时间:2018年04月23日 06:14:09

Tang Dynasty唐朝Commerce商业贸易The rapid growth of both agriculture and manufacturing industry enabled commerce to flourish and created the need for an improved transport system.农业与制造业的飞速发展使商业繁荣起来,对于更便利的交通系统的需求产生了。So as to speed the transport of grain from the rich area around the Yangtze River to the north of the country, the Grand Canal was extended.因此,为了提高将粮食从富庶的长江流域运送到北方的速度,京杭大运河被延长。Yilu (post roads) were opened running through the country and stimulating trade.驿路在国家到处开设,刺激了经济。The famous Silk Road enabled trade to flourish between China, central Asia and Arabia.著名的丝绸之路使中国、中亚地区和阿拉伯间的贸易繁荣发展。After the Rebellion of An and Shi, the Silk Road by sea blossomed.安史之乱之后,海上丝绸之路开始兴盛。Merchant ships from countries in Asia and Africa flooded in with cargos of spices,来自亚非的商船上堆满了各种香料、medicines and jewelery to be exchanged for Chinese silks and porcelain.药品和珠宝用以交换中国的丝绸和瓷器。The capital, Chang#39;an, became the richest and most populous city in the world.都城长安成为了世界上最富裕和人口最多的城市。It had one million inhabitants, including people from other ethnic groups and countries.它拥有1000000居民,其中包括哪些来自其他民族和国家的人。Fortified with a wall and moat, the city was divided into quarters including two markets full of shops and stores.受到城墙和护城河的防护,长安被分割成了四块区域,其中包含两个充满了商铺和店家的市场。These included more than two hundred types of businesses dealing in a wide variety of goods from home and abroad.这些市场涵盖了超过两百种来自本国和外国的物品交易。 /201511/405225

The Southern Song was a Han regime founded by Zhao Gou (known as Emperor Gaozong ),with its capital in Lin’an (present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang).南宋是北宋灭亡后,由宋皇族在江南建立起来的、以汉族为主体的封建王朝,建都临安(今浙江杭州),开国皇帝为宋高宗赵构。The Southern Song was in a consistent menace of the Jin in the north and tried in vain in recovering its ruling of the northern part of China until it was destroyed by the Yuan Dynasty.南宋王朝自建立以来,一直在金国的威胁之下,直至被元消灭时,也未能恢复宋朝在中国北方的统治。The Southern Song had nine emperors who ruled for 153 years.南宋共历九帝,前后153年。Its territorial boundaries in the north extended from the Huaishui, through Tang(present-day Tanghe in Henan), Deng (east of present-day Deng County in Henan) to Dasanguan (southwest of Baoji, Shaanxi) in the Qinling Mountain, bordering the Jin and in the southeast and southwest line, it remained the same as those of the Northern Song.其疆域北以淮水,经唐(今河南唐河)、邓(今河南邓县东)二州至秦岭大散关(今陕西宝鸡西南)一线与金为界,东南、西南同北宋时期。The 1st year of Jingkang( 1126) saw the conquest of Kaifeng, the Northern Song capital, by the Jin army.北宋靖康元年(1126),金军攻占北宋都城开封。次年二月,废宋徽、钦二帝,北宋灭亡。In 1127, Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were deposed, ending up the Northern Song. In the same year, Zhao Gou, the Prince of Kang and former marshal in Hebei, ascended the throne in Nanjing (south of present-day Shangqiu in Henan) after the withdrawal of the Jin troops. Zhao Gou still called his regime the “Great Song”,which became known as the Southern Song, and chose the title of his reign Jianyan.同年,原任河北兵马大元帅的赵宋皇族康王赵构,在金军退走之后,于南京(今河南商丘南)即位,仍沿用大宋国号,史称南宋,年号建炎,是为宋高宗。Instead of appointing competent people, carrying out reforms and devising effective defensive strategies. Emperor Gaozong did the opposite by blocking his talented Chief Minister Li Gang and changed the dominant military strategy from one of active resistance to passive defense.南宋新立,当务之急是选贤任能,革新军政,制定积极进取的战略计划。然而,宋高宗昏聩无能,任用佞人,排斥贤相李纲,改积极抗战方针为消极防御。Consequently, Li Gang^ policies to develop the state could not be implemented, Zong Ze’s efforts to establish Kaifeng as a fighting base for the Jin troops were wasted and the anti-Jin activities in the Central Plains were discouraged.