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来源:华龙问答    发布时间:2019年12月08日 14:47:06    编辑:admin         

It#39;s the debate that has long divided animal lovers. Now scientists have confirmed that cats really are better than dogs – at least from an evolutionary perspective.一直以来,;猫和哪个更好;这一问题将动物爱好者划分为两大阵营。现在科学家已经实猫确实比更好——至少从进化的角度来看是这样。A groundbreaking study of 2,000 ancient fossils reveals that felids – the cat family – have historically been much better at surviving than the ;canid; dog clan, and often at the latter’s expense.一项对2000个古代化石进行的开拓性研究揭示了从历史上看,猫科动物家族的生存能力远远强于犬科动物家族,而且猫科动物的生存是以犬科动物的损耗为代价的。The research finds that cats have played a significant role in making 40 dog species extinct, outcompeting them for scarce food supplies because they are generally more effective hunters. But researchers found no evidence that dogs have wiped out a single cat species.这项研究发现,猫科动物在40个犬科物种的灭绝过程中发挥了重要作用。由于猫科动物通常是更有效率的捕猎者,在夺取供应不足的食物的竞争中猫科动物胜过了犬科动物。但是研究人员没有发现任何犬类动物消灭掉一个猫科物种的据。The dog family – which includes the wolves from which today’s domesticated dogs are descended – originated in North America about 40 million years ago and reached a maximum diversity around 20 million years later, when there were more than 30 species on the continent. At that point, the cat family arrived from Asia.犬科家族——包括现在的驯养的祖先狼——起源于约4000万年前的北美洲,在大约2000万年后达到了物种多样性的巅峰,当时在北美洲有超过30个犬类物种。与此同时,猫科动物也从亚洲来到此地。;The arrival of cats to North America had a deadly impact on the diversity of the dog family. We usually expect changes in climate to play the overwhelming role in the evolution of species. Instead, competition among different carnivore species proved to be even more important for the dogs,; said the report’s lead author, Dr Daniele Silvestro, of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland.这项研究报告的第一作者、瑞士洛桑大学的达妮埃尔·西尔韦斯特罗士表示:;猫科动物的到来给犬科动物的物种多样性造成致命打击。我们通常预计气候变化会在物种进化过程中发挥最重要的作用。但对于犬科动物来说,不同食肉动物物种间的竞争被明是更重要的。;The influx of cats prompted a period of dramatic decline among the dog clan. This has left North America with just nine species of wild dog today, comprising different variations of wolves and foxes, according to the fossil analysis published in the journal PNAS.猫科动物的涌入导致犬科动物数量在一段时间内大幅下降。依据这项发表在美国国家科学院院刊(PNAS)上的化石分析,这造成了如今北美洲仅存九个犬类物种,包括狼和狐狸的不同变种。Dr Silvestro says it is unclear exactly why, when times were tough, the cats were able to see off dogs so comprehensively. But he believed it could be something to do with the retractable claws that ancient cats have passed down to their domesticated descendants, but which dogs don’t have.西尔韦斯特罗士称,目前还不是十分清楚在当时的艰难岁月,猫科动物为什么能将犬科动物;驱逐;得那么彻底。但是他认为这可能跟古代猫科动物伸缩自如的爪子有关,这是犬科动物所不具有的。古代猫科动物还将这种爪子遗传给了自己的后裔家猫。Millions of years ago, some dog species, such as wolves, were effective killing machines, chasing down their prey at high speed and devouring it. All surviving dog species fall into this ;runner; camp.数百万年前,某些犬科物种(比如说狼)是有效的杀戮机器,能以高速追捕猎物并吞食掉。所有幸存的犬科动物都属于;奔跑系猎手;阵营。But other dog species ambushed their prey in a manner similar to the cat family. However, these dogs weren’t as good as the cats at this technique – and all the canid species who used it are now extinct.不过也有其他犬科动物伏击猎物的方式与猫科动物相似。然而,这些犬类动物并不像猫科动物那样擅长这项技能——所有曾使用这项技能的犬科动物现在都已经灭绝了。