术革新的公司却不一定会因此而兴旺发达。Even when demand is booming, competition to meet it can be brutal.即便是需求迅速膨胀,其市场竞争也会非常残酷。Makers of telecommunications networks know this only too well.通信网络设备制造商非常清楚这一点。They perform the unseen miracles that allow ever more people to talk, work and play on ever smarter devices just about anywhere, but their rewards have been mostly meagre.它们默默地创造着奇迹,让更多的人可以在任何地点通过更智能的终端聊天、工作和,但得到的回报却少的可怜。Merger and failure have thinned their ranks.频繁的并购和失败的经营导致这个行业的玩家不断减少。In Nortel, a Canadian equipment-maker, went bankrupt.在年,北电(一家加拿大的通信设备制造商)破产。This year Motorolas wireless-network division was bought by Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN), a Finnish-German joint venture created in 2007.同年,托罗拉的无线网络部门被诺西(一家芬兰和德国的合资公司,创建于2007年)收购。Frances Alcatel and Americas Lucent merged in 2006.法国阿尔卡特和美国朗讯也早在2006年合并。None of these mergers has brought much success.然而这些兼并案例并没有获得多少成功。NSN has yet to make an annual profit.诺西的年度收益至今还是负的。On November 23rd it said it would shed 17,000 of its 74,000 workers and concentrate on mobile-broadband networks, for which demand is set to grow explosively, and on services (eg, managing and maintaining networks), where it is relatively strong.在11月23日,诺西宣布将裁员17000人(现有员工数74000人),将把经营聚焦于蓬勃发展的移动宽带网络业务和相对强劲的代维业务(如管理和维护网络)。It had aly sold a microwave-technology business; and on November 29th it announced the sale of another small unit.诺西已经出售了自己的微波业务部门;并于11月29日宣布售出了另一个小业务单元。Alcatel-Lucent reported falling revenues and negative cashflow in the third quarter.据报,阿朗在3季度销售额下跌,现金流为负。Investors are said to be impatient with its boss, Ben Verwaayen.投资者也开始对阿朗的老板本. 韦华恩失去耐心。Must all struggle? All but two, it seems.难道都是在苦苦挣扎么?似乎有2家是例外。;Telecoms equipment is a scale game,; says Richard Windsor of Nomura, an investment bank.一位来自野村券(一家投行)的分析师理查德.温莎称:;通信设备制造业是一个规模游戏;。Network-builders need scale to support the hefty fixed costs of research and development.网络建造者需要规模效应来撑沉重的研发固定成本出。;You can be either the cost leader or the technology leader.他说:;你可以是成本领先者或是技术领先者。If youre neither of those, youre in a spot of bother.;但如果你两头都不搭,那你就有麻烦了。;The technological pace is set by Ericsson, a Swedish company that scoops more than a third of global mobile-infrastructure revenues, according to Gartner, a research firm.爱立信,这家技术研究型公司引领着技术的步伐; 据高德纳调查,这家来自瑞典的公司攫取了全球三分之一的移动基础网络建设收入。It boasts 27,000 patents and was part of a six-firm consortium that paid .5 billion for a load of Nortels patents in July.它声称拥有27000项专利,同时也是在7月份为收购北电专利付45亿美元的财团(由6家公司组成)成员之一。;Anyone [designing] mobile phones or networks needs an agreement with us,; says Hans Vestberg, its boss.爱立信的老板汉斯. 卫翰思宣称:;任何一家设计手机或是网络的公司都需要和我们签订协议。;The cost leader is Huawei, a Chinese firm.而成本领先者则是一家中国公司, 华为。Its global market share went up from 4.5% in 2006 to 15.6% in 2010, reckons Gartner, despite the political obstacles it faces in America. (Some American politicians fret about Huaweis opaque ownership and possible military ties.)尽管它在美国市场遭遇了政治障碍(一些美国政客担心华为不透明的所有权及可能的军方背景); 但据高德纳估算,它的全球市场份额依然从2006年的4.5%增长至2010年的15.6%.Even Ericsson feels the price pinch.即使是爱立信也在为价格头疼不已。Its revenues have risen this year after falling in and 2010, but its margins have been slimmer.虽然其收入在经历, 2010两个财年的下滑后,今年有所回升,但利润却变少了。Mr Vestberg explains that Ericsson has been building new networks for mobile operators and modernising old ones.卫翰思先生解释道,这是因为爱立信在为移动运营商建设新网络同时改造旧网络。That means winning open tenders and taking an initial hit to margins.这就意味着它每赢得一个公开招标就开始一次对利润的冲击。Mr Windsor says that the companies caught in the middle lack the margins either to invest on Ericssons scale in Ramp;D or to fight Huawei on price.温莎先生称:;这些公司都遭遇了利润瓶颈,既无法做到像爱立信对研发的投资规模,又不能和华为打价格战;。NSN was loth to compete on prices before Rajeev Suri became its boss in , says Bengt Nordstrom of Northstream, a consulting firm.据北流咨询公司的本格特?诺德斯特姆称,在年拉吉夫?苏瑞担任诺西的老板以前,诺西根本不愿意开打价格战。Its market share is down to around a sixth, even with Motorola; it inherited a quarter from its parents.它以前从母公司继承了1/4的全球市场份额,而现在其市场份额连同托罗拉算在一起,已下降到了1/6。Now Mr Suri is taking an axe to costs, though he has not said exactly what he will chop.如今苏立先生大刀阔斧削减成本,尽管他并没有明确表示要砍掉哪一部分。He thinks others will also have to narrow their ambitions.他认为其它公司同样将会采取收缩战略。Life will get no easier for those squeezed between the Swedes and the Chinese.那些被瑞典人和中国人夹在中间的公司日子会不好过。Ericssons scale and technical edge are handy when, say, talking to mobile operators wanting to handle lots of data faster and without interference.对于那些想要获得更快处理海量数据和抗干扰技术能力的运营商,爱立信凭借所拥有的规模和技术优势可以手到擒来。And for those for whom cheap kit is paramount, Huawei will still be hard to beat.而对于那些以设备价格低廉为至上原则的运营商市场里,华为则难逢敌手。 /201212/211675。