结果导致李纲建国十策难以完全落实,宗泽经营的开封基地前功尽弃,中原抗金义军的活动遭受打击。The Song fled to Lin,an,abandoning the Huai River valley and the Yangtze River.随后,宋庭采用弃淮守江的战略,放弃两淮,南逃临安。However, the Lin’an garrison mutinied and the Jin troops took advantage of the situation to march south. Emperor Gaozong fled to the East China Sea. The Southern Song was in dire straits.结果造成临安卫军政变,金军亦乘机南下,宋高宗航海走避,南宋险些亡国。As the Jin troops had failed to capture the Song emperor despite their hot pursuit, they started withdrawing to the north. But at Huangtiandang (slt; present-day Nanjing) the withdrawing Jin troops were held up and almost crushed by the Southern Song army led by General Han Shizhong.金军穷追宋高宗不获,由江南北撤,被南宋韩世忠部拦截在黄天荡,北撤金军险遭灭顶之灾。After that, the Jin forces dared not cross the Yangtze River and the Southern Song could stand on its own feet.此后,金军不敢轻易渡江,南宋朝庭得以立足江南。Then the Southern Song took some strategic defence measures which were quite successful.南宋在江南的统治稳固之后,实施了几项相对成功的战略举措。First of all, it strengthened its defensive forces in Sichuan and Shaanxi. Secondly, a complete system of defensive works was built to link the Yangtze River and the eastern bank of the Huai River midstream. Thirdly, it pursued a strategy of attacking the Central Plains with Jingxiang as its base to link up with He-shuo.一是加强川陕防御,阻挡金军入川之举;二是建立以长江中游地区为重点、连结淮东的江淮防御体系,以阻止金军进攻;三是实施以荆襄为基地,联络河朔,乘隙而进,直捣中原的战略方针。It also attached great importance to developing military hardware, reforming the military system and increasing the army,s manpower. As a result,the situation became more favourable.同时,南宋还重视发展军事技术,改革军事制度,加强军队建设,从而使国防力量有所增强,从屡战屡败到胜多败少,战略形势逐渐向有利于南宋方面转化,曾一度出现北进的较好形势。However, the Southern Song pursued a policy of suing for peace and had no plan to recover the Central Plains. Moreover, its policy of appointing civil officials to control and restrain military officers greatly discouraged its generals and hindered the development of military strength.但南宋以妥协求和,偏安自保为基本方针,贯彻以文制武的军事指挥原则,极大地抑制了领兵将帅才能的发挥,妨碍了军事的发展。The measures taken in the 11th year of Shaoxing( 1114) that depriving three great generals of their commanding power, killing the outstanding anti-Jin general Yue Fei, reduceing the number of the soldiers led to its self-destruction.尤其在绍兴十一年均为(1114)采取的解除三大将领兵权、杀害抗金名将岳飞、缩编军队等错误措施,无疑是自毁长城。Consequently, the Southern Song went into decline.After the emergence of the Mongols, the three powers in the north—the Mongols, the Western Xia and the Jin—constantly fought against each other. This should have been the best opportunity for the Southern Song to expand.结果,南宋在偏安中逐步走向衰弱。蒙古兴起之后,蒙古、西夏、金三国在北方激战,此时是南宋向外发展的最佳时机。But, its rulers, having adopted a self-defence strategy, took no action at all.但是,南宋统治者在消极防御的战略方针指导下,对北方三国撕杀作壁上观, 没有任何积极的行动。It was not until the Xi Xia vanished and the Jin, having lost most of its northern territories, turned to attack the Southern Song that it was forced to fight.待西夏灭亡,金北方尽失,战略转移,南攻宋地,南宋才被迫应战。Although the Southern Song troops held the southward marching Jin army at bay, they also suffered heavy losses. When the Mongolian forces entered at the northern bank of the Yellow River, the Southern Song no longer had any strength left to march north.南宋虽能阻止金军南下,但兵力受损,蒙古势力也进入黄河以北,南宋再无力北攻。Worse still, when the Jin was doomed, the Southern Song even made a decision to join with the Mongols to resist the Jin,not knowing that it would soon follow the Jin’s fate.金垂亡之际,南宋尚不知唇亡齿寒,大祸将至,竟作出联蒙灭金的决策,结果寸土未得,实力暴露,最终走向灭亡。In the 2nd year of Deyou (1276),the army of Yuan invaded Ling’an,the Empress Dowager Xie and the Emperor Gong surrendered.