Dr Silvestro explained: ;The cats have retractable claws which they only pull out when they catch their prey. This means they don’t wear them out and they can keep them sharp. But the dogs can#39;t do this, so they are at a disadvantage to the cats in an ambush situation.;西尔韦斯特罗士解释称:;猫科动物只有在抓到猎物时才会亮出它们可伸缩的爪子,这意味着它们不会磨损并能够时刻保持锋利,但是犬科动物不能做到这一点。因此,同猫科动物相比,它们在伏击方面处于劣势。;The evolutionary success of carnivorous animals is strongly linked to their ability to obtain food, meaning that there can be significant competition for prey when there is insufficient supply for the population.食肉动物的进化成功在很大程度上与它们获取食物的能力有关,这也意味着当食肉动物的食物供应不足时,猎物的争夺将十分激烈。;Felids must have been more efficient predators than most of the extinct species in the dog family,; the report concluded.该报告总结称:;猫科动物与那些灭绝了的犬科动物相比一定是更有效的捕食者。; /201509/400172。

Marquis Wen of Wei, a famous statesman, appointed Li Kui to carry out reforms.魏国的建立者魏文侯是著名的政治家,任用李悝进行改革。Li Kui changed the old hereditary system, and put two new agricultural policies into practice, which encouraged peasants to develop agriculture and stabilized food prices.李悝改变旧的“世卿世禄”制度,实行“尽地力”与“善平籴”两项农业政策,鼓励农民积极发展生产,稳定粮食价格。Meanwhile, he formulated A Book of Laws , a famous law book.此外,李悝还制定了《法经》。Though it was set to protect the interests of the exploiting class, it placed an important role in maintaining the social order and stabilizing the political situation in Wei.这一法律虽然主要是保护剥削阶级的利益,但对魏国来说,在维护社会秩序、稳定政局方面,起了重要的作用。After a series reforms, Wei became the strongest state in the early Spring and Autumn Period.经过一系列改革,魏国成为战国初期最强大的国家。In 382 B. C. , Chu King Dao designated Wu Qi to reform. Similar to Li Kui, he focused his reform on the hereditary system, selecting and appointing persons on their merits, rewards and punishments being rigid.周安王二十年(公元前382年),楚悼王任用吴起进行变法,他改革的重点和李悝一样,主要也是在于削弱旧的“世卿世禄”制度,选贤任能,赏罚严明。There measures rectified the political system, and strengthened the armed forces, which benefited the state but aroused the resentment of nobles.楚国经过此次改革,政治得到整顿,军力也日益强大。改革虽有利于国家,却引起了贵族的不满。As the conservative forces of Chu were poweful, when Chu King Dao died, Wu Qi was killed with arrows, and his reforms were nearly abolished.楚国旧势力强大,楚悼王刚死,吴起就被乱箭射死,其改革几乎都被废除。Zhao, Han, Qi and Yan also reformed, but the most radical one took place in Qin launched by Shang Yang.赵、韩、齐、燕四国亦进行了改革,但战国时期最彻底的改革当数秦国的“商鞅变法”。Shang Yang was a declining noble of Wei, and his surname was Gongsun, a distinguished legalist. He went to Qin for not being put in an important position in Wei.商鞍姓公孙,名鞅,卫国没落贵族,杰出的法家,他在魏不被重用而入秦。In Qin he was enfiefed in Shang (in Southeast of Shang County in Shaanxi)due to his merits, therefore he was called Shang Yang.在秦以功封于商(今陕西商县东南),因称商君,亦称商鞅。Shang Yang ’ s reform was a thorough revolution of the landlord class.秦国的“商鞅变法”是一场比较彻底的地主阶级政治改革。In 356 B. C. and 350 B. C. , Duke Xiao of Qin appointed Shang Yang to reform twice. His measures included : encouraging the population growth, elevating agriculture and downgrading commerce, abolishing the traditional privileges of the nobles, rewarding a person for his military exploit, registering the residents.公元前356年和公元前350年,秦孝公任用商鞅进行了两次变法,内容包括鼓励人口增长,重农抑商,废除世卿世禄制度,奖励军功,编制户口,为实现中央集权而建立县制。To establish a political system of centralization, Shang Yang grouped all villages and towns into 31 counties governed by magistrates, who were designated by the monarch, in which way the sovereign ’ s control could be reached.在全国设置31个县,国君直接派官吏治理,国家统一控制。Since the reform of Shang Yang, Qin became the most powerful state in a short time.自商鞅变法后,秦国一跃成为七国中实力最强的国家。Though Shang Yang was put to death by his opponents, the new laws were not eliminated, which paved the way for Qin to conquer the other six states and unify the whole country.虽然后来商鞅被车裂而死,新法却并未废止。商鞅变法为秦消灭六国、统一中国奠定了基础。 /201511/407437。

Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, has emerged as a force in the publishing industry, thanks to the book reviews he posts on his blog, Gates Notes. Mr. Gates, who says he s about 50 books a year, discussed his love of ing, how he makes his selections and what book Warren Buffett recommended. Below are excerpts from a recent email interview.微软公司的联合创始人比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)因为在自己的客Gates Notes上发表书评,成了出版界一股新力量。盖茨先生说自己每年大约读50本书,他在这里谈了自己对阅读的爱好,如何选择书籍,沃伦·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)推荐他读了什么书。下面是最近的一次电子邮件采访节选。What role does ing play in your life?问:阅读在你的生活中扮演什么样的角色?It is one of the chief ways that I learn, and has been since I was a kid. These days, I also get to visit interesting places, meet with scientists and watch a lot of lectures online. But ing is still the main way that I both learn new things and test my understanding.答:它是我最主要的学习方式之一,从我小时候就是这样了。这些日子以来,我也去拜访有趣的地方、同科学家会面,在网上看很多讲座。但阅读仍然是我学习新鲜事物与测试自己理解力的重要方式。For example, this year I enjoyed Richard Dawkins’s “The Magic of Reality,” which explains various scientific ideas and is aimed at teenagers. Although I aly understood all the concepts, Dawkins helped me think about the topics in new ways. If you can’t explain something simply, you don’t really understand it.比如说,今年我很喜欢理查德·道金斯(Richard Dawkins)的《真相的魔力》(The Magic of Reality),它解释了各种科学概念,目标读者是青少年。尽管那些概念我都理解,道金斯还是能够帮助我以新的方式思考这些话题。如果你无法简单明了地解释某种东西,你就没有真正理解它。What made you decide to start the books blog and write reviews?问:你为什么决定开始写荐书客和书评呢?I have always loved ing and learning, so it is great if people see a book review and feel encouraged to and share what they think online or with their friends.答:我一直都喜欢阅读和学习,所以如果人们看到一篇书评,于是就去读这本书,并且在网上,或者与朋友们分享自己的想法,这会是很棒的一件事。It also helps to have a platform for talking about the work I’m doing, both through the foundation and separate from it, because I find people are curious about it.另外,有一个平台来讲一讲我手头在做的工作也很好,不管是不是基金会的事,因为我发现人们对此很感兴趣。How do you choose the books you ? Recommendations from family/friends/media?问:你怎样选择要读什么书呢?是通过家人、朋友或媒体的推荐吗?It’s a mix of things. Melinda and I will sometimes exchange books we like. I also get recommendations from friends. After I finish something great, I will often try to find other books by that author or similar ones on the same subject.答:各种因素都有。梅林达(Melinda)和我有时候交换自己喜欢的书。朋友们也向我推荐书。我读完一本好书,也经常会去找这个作者的其他著作,或是类似题材的其他书籍。Earlier this year Melinda and I saw the musical “Hamilton,” which inspired me to Ron Chernow’s biography.今年年初,我和梅林达看了音乐剧《汉密尔顿》(Hamilton),所以我就去读了洛恩·彻诺(Ron Chernow)的这本汉密尔顿传记。What was the process of selecting the books for the best-of-the-year list? Any tough choices?问:你是怎么选择你的年度最佳书籍清单的?有没有难以取舍的情况?I didn’t set out to do this intentionally, but when I looked back at the books I this year, I realized that a lot of them touch on the theme “how things work.”