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昆明种牙好不好昆明钛合金瓷牙价位Well, you know what they say.人们常说,A woman will marry the manwho reminds her of her father, and a man will marry a womanwho reminds him of his mother.女人会嫁给让她想起自己父亲的男人,男人会娶让他想起自己母亲的女人。Well were hardly the only animals to choose mates based onour early social interactions.当然,人类并不是唯一以早期的社会交往为基础选择配偶的物种。In fact, though worlds away fromus as a species, some female wolf spiders also make theirmating choices on the basis of familiarity.实际上,同看整个世界,除了人类这一物种外,雌性狼蛛也是以熟悉程度来选择配偶的。Male wolf spiders run the gamut in physical appearance.从外形上看,雄性狼蛛形形色色。They can vary in color and in hairiness.他们的颜色及绒毛都各不相同。Whats interesting is that there isnt a general preferred look among females,有趣的是,雌性狼蛛在选择配偶时根本没有什么偏爱的外形特征。but instead, femalesprefer males who look like males they encountered when they were young and sexually immature.相比而言,雌性狼蛛更喜欢选择那些看起来像是她们在年轻的时候或尚未性成熟时所遇到过的雄性狼蛛作为配偶。In fact, some female wolf spiders prefer familiarity to the extent that they will often eat a malesuitor that doesnt fit that profile.事实上,雌性狼蛛偏爱“熟人”已经到了这样的地步—她们通常会将那些陌生的“追求者”吃掉。The wider her range of familiarity with different looking males,the more discriminating a female is, and thus more likely to devour a male who looks unfamiliar.雌性狼蛛所碰到的外形不同的雄性狼蛛越多,她的辨识能力越强,她吃掉外形陌生的雄性狼蛛的几率就越高。The influence social experience has on the female wolf spiders mating choice is almost unheard ofamong invertebrates.在无脊椎动物这一群体中,社会经验对雌性狼蛛择偶的影响可说是闻所未闻的。This spider challenges what we thought we knew about arachnids andinvertebrates.狼蛛的这一特性也挑战了人类对蛛形纲动物及无脊椎动物的认知。201406/302918西双版纳州人民医院牙齿矫正牙齿美白怎么样好吗 Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees,also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that makeup their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in thesetrees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮,觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckersexcavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。Right. And thisled them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyrethe ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood.当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from onesnag and carrying them in their beaks to another.它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckersthat nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used forforaging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well.从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。And now that theres debate overwhether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to studypotential ramifications.既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 201405/296982昆明治疗牙齿的医院

曲靖市师宗县陆良县会泽县冷光牙齿好吗Don: Time now for another episode of A Moment of Sciences ;Did You Know...; So, Yael, did you know that there have been about twenty-three mass extinctions since life began on earth?唐:现在进入科学时刻另一段情节:“你知道...”那么,雅艾尔,你知道吗,地球上自有生命以来发生过23起物种大灭绝事件?Yael: I know thereve been a few extinctions, Don, but not that many!雅艾尔:我知道几次物种大灭绝,但不知道次数如此多!Don: Yep. Many were of prehistoric bacteria and other single-celled microorganisms. But in the past 540 million years or so there have been about five mass extinctions, mainly of marine plants and animals but also of land organisms.唐:是啊。许多都是史前的细菌或其它单细胞微生物。但是在5.4亿年前已发生过5次大灭绝,主要包括海生植物和动物,当然也有陆生生物。Yael: Well, I know that the dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago, possibly due to a large meteor that crashed into earth and blotted out the sun. But what caused all those other extinctions?雅艾尔:好吧,我知道恐龙大约在六千五百万年前消失,可能是由于一颗大流星撞击地球,遮住阳光引起的。但是什么导致其他物种灭绝的呢?Don: Thats been a mystery for a long time. But now some scientists think that most mass extinctions have been driven by the rise and fall of sea level. That may sound strange, but consider that millions of years ago a shallow sea covered the entire middle section of North America. That sea grew and shrank back several times. Each time it drained it caused entire species of sea plants and creatures to die off. The last time it drained was around 65 million years ago—when the dinosaurs disappeared.