南宋德祐二年(1276),元军攻克临安,宋廷谢太后及恭帝投降。Some anti-Yuan ministers such as Wen Tianxiang, Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie etc. moved to the south in Fujian and Guangzhou and tried to revive the Southern Song by establishing a mini-Song court.In the first year of Xiangxing( 1278), Wen Tianxiang was captured by the Yuan army at Wulingpo( now north of Haifeng, Guang Dong) and was enjailed to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan.部分抗战派大臣南下福建、广东建立南宋行朝,文天祥、陆秀夫、张世杰等共撑危局,南宋祥兴元年(1278)十二月,文天祥在五坡岭(今广东海丰北)兵败被俘,元朝统治者将他囚禁在大都。Wen was no single idea of giving in facing the alternate coercion and intimidate of the Yuan. At last he died a martyr at the capital of Yuan.面对元朝的种种威逼利诱,文天祥始终坚贞不屈,于至元十九年(1282) 十二月就义于元大都。In the 2nd year of Xiangxing( 1279),The fleet of the,Yuan led by Zhang Hongfan assaulted Yashan, the last decisive battle with the remaining Southern Song.祥兴二年(1279)正月,元将张弘范率水军攻打崖山,与行朝进行最后决战。In February, the Southern Song’s troop was defeated and Lu Xiufu jumped into the sea, carrying the last emperor Zhaorui on his back. Soon Zhang Shijie pursued the same end.二月,宋军大败,陆秀夫身背末帝赵肩跳海而亡,之后张世杰堕海殉国。The Southern Song was ruined.南宋至此灭亡。The political system in the Southern Song generally followed its Northern Song counterparts. But the administrative organizations were streamlined and re-struc-tured to accommodate the new practice of autocratic centralization of power.南宋的政治制度基本上是沿袭北宋,但行政机构比北宋精简集中,适应于新形势下的专制主义中央集权。The three secretariats and six boards of the former Northern Song Dynasty were merged in order to reduce the number of official posts and administrative organizations.首先对中央最高行政机构三省六部进行了调整,除户部以事务繁多未减少外,其他五部通过兼领、合并而大量省并。But changes were not so drastic with respect to local governments. Reforms were also introduced into the military system.Early in the Southern Song, the former Northern Song,s Military Council was replaced with various bodies.地方府、州、军、监 级和县级机构,基本沿袭北宋制度。But at the end of the Jianyan reign (1131), the Military Council was restored to its position as the highest military body.建炎末(1131),恢复北宋枢密院管军旧制,枢密院又成为最高军事机构。At the same time, more military and paramilitary organizations were set up in regional areas to maintain order and to resist the Jin forces.南宋建立后,为了加强对地方的统治,先后设置一些军事统御机构,对维护地方治安和抗击金军起到一定的作用。After the Southern Song became more politically stable, the social economy began to develop.南宋在政局稳定之后,社会经济在某些方面比北宋发达。Two-fifths smaller than its predecessor, the Southern Song^ advanced agricultural techniques saw it reap rich harvests.尽管南宋国土比北宋减少2/5,但农业生产发达地区都在南宋境内。Hence the gross productive capacity was at the same level as that of the Northern Song.因此,南宋农业生产的总体水平并不亚于北宋。To meet its militar-y needs, the Southern Song paid great attention to weapon manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and shipbuilding. As a result, the Southern Song surpassed the Northern Song in technique and scale of these industries.而军器制造、采矿冶炼、造船等手工业生产的技术、规模等方面都超过北宋。The Xiangyang, Hanzhong, Zhejiang and the area to the east part of the Yangtze River were the bases for food supply.南宋立国后,襄阳、汉中、两浙和江东地区渐成为粮食生产基地,农作物的栽培技术比以前也有进步。Meanwhile, more advanced agricultural implements were put to use and the irrigating systems were greatly improved.在农业工具方面出现了人工踏犁、竹龙等先进工具,水利灌溉系统也更为发达。In handicraft industry, sericiculture, baldachin, silk and textile were also bettered.手工业方面,养蚕织锦、丝织业、棉织业有较大发展。Techniques of publishing and painting were highly advanced and widely used which rendered mass production of books. The development of paper-making skills resulted in disparate papers which enhanced the culture development of the Southern Song.