答:我不是有意这么做的,但回忆今年读过的书,我发现很多都与“事物如何运行”这个主题有关。Some, like Randall Munroe’s “Thing Explainer,” are written exactly for that reason. He uses diagrams paired with the most common 1,000 words in the English language to explain complicated ideas.有些书,比如兰道尔·门罗(Randall Munroe)的《解释者》(Thing Explainer)就是完全为这个目的而写的。他使用图表,配上最普通的1000来个英文单词,去解释复杂的概念。Other books on my list offer insights into human beings, our values, our strengths and flaws.我的最佳名单里的其他书籍还提供了对人类自身、我们的价值观、我们的优点与弱点的观察。Is there one book that was an unexpected choice for you that you unexpectedly loved?问:有没有什么书对你来说是意外之选,你本来没想到自己会喜欢上它。One of the main reasons I started my blog was to share thoughts about what I’m ing. So it is nice to see people sharing their own reactions and recommendations in the comments section of the site.答:我开这个客的主要原因之一就是希望分享自己的阅读心得。所以看到别人在网站里分享他们的反馈和推荐是非常愉快的事情。One book that was especially fun to highlight was “Business Adventures,” by John Brooks. This is the first book Warren Buffett recommended to me after we met in 1991, and it is still the best business book I have ever . Brooks deserves to be much better known than he is.约翰·布鲁克斯(John Brooks)的《商业冒险》(Business Adventures)是一本特别有意思的书。我和沃伦·巴菲特是1991年认识的,这是他推荐给我的第一本书,到现在仍然是我读过的最好的商业书籍。布鲁克斯配得上比现在更响亮的名气。Although he wrote in the 1960s, the issues he talks about are still relevant today. “Business Adventures” went out of print decades ago and Brooks died in 1993, but his family was nice enough to let me post one chapter called “Xerox Xerox Xerox Xerox” on my blog.尽管他创作的时期是20世纪60年代,但他讨论的话题在今天仍然很重要。《商业冒险》几十年前就已经绝版了,布鲁克斯也于1993年去世,但他的家人很慷慨,允许我在自己的客上贴出了书中的一章,名为“复印,复印,复印,复印”。I don’t a lot of fiction but was surprised by how much I loved the novel “The Rosie Project,” by Graeme Simsion. Melinda it first and kept stopping to recite parts of it out loud to me. Eventually, I decided to take a look.我没有读过很多虚构文学,但是却喜欢上了格拉伊姆·西姆森(Graeme Simsion)的小说《罗西方案》(The Rosie Project),让我自己也很吃惊。这本书是梅林达先读的,她不断停下来给我读里面的章节。最后我也决定看一看。I started it one night at 11 p.m. and stayed up with it until 3 a.m. It is very funny, while also showing a lot of empathy for people who struggle in social situations.我是夜里11点开始读的,一直读到凌晨三点。它非常有意思,也对那些拼命应付社交场合的人表现出了许多共情心。After I sent it and the sequel (“The Rosie Effect”) to dozens of friends and wrote about it on my blog, I heard from a lot of people who were touched by it. There is talk of turning it into a movie, which I hope happens. Rosie and Don Tillman would make a great on-screen couple.后来我把这本书和它的续集《罗西效应》(The Rosie Effect)拿给几十个朋友读,还在客上写了书评,然后很多人都说他们读过之后受到了感动。听说有人想把它拍成电影,我很希望这能实现。罗西和堂·迪尔曼(Don Tillman)肯定能成为不错的银幕情侣。I like highlighting the work of Vaclav Smil. He has written more than 30 books, and I have them all. He takes on huge topics like energy or transportation and gives them a thorough examination.我还想强调一下瓦克拉夫·斯米尔(Vaclav Smil)的著作。他写的30多本书我全都读过。他讲述能源和交通之类重大题材,并且对之进行详尽的阐释。Smil’s books are not for casual ers and I don’t agree with him on everything, but I like to feature his work because the world would be a better place if more people thought as rigorously and systematically as he does.斯米尔的书不适合随手翻阅的读者,我也并不赞同他的所有观点,但是我想特别提一下他的作品,因为加入更多人都能像他这样进行缜密而有系统的思考,世界就能变得更好。 /201601/421321。

