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Science and technology科学与技术Water purification水的净化Any old iron?有废铁吗?A little-known chemical may provide a new way to clean water一种鲜为人知的化学物质可能为清洁水源带来一线希望IRON in water is normally regarded a pollutant.水中的铁原子通常被认为是一种污染源。Luke Daly, the boss of Ferrate Treatment Technologies of Orlando, Florida, however, plans to turn that thought on its head.然而,弗罗里达州奥兰多高铁酸盐技术处理所所长Luke Daly,计划颠倒这一认知。He intends to use a chemically unusual form of iron to clean water up, not make it dirty.他将利用铁原子的一种非通常化学形态来净化水源,而非污染水源。Iron is found in the part of the periodic table known as the transition metals.铁是化学元素周期表中的一部分,也被熟知为过渡金属。Like all metals, these react with other elements by giving up electrons to form positively charged ions.像所有的金属一样,铁原子与其他元素反应,释放电子形成带正电的离子。Transition metals, though, give up different numbers of electrons in different circumstances, and thus have ions of various charges.但过渡金属在不同的情况下释放不同数量的电子,因此就形成乐携带不同数目正电的离子。Usually, iron loses two or three electrons.通常情况下,铁原子丧失2-3个电子。But in ferrates, which are compounds of iron and oxygen with non-transition metals like sodium and calcium, it loses six.但是在高铁酸盐中是铁原子、氧原子以及非过渡金属如纳原子、钙原子的化合物,它失去了6个电子。That makes ferrates extremely reactive, and it is this reactivity which Mr Daly hopes to exploit.这使得高铁酸盐极其具有活性,而这也是Daly先生希望挖掘出的活性。First, ferrates are strong oxidising agents.首先,高铁酸盐是强氧化剂。That means they destroy bacteria and viruses, and break up organic molecules with alacrity.也就是说,它们能够破坏细菌和病毒,并能迅速分解有机分子。Second, they are coagulants and flocculating agents.其次,它们也是凝结剂和絮凝剂,They attract other chemicals in the water, including dissolved metals, and precipitate them for easy removal.吸引水中其他的化学物质并生成沉淀就可以毫不费力的去除掉。Moreover, once it has done its job, the iron in ferrates precipitates too, as iron oxide, leaving pure water behind.此外,当它的使命结束后,高铁酸盐中的铁离子也会以氧化铁的形式沉淀,过滤后就是洁净的水了。The reason these wonder materials have not been used as water purifiers before is that their reactivity makes them unstable and thus difficult to store.先前这些神奇的物质并没有用来做水源净化剂,因为它们的活性使得本身不稳定,也难以储存。Thomas Waite of the Florida Institute of Technology, an academic scientist on whose work the company has drawn, jokes that in the early days of his research he kept the whole worlds supply of ferrates in a cabinet in his laboratory.佛罗里达理工学院的理论科学家Thomas Waite,开玩笑的说,在他的早期研究中,当年全世界量的高铁酸盐供应量都在他的实验室橱柜中。Ferrate Treatment Technologies trick is to make ferrates on site, for instant use, rather than attempting to transport them to where they are needed.高铁酸盐技术处理所所玩的戏法就是将高铁酸盐现场即用,而非运送到异地再使用。The firms Ferrator uses three cheap raw materials—bleach, ferric chloride and caustic soda—to produce sodium and calcium ferrate at a price competitive, in terms of oxidising power, with more familiar water-cleaners like chlorine and ozone.公司的高铁酸盐系统是用三种便宜的原材料—漂白剂、氯化铁以及氢氧化钠—来制造高铁酸钠和高铁酸钙,并使其价格,在氧化效果来看,媲美于氯水和臭氧这类的水源清洁剂。A machine small enough to be carried around in a pickup truck, Mr Daly claims, could generate enough ferrates to purify 75m litres of water a day.Daly先生称,一个足以让小货车携带的小型机器,能够制造出足够的高铁酸盐一天净化7500万公升的水。The system is now being tested at two plants in Florida.这套系统现正在接受位于弗罗里达州两座工厂的测试。If all goes well, the first commercial Ferrators will be up and running later this year.如果一切正常的话,第一个商业性高铁酸盐系统将建立并且于年后投入运营。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/228298Buckminster Fuller and His Geodesic Dome巴克敏斯特·福乐和他的球型屋顶Ever heard of a man named Buckminster Fuller, or Bucky, as his friends called him? R. Buckminster Fuller was a twentieth century scientist, philosopher, inventor, and was also named a great architect.听说过一个叫巴克敏斯特·福乐的人吗?朋友们常叫他巴基。巴克敏斯特·福乐是二十世纪的科学家,哲学家,发明家,同时他也是一名伟大的建筑师。Part of what made Bucky so special was his concern for the planet and humanity. When you have a shortage of resources, he said, you get war. Thus, he developed an idea called Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science. It’s a mouthful, but what it entails is his belief that to solve humanity’s major problems, we have to look forward to the future; we have to anticipate what will become problems as resources diminish, etc.他如此特别的部分原因是他很关心地球和人类。他说当缺乏资源时,就会发生战争。所以,他开创了一种观念,叫作“全面预期设计科学”。这个名字有点拗口,但它需要巴基的信念来解决人类主要问题。我们必须展望未来;我们必须预期会出现的问题,比如资源减少等等。His goal? Quote: “More and more life support for everybody, with less and less resources.” He was especially interested in developing more efficient housing; that is, a new way of constructing buildings so that they provide more housing space with the use of fewer resources. One solution he came up with in the late 1940′s is the geodesic dome, the invention he is most famous for.他是目标?引用一句话:用最少的资源维持更多人的生活。他对开发更高效的住房特别有兴趣;那是一种建造房屋的新的方式,用更少的资源提供更多的住房空间。上世纪40年代末,巴基提出了一个解决方法,即球型屋顶,这也是他最著名的发明。The geodesic dome is a structure shaped like a piece of a sphere. It’s made up of a complex network of triangles, and the more complex this network the closer the comes to the shape of a true sphere. What’s so great about the dome is that it does exactly what Bucky wanted; that is, it has the highest ratio of enclosed area to external surface. In other words, it uses fewer materials to create more housing space.球型屋顶是一个形状像球体的结构。它由一个复杂的网状三角形构成。网状结构越复杂,建筑物的形状就越接近于真实的球体。圆屋顶额伟大之处在于它封闭区到外部表面的比例最高,那正是巴基想要的效果。换句话说,就是用更少的材料建造更多住房空间。 /201303/228877

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