唐:长期以来那一直是个谜。但如今一些科学家们认为大多数的灭绝是由于海平面的上升和下降引起的。这也许听起来很奇怪,但考虑到百万年前有一片浅海覆盖在整个北美洲中部就不足为奇了。那片海历经几次扩张和消失,每一次干涸就会导致这个海洋的生物灭绝。最后一次干涸发生在6500万年前恐龙消失的时候。Yael: OK, I understand how a sea vanishing would kill off marine life. But did the seas disappearance also have something to do with the dinosaurs going extinct?雅艾尔:好吧,我明白了海洋的消失会引起海洋生物消失。但海洋的消失与恐龙的灭绝也有联系吗?Don: Maybe. When a sea disappears it has a big effect on climate. All that water provides heat and moisture. And when a sea drains, the climate becomes drier and colder. So the change in climate may have combined with the meteor impact to kill off the dinosaurs. 唐:也许。海洋消失会对气候产生深远的影响。海水能提供热量和湿度。当海水干枯时,气候就会变得更加干燥和寒冷。因此气候变化再加上流星撞击地球足以将恐龙推向毁灭。原文译文属!201305/240934云南柏德医院看牙齿戴牙套多少钱 昆明做个牙套要多少钱

云南哪个医院口腔科好Our sense of smell can have a large impact on how we think and feel.我们的嗅觉对我们的思维和感觉能够产生很大影响。But did you know that mood can affect how we smell?但你知道吗,心情也是能够影响嗅觉的。According to a study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin Madison, feeling anxious can make typically neutral smells seem repugnant.根据威斯康星麦迪逊大学研究人员的一份报告显示,焦虑的心情能够让典型的中性气味变得刺鼻。The study involved a dozen volunteers who rated a panel of neutral smells.该项研究邀请了12名志愿者并让他们辨别一组中性气味。Then, while inside an MRI machine, subjects were made to feel anxious with disturbing images of car crashes and grisly war scenes.然后通过向他们播放撞车和可怕的战争场景图像来使他们产生焦虑的情绪,并用核磁共振仪进行观察。They were then asked to rank the panels of neutral smells once again.接着,志愿者们被要求再次对这组中性气味进行辨别。But now, after having been made anxious by the images, they described some of the smells as negative.但是由于之前看到的影片产生了焦虑感,他们这次则表示闻到的气体是刺鼻的。MRI revealed that during induced anxiety, the smell related circuits of the brain became intertwined with the brains emotional circuitry.核磁共振结果显示,由于心情焦虑,大脑中跟嗅觉有关的回路跟情绪相关的回路产生了交织。Normally, those circuits dont interact much, but when the subjects were anxious, the circuits morphed into something like a unified network, essentially rewiring the brain.正常情况下,这些回路并不会发生太多的互动,但是当人体变得焦虑时,这两种回路就会变成一个看似交织在一起的网络,本质上来说就是对大脑的回路进行了重组。And somehow, that rewiring affected how the subjects interacted with theworld through smell.而且,不知何故,这种改变影响了志愿者通过嗅觉与外界进行联系的方式。So why does this matter?为什么知道这一点会很重要呢?First, because it helps explain how anxiety can feed on itself.首先,它可以有助于解释焦虑是如何变强的。In sofar as being anxious makes things smell generally worse, those worse smells may in turn cause greater anxiety, creating an anxiety feedback loop.如果说一定程度的焦虑会让人感觉闻到的东西很刺鼻,那么越刺鼻的气味则会反过来引发更强烈的焦虑感,由此便产生了一种焦虑的恶性循环。On the bright side, understanding how emotion and smell can intert wine may also lead to ways to use smell as a way to combat anxiety and other mental disorders an intriguing possibility that maybe borne out with more research.好的一面是,如果理解了情绪跟气味是如何互动的原理,我们可以利用气味来战胜焦虑和其他的心理疾病,但是这种有趣的可能性还需要投入更多的研究来加以实。 201404/292306 Drug firms and cancer Lucrative lifesavers医药公司和癌症 利润丰厚的救星The hopes and perils of betting on cancer treatments癌症治疗的希望和风险NEW weapons are emerging in the war on cancer.在对癌症的战争中不断有新武器出现。That is good news not just for patients but also for drug companies.这不仅对病人是好消息,对制药公司也是好消息。The biggest ones, faced with falling sales as their existing medicines go off-patent, are investing in smaller firms with promising cancer treatments under development, hoping to secure the next blockbuster.最先有药物面临着销售下滑,失去专利保护,最重要的是投资于正在开发有前途的癌症治疗方法的小公司来确保拥有下一个重磅炸弹。On August 25th Amgen, the worlds biggest biotechnology company by sales, said it would pay .4 billion for another American firm, Onyx.8月25日世界上最大的生物技术公司安进表示,它将付104亿美元收购Onyx公司。The target firms crown jewel is Kyprolis, a treatment for multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer.该公司拥有的药物Kyprolis能治疗多发性骨髓瘤,一种类型的血癌。The next day AstraZeneca, a British drugs firm, said it would snap up Amplimmune, an American firm working on ways to trigger the immune system to fight cancer.第二天,英国制药公司阿斯利康称将抢购Amplimmune公司,美国一家试图通过激活免疫系统来治疗癌症的公司。