I#39;ve never received a telegram. This realization, when it occurred to me recently, made me feel inexplicably nostalgic.我从来没有收到过一封电报,一想到这儿,我心里就涌上一股说不清道不明的怀旧愁绪。There are, after all, plenty of technological rituals in which I#39;ve never participated. I haven#39;t taken a daguerreotype, or asked a switchboard operator to connect me to a phone number with letters in it, or fired up a Victrola for some sweet tunes on the ole phonograph.毕竟我错过了很多科技界的大事件,比如我没有感受过银版照相技术,也没有通过接线员给别人打过电话,更不曾随着手摇留声机里甜美的歌声心绪起伏。I grew up in an era when cassette tapes, fax machines, and long-distance telephone calls gave way to CDs, emails, and cellphones—only to be supplanted by MP3s, chat platforms, and smartphones. I still write letters. I will neither confirm nor deny having gone through a vinyl phase.我所在的是一个盒式录音带让位给CD,传真机让位给电邮,长途电话让位给大哥大的时代——然而好景不长,他们后来又被MP3,聊天平台以及智能手机取代了。我依然坚持手写书信,对于黑胶时代已经结束的说法也也不置可否。But telegrams! I could have sent one. And I didn#39;t seek them out until it was too late. Western Union closed its telegraphy service a decade ago. (“The last 10 telegrams included birthday wishes, condolences on the death of a loved one, notification of an emergency, and several people trying to be the last to send a telegram,” the Associated Press reported of the closure in 2006.) These days, it#39;s nearly impossible—it may actually be impossible—to send one in the ed States, even if you try.但说到电报!我本来能用上它的。只是直到一切都不来及的时候我才想到要发一封电报。西部联盟电报公司十年前关闭了所有电报务。(“最后传出去的十封电报包括生日祝福、对过世爱人的悼念、紧急情况的通告,还有几封电报是为了成为最后一个发送者而发出的”,美联社在2006年报道西部联盟电报公司关闭务的新闻里这样说道)。如今,在美国发一封电报几乎是一件不可能—或许我们可以说绝对不可能的事情,即使你很想这样做。I tried.我就这样试过。Sending a telegram in 2016 is not what it was in the 1850s, or even 1950s for that matter.2016年发电报与19世纪50年代发电报可不是一回事,甚至它与20世纪50年代也大相径庭。What it was, in the beginning, was astonishing. The telegraph meant that human communication could, for the first time ever, travel faster than humans could carry a message from one place to the next. A wire was faster than a pony or a boat. It was, for all practical purposes, instantaneous. “There is nothing now left for invention to achieve but to discover news before it takes place,” one New-York Herald reporter declared of the telegraph#39;s achievement in 1844.起初,电报是一件令人十分惊奇的事情。用电报发消息的速度比千里捎书快,电线传输比马不停蹄快。其实它就是一种即时通信。“眼下已经没有什么可发明的了,除非在新闻事件发生前我们就能预料到它”,1884年《纽约先驱报》这样电报业的成就。As in the grand history of technological curmudgeonry, not everyone was dazzled. The New York Times, in 1858, called the telegraph “trivial and paltry,” also “superficial, sudden, unsifted, too fast for the truth.” The writer and cultural critic Matthew Arnold referred to the transatlantic telegraph in 1903 as, “that great rope, with a Philistine at each end of it talking in-utilities!”纵观科技史,各种科技发明灿如繁星,并不是所有人都买电报的帐。1858年,纽约时报称电报为“微不足道的”,“肤浅的,突如其来的,未经筛选的,发展过快的”。1903年,身为作家以及文化家的马修#8226;阿诺德在谈到联通大西洋两岸的电报工程时这样说:“一条大绳子,一头站着个平庸之辈,说些没用的话”!By then, the telegraph was both well-established and taken for granted. The earliest electric telegraph systems involved numbered needles on a board that, when a transmission came in, pointed to corresponding letters of the alphabet. One such device, along Britain#39;s Great Western Railway, became the first commercial telegraph in the world in 1838.那时候,发电报已经成了家常便饭。最早的电报系统配备有键盘凿孔机,当有新的电报发来时,收方根据电码表就能确定信息的内容。1838年,这样的一个装备,随着英国西部大铁路漂洋过海,成了世界上最早的商用电报。