雕板印刷与活字印刷业非常发达,印制了大量书籍,造纸业也随之发达,可以造出各种用 途的纸张,促进了南宋时期文化事业的发展。Pottery industry grew quite rapidly, the famous blue and white porcelain wascreated. The most common porcelain was the type known as Celadon near the end of the Song Dynasty, and celadon, bearing with the subtle lines, was made in Longquan County of Zhejiang. The exporting of the pottery wares was increased in the Southern Song Dynasty.瓷器制造业也颇发达,著名的带有碎纹(称“百圾碎”)的青瓷——就是南宋浙江龙泉县烧造的,运销海外的瓷器比过去也增加了。Shipbuilding industry reached its height.南宋造船业十分发达。The trades and business in city were flourishing and the bazaar of vary kinds could be found anywhere in the city with various goods on display.城市工商业繁荣,各种市场遍布城中,出售的商品门类繁多。The paper money—kuaizi was first used in trade.首创在商业中使用纸币会子。Under the encouragement of the government, trades overseas was expanded to the Southeast Asia, Dashi (now Arab), Korea and even countries in the Eastern of Africa.政府鼓励海外贸易,当时与东南亚、大食(今阿拉伯)、朝鲜、乃至东非诸国都有贸易往来。One noticeable cultural development during the Southern Song was the flourishing of moral science, especially the Neo-Confucianism which came to be the official ideology of the day.南宋的文化事业非常发达,出现了理学家朱熹、陆九渊,文学家辛弃疾、陆游等人。其中影响最大的是理学逐步取得了官学地位。南宋时期,思想道德教育有了很大的发展,新儒家学派成为统治阶级倡导的思想信条。Zhu Xi was one of the people who helped develop Neo-Confucianism. While not the only person to write about Confucianism, he was the one who combined others works with his and best organized these beliefs. He selected ,from the ancient writings on Confucianism, the Four Books and also synthesized the writings of previous philosophers who had been active earlier during the Northern Song era.朱熹是新儒家思想的代表人,与其他的人不同,他将自己的观点与别人的观点结合起来,追古溯源,将古书《四书》有关孔子的学说与宋时活跃的哲学思想结合起来。Zhu Xi believed that “reason” in things existed before things themselves and all the changes in things were governed by it.朱熹认为,万事万物中的“理”是先于事物本身而存在的,万事万物的变化皆受制于“理”。As far as men were concerned, “reason” was nothing but men’s nature which was inherently good; all the feudal moral standards originated in it. Blinded by the desire for material gains, man could become evil and commit violations of the feudal moral standards.就人类来说,“理”就是人类的本质,而人类的本质本来就是善良的,国家的一切道德标准皆来自“理”,盲目的物质追求会使人的本质变坏,进而违反社会的道德标准。The purpose of these remarks, as far as Zhu Xi was concerned, was the justification of the feudal moral standards and the necessity for people to observe them.朱熹的目的在于说明封建伦理道德的合理性,从而促进人们自觉地去遵守。An important part of Neo-Confucianism is the attempt to “repossess the Way. ” Pursuiting of the Way through disciplined self-cultivation formed a person’s character.新儒家思想试图重新回到“道”上,强调修身齐家以治国和安定天下。This was important because it encouraged the nobles to live up to the Confucian ideals by being less selfish.这在当时是很重要的,因为它 要求人们遵循儒家思想不要只重一己之私利。While poetry and painting gained importance, some poets began using the vernacular styles in their writings.In the past it had been very unusual to use phrases from everyday life.南宋时期诗歌和绘画也有了重大的发展,诗人在写作中运用多种表现手法,与以前不同的是他们从日常生活中吸取了大量的词语。The well-known form of poem was ci.这一时期,最有名的是词的发展。Both Lu You and Xin Qiji were famous ci poets and both had participated in the anti-Jin struggle. Their works, therefore, reflected their concern for their country and their lofty sentiments and emotions.陆游和辛弃疾都是著名的词人,他们参加过南宋抗金的斗争,因此作品中多半表现出为国家命运担忧的主题。Li Qingzhao was a poetess who enjoyed a special position in Chinese literature.李清照是南宋著名的女词人。General Yue Fei, known for his military exploits, wrote impressive ci.抗金将领岳飞也擅长作词。