Oncology is attractive for several reasons.肿瘤学有吸引力是因为以下几个原因。First, the understanding of cancer is evolving rapidly.首先,对癌症的了解在不断加快。In the 20th century treatment relied on surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.在20世纪对癌症的治疗依赖于手术,放疗和化疗。These now seem rudimentary.现在这些都成了最基本的手段。Immunotherapy—getting the immune system to attack cancer—has gone from theory into practice.用免疫系统攻击癌细胞已经从理论进入实践。Genomics has helped scientists target specific mutations that promote cancer.基因组学帮助科学家通过特定的基因突变锁定促使癌症发生的基因。Another area of excitement for cancer researchers is epigenetics, which alters how a gene acts without meddling with the sequence of DNA.表观遗传学是癌症研究的另一个令人兴奋的领域,在不改变基因序列的前提下改变基因的表达。Second, regulators have speeded up their approval of cancer drugs.其次,监管机构已经在加快对抗癌药物的市场准入。Of the 39 medicines approved by Americas Food and Drug Administration in 2012, 11 were for cancer.在2012年由美国食品和药物批准的39种药品中,有11种用于治疗癌症。These included Kyprolis, which was granted accelerated approval, based on a smaller clinical trial than usual, for use as a last-ditch treatment for patients with multiple myeloma.其中包括Kyprolis,在只进行了小规模的临床试验的基础上加速审批通过,用于多发性骨髓瘤患者治疗的最后一道防线。Third, and most controversial, cancer drugs can fetch exorbitant prices, particularly in America.第三,也是最有争议的,治疗癌症的药物可以卖高昂的价格,特别是在美国。The idea is that theres nothing else available, so you can ask for a high price, explains Howard Liang of Leerink Swann, an investment bank.美国医疗保健投资的霍华德梁解释说:我们的想法是,因为没有别的可用,所以我们可以卖很高的价格。A typical course of treatment with Kyprolis lasting, say, five months, can cost around ,000.使用Kyprolis治疗一个疗程,也就是5个月,花费大约5万美元。Little surprise, then, that big drugmakers are keen to develop their own cancer drugs, form partnerships with smaller firms that have promising treatments in the pipeline, and buy such companies outright.有个小惊喜就是大制药公司都热衷于开发自己的抗癌药物,与在治疗过程中能提高治疗效果的小公司形成合作关系,也直接收购这种小公司。Kyprolis was first developed by a small firm called Proteolix, which was bought by Onyx, now acquired by Amgen.首先Kyprolis是由一个叫 Proteolix的小公司开发的,被Onyx收购,现在又被Amgen收购。In Bristol-Myers Squibb, an American drug giant, paid .4 billion for Medarex, which had an experimental immunotherapy drug.美国制药业巨头施贵宝,年斥资24亿美元收购了拥有免疫治疗药物的Medarex公司。That drug, for melanoma, is now sold in America for 0,000 for a full course of treatment.该药物对黑色素瘤,现在在美国一个完整的疗程需要12万美元。There are risks, however.风险还是有的。Even a drug seemingly destined for fame and fortune can fall flat.即使药物名利似乎注定落空。The FDA has approved Kyprolis only for patients who have aly tried at least two other treatments.批准Kyprolis,只适用于那些已经尝试过至少两个其他治疗方法的患者。Its annual sales could reach billion, reckons Goldman Sachs.高盛估计其年销售额能达到30亿美元。But that requires approval beyond America, and data showing that Kyprolis is worth giving to earlier-stage patients.但是这还需要美国以外的批准,并且要有数据能够明Kyprolis也可以应用于早期患者。AstraZeneca is buying Amplimmune largely for two cancer drugs still in early testing.阿斯利康购买Amplimmune主要是两种抗癌药物目前仍处于早期测试。If you are not willing to take risks, you cannot be in this area, says Bahija Jallal, an executive at AstraZeneca.如果你不愿意承担风险,你就不会出现在这个领域,阿斯利康的一个管理人员Bahija Jallal说。The biggest question in the long term is whether health insurers and governments will keep paying up.长期来看最大的问题是医疗保险公司和政府是否会继续持。Onyx and Bayer, a German firm, share the profits of Nexavar, a kidney-cancer drug.德国拜耳公司和Onyx共享肾癌药物多吉美的利润。Last year Indian regulators granted a local firm a compulsory licence to sell Nexavar copies for a fraction of Bayers price.去年印度的监管机构强制许可授予当地一家小公司销售多吉美的仿制药,价格只是拜耳的一小部分。The response elsewhere is less extreme.其他地方的响应却不那么极端。But companies face new scrutiny over their prices, particularly in Europe.但是,公司在欧洲面临新的价格审查。In April more than 100 experts in chronic myeloid leukaemia signed a paper to protest against the high cost of drugs.4月100多名在慢性髓性白血病方面的专家签署了一份抗议药物成本过高的声明。For now, however, Amgen should be able to continue charging handsomely for Kyprolis.但就目前而言,安进能够从Kyprolis获得丰厚的利润。 /201309/255527昆明装牙多少钱云南柏德口腔医院口腔美容科



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