The telegraph that set the standard in the ed States was an electric device that Samuel Morse was developing around the same time; a system that transmitted electric signals that were then interpreted and handwritten by a human receiver. By the 1850s, a system that automatically printed telegrams was introduced, but humans were still required to help send the message in the first place. In the 1930s, that part of the process became automated, too.同年,以萨缪尔#8226;莫尔斯发明的电报装置为起点,电报在美国开始了标准化;电报通信业建立起了一套电信号传送、收录员破译、手写记录的系统。虽然19世纪中期开始引进了自动印刷的电报机,但仍然离不开人工发送这一步,最终在20世纪30年代,这一环节也实现了自动化。Today, you go online if you want to send one, which, sure, is where you go for basically anything you want to do in 2016.今天,想发电报你就得上网,当然了,这可是2016年,不论想干什么你都离不开网络。First I tried iTelegram. It cost .95 and was supposed to take three to five business days to deliver a message to my editor, Ross, in The Atlantic#39;s newsroom in Washington, D.C. The company says on its website that it operates some of the old networks, like Western Union#39;s, that used to be major players in the telegram game. It plays up the novelty aspect, suggesting a telegram as a good keepsake on someone#39;s wedding day, for instance. It also leans on the nostalgia factor. “The smart way to send an important message since 1844.” Worldwide delivery guaranteed!首先,我尝试了iTelegram。这封花了我18.95美元的电报,需要三到五个工作日传到我的编辑罗丝的手中,而罗丝在位于华盛顿大西洋月刊的新闻编辑部中工作。iTelegram宣称在他们公司的务器上运营着一些过去的网络,比如西部电信联盟这样的业界老大。他们把电报包装成了新鲜玩意儿,比如可以在婚礼上把电报作为一种独特的纪念,也可以用来表达一种怀旧情怀。“1844年后,用电报发送重要消息成了一种巧妙的方法”。尽情享受你的全球交付保吧!Three weeks passed, and my telegram still had not arrived. My Slack messages (the modern equivalent of a telegram, I suppose) to Ross had gone from: “Keep your eyes peeled for a telegram!” to “Did you ever get my telegram?” to “still no sign of the telegram!?” to “telegrams, not that impressive, actually.”然而三周过去了,我的电报迟迟没有送到。我的整合集成消息(在我看来是电报的一种现代等效物)从“睁大你的眼睛看呀,这可是电报!”到“你收到我的电报了吗?”到“我的电报还没到!?”最好变成了“好吧,这东西也没什么大不了的”。“Telegram Stop relies on the services of Standard International Postal Networks for delivery,” the email I received . “For unforeseen reasons the delivery via the USPS has been delayed.”“Telegram Stop依赖于国际标准邮政网络进行投递。”我收到的电子邮件说。“美国邮政的投递工作由于一些未知的原因而延迟了。”Which is funny, really, because it turns out—and I should have appreciated this sooner, I know—I wasn#39;t sending a telegram at all. I was, apparently, sending a letter that looked like a telegram, first over the Internet and then by the postal service. Which, because I had aly received a digital preview of the telegram when I ordered it, I could have just emailed—or texted, or Facebook messaged, or, you know, published to the Internet in an article for The Atlantic.这还真是好笑,因为其实我根本就没有发出一封真正的电报——我知道,应该早点儿意识到这一点的。明显我只是先通过互联网然后通过邮局寄了一封看起来像电报的信而已。因为我在发送电报的时候就已经拿到了一个电子版的预览,我完全可以直接给电报的收件人发email或者短信,或者facebook私信,要么干脆给大西洋月刊投个稿,把想说的话写成文章直接发布在网上。Sorry you never received this telegram, Ross. (Adrienne LaFrance)罗丝,很抱歉你一直都没收到电报。(艾德丽安#8226;法朗仕)My message, naturally, features some old telegram humor. (The salutation is actually a telephone joke.) “What hath god wrought,” is what Morse transmitted over an experimental line from Washington to Baltimore in 1844, and what#39;s widely celebrated as the first telegraphic message in the U.S. These words were, according to numerous 19th-century accounts, suggested to Morse by Annie Ellsworth, the young daughter of the federal Patents commissioner. Annie got the idea from her mother. (The line originally comes from the Old Testament#39;s Book of Numbers.)