In its simple form, drama or zaju made its appearance during the Northern Song Dynasty. Humorous and satirical, it consisted of recitations and dialogues; later, it was accompanied by songs and dances.杂剧这种艺术形式出现在北宋,它形式简单、幽默而具有讽刺意味,包括叙述和对话两种形式,后来又加人了说唱和舞蹈形式。The zaju of the Jin was not much different from that of the Southern Song. During the Southern Song Dynasty a most popular kind of2咖 was the “Wenzhou drama”or “southern drama” developed in Wenzhou and other coastal regions of Zhejiang Province.金时的杂剧和南宋时相似,南宋时最流行的杂剧形式是“温州剧”,也叫南剧,起源于浙江温州的其它沿海地区。Through the medium of songs, recitations, and dances, it told complicated stories with a variety of characters.通过说唱、叙事和舞蹈表达具有许多人物的复杂故事。In the Jin as well as in the Song, there were also dramatic ballads known as zhugongdiao orgongdiao . By songs and recitations, they told long stories.在金、宋时期,还有叙事民谣叫做诸宫调或宫调,通过说唱可以讲述很长的故事。In terms of vocal style, zhugongdiao absorbed the characteristics of major melodies, ci , and folk ballads of the Tang and Song dynasties.从旋律上讲,诸宫调吸收了宋词和唐宋时期民谣的主要特点。Both zaju and zhugongdiao had contributed to the development of the Yuan drama.诸宫调和杂剧对元朝时戏曲的发展做出了很大贡献。Hua ben or vernacular tales consisted of two kinds : the long ones and the short ones.话本也叫地方故事,有两种形式:长剧和短剧。The short ones, known as xiao shuo , or short stories, dealt with such topics as loves, ghosts and spirits and heroic adventures.短剧主要表现有关爱情、鬼神和惊险故事。The long ones, known as jiangshi or historical episodes, related historical events that occurred in a certain period. They described wars and the rise and fall of dynasties and portrayed heroes and their military exploits.长剧也叫讲史,主要是叙述一定时期的历史,它讲述战争、王朝的兴衰和军事征。Revealing the seamy side of society, they were literature of realism.它反映社会丑陋的一面,是文学中的现实主义。By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, vernacular tales had made considerable progress. They advanced further during the Southern Song Dynasty and served as the forerunner of the novels of the Yuan and Ming dynasties.北宋末年,地方剧发展很快,在南宋时期又取得了进一步的发展,是后来元、明小说的前身。Painting reached new heights during this time. There were two main schools of painters. The first created decorative, yet realistic, paintings that show a great attention to details. The second tried to paint inner realities, as they viewed painting to be an intimate personal expression.南宋时的绘画也有了一定的发展,主要有两种绘画风格,一种是表现外在的现实,另一种 是内心的现实,后者认为绘画就是表现亲近的内在感受。While being one of the most technologically and culturally advanced people in the world at the time, the Song were not militarily powerful.尽管宋朝的科技和文化在当时都是领先的,但宋朝的军事却不强大。Part of the reason for this may be that Confucianism held military in very low regard. Confucianism did not recognize the military as being part of the four official classes of occupations.有可能是因为对儒家思想的信奉降低了军事的地位,儒家思想讲究仁政,并不把军事职位 列人统治者管理的职能类别。Therefore, the military positions consisted of the poor, uneducated peasants, mercenaries or allies. Diplomacy was the favored form of dealing with enemies. This pracice was prolonged the period of paying tribute to enemies. In addition being not meant to be militarily strong enough to defeat them, the Southern Song was left susceptible to be attacked from others.所以军事职位主要是由穷人、文化程度较低的农民和唯利是图的人担当,因而外交就成为对付敌人的主要手段,这就使宋代的历史有 很长的一段都是进贡,而不是将敌人彻底打败,这也使宋朝极易受到外敌的入侵。This weakness allowed for two non-Chinese kingdoms to exist to the north of the Song and finally the Southern Song was defea-ted by the later grown minority tribe, the Mongolian in the Yuan Dynasty lished by Kublai Khan.这种软弱使两个非汉族建立的王国得以在其北面存在,而宋本身也被日后成长起来的少数民族部落——蒙古人忽必烈汗建立的元朝所灭。 /201602/426211

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