我在信息的内容上耍了一些古老的电报小把戏。(其实是货真价实的电话玩笑)。1844年,一条莫尔斯电报通过华盛顿的实验线路传到了数英里外的巴尔的:“上帝创造了什么”,后来人们广泛认为这是美国历通信史上的第一条电报。根据19世纪相关资料,这句话是联邦专利局长官的小女儿安妮#8226;埃尔斯沃斯向莫尔斯提出的建议,而这个想法又是安妮从她妈妈那里得来的(原句出自《旧约圣经#8226;民数记》)。Here is, according to a Morse-code translation website, what the original message would have looked like in Morse code:根据尔斯电码译码网站,这条信息还原成莫尔斯电码以后长这样:.-- .... .- - / .... .- - .... / --. --- -.. / .-- .-. --- ..- --. .... -.-- .... .- - / .... .- - .... / --. --- -.. / .-- .-. --- ..- --. .... -And here#39;s the original paper transmission—with the the message transcribed by hand, though difficult to —kept by the Library of Congress:下面是原始的传送稿——上面的信息都是来自手写,很难辨认——现保留在美国国会图书馆。Here#39;s a close-up:给个特写:One curious footnote: There are scattered accounts that argue there were earlier telegraphic messages sent by Morse. A 1923 New York Times article es a man who says, citing an anonymous source, that the real first message was sent near Washington Square Park, over a wire from one New York University classroom to another, and that it said, “Attention: The universe. by republics and kingdoms right wheel.”插个好玩儿的题外话:一些零散的记录显示着有一封比这还早的莫尔斯电报。1923年纽约时报的一篇文章引用了一句来源未知的话,说真正的第一条电报消息是从华盛顿广场公园附近发出来的,这条消息通过电线从纽约大学的一间教室传给另一间,它说:“全世界注意——来自共和国国王的右翼”。Most of this, I must admit, seems foreign to me. (And not just because I have no idea what that alleged missive refers to, other than the fact that it appears in an 1823 edition of the Niles Register, a popular 19th-century news magazine, as part of an equally perplexing manuscript.) I#39;m realizing that the more I think about telegrams, the more I learn of them, the stranger they are to me.我不得不承认,那些东西对我来说太陌生。这不仅因为我搞不懂那些所谓的第一条电报到底说了些什么,还因为我不理解他们为什么会以同样令人费解的面貌出现在1823年的Niles Register(一本风靡19世纪的新闻杂志)杂志上。但我知道我越是想了解更多,越是探究更多,电报这种东西对我来说就越陌生。I don#39;t know what a telegram sounded like when it arrived, or what the paper felt like in someone#39;s hands. My mind reels to imagine what it was like for journalists who filed their stories by telegraph. I can#39;t Morse code without the help of an online translator. These are details you can about, but never truly know without having experienced them—the way I can still hear the shriek of a dial-up modem in my mind when I stop to think about it, or the singsong of Nokia#39;s classic ringtone.我不知道电报到了是什么声音,也想不出来把它拿在手里是个什么感觉。我满脑子想的都是记者们用它存档稿子时的样子。没有在线翻译我和这些电码完全不来电。这些东西你能从这里读到,但没有经历过的人不会真的懂——即使不去想它,拨号调制调节器滴滴的声音也会在我的脑子里单曲循环,这还没完,有时诺基亚的那只经典的手机铃声也会插播进来(译者注:诺基亚的这个铃声就是莫尔斯电码中MSM,即短信务的代号)。All of which is another way of saying: It doesn#39;t really matter whether I sent zero or one telegrams in my life. The tools that characterize a person#39;s time and place in technological history are the ones that a person actually uses, the technologies relied upon so heavily that they can feel like an extension of oneself. This is part of how technology can define a culture, and why sometimes you forget the thing you#39;re using is technology at all. Until, eventually, inevitably, the technology is all but forgotten.这话还可以换个说法:其实我从小到大有没有发过电报并不重要,因为那些代表了某个时代特征,在浩瀚的科技史上占有一席之地的发明创造,一定是人们切切实实用过的。人们离不开它们,把它们看成自己身体延伸出去的一部分。科技是如何定义文化的,一部分就体现在这里,而你身处其中,有时竟会忘记你一天到晚用着的东西就是科技本身。科技终将被我们遗忘,可在那之前,它无处不在。 /201603/433297。