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;The truth shall set you free...especially when you#39;re talking to your boss!;事实真相将让你获得自由,特别是当你和你老板交谈的时候。 /201506/379824

7.Advertisers Design Anthropomorphic Products7.拟人产品:拉近距离One of the most fascinating ways that advertisers get you to buy things is through anthropomorphism. The meaning of the word is simple: it means to give human qualities to an inanimate object. And the way this concept influences product design is that people are more likely to buy something if some sort of personal connection can be made to the object. Giving a product human qualities helps a consumer form a better bond with something they#39;re about to buy whether it#39;s a can of soda or a bed sheet. An article on Wired explains this concept as described by a pair of social psychologists named Rick Baaren and Matthijs van Leeuwen.拟人化是广告商诱使你买东西的极好办法。这个词的意思很简单,就是赋予静物以人类的特性。这一概念之所以能够影响产品设计,是因为一旦消费者与某种商品建立了个人联系,那他购买的可能性就会大大增加。不管是一罐汽水还是一个床单,商品拟人化都能使其与消费者更好地联系起来。在《连线》(Wired)杂志的一篇文章中,社会心理学家瑞克#8226;拜仁(Rick Baaren)和马泰斯#8226;万#8226;莱文(Matthijs van Leeuwen)就很好地诠释了拟人化这一概念。The psychologists explain that many of the choices that people make are based upon unconscious feelings rather than rational motivations. Because of this tendency to act on subconscious signals, humans are quite vulnerable to being fed subliminal messages in advertising. Apparently, humans are introduced to anthropomorphic advertising at a very young age when things like blankets and childhood accessories are turned into cartoon characters. Then as adults, consumers act the same way they did as children by forming an emotional response to something that#39;s clearly inanimate like a household cleaning product or a vehicle.心理学家表示,人们所做的很多选择都是基于潜意识而非理性动机,因此,广告所蕴含的潜在信息很容易吸引受众。其实,人们在很小的时候就开始接触拟人化广告,比如做成卡通人形的毯子和儿童装饰。成年以后,消费者仍会像小时候一样,与诸如家居清洁产品或小车之类的静物有着一定的情感交流。It seems fantastic that someone could bond with an inanimate object, but just consider how children love their toys, particularly when they#39;re an action figure or a doll. Then, when someone tries to take that toy away, they have a significant emotional response to that loss. As adults, we form those same bonds with inanimate objects as if a bottle of detergent was a good friend or a barbecue was an old buddy from college.人与静物交流,听起来有点不可思议,但是只要想想小孩子对玩具,尤其对人形玩偶或者洋娃娃爱不释手就明白了。一旦有人把玩具拿走,他们的情绪反应会非常强烈。我们作为成年人,也会对一些静物产生类似的情绪,仿佛清洁剂是我们的挚友,而烤肉则是我们大学时代的老伙伴。6.Stores Offer “Handy” Baskets That Actually Lead You To Buy More6.购物小篮:购物没完Advice columns are full of ways that you can spend less at the grocery store, and one of the most popular pieces of advice is to use a small, hand-held basket instead of a cart to do your shopping. The wisdom goes that you#39;ll buy fewer products because you#39;ll have less room to carry them in your basket. Well, apparently this advice is terrible because a new study reveals that the exact opposite of what you expect happens when you choose to use a small basket at the grocery store. Time Magazine shared the results of this European study that showed that shoppers make some rather bad decisions when they use a small basket.建议专栏里都是教你在杂货店少花钱的方法,其中最普遍的建议就是在购物时使用小手提篮而不是手推车。这个“好方法”的原理在于,篮子的空间更小,放不下太多商品,这样你就会买得更少。然而,这似乎是个馊主意,因为最新的研究显示,当你在杂货商店选择使用小购物篮时,完全会事与愿违。《时代周刊》刊登了这项欧洲研究的成果,研究表明,购物者在使用小购物篮时会做出一些相当糟糕的决定。The oddest part of the study is why we behave as we do when using a small basket. Apparently, the weight and inconvenience of carrying a basket influences us to make hasty decisions when buying products rather than carefully considering each purchase. Shoppers are more likely to buy products like candy and soda when they#39;re holding a heavy basket than they are when pushing a cart that doesn#39;t put any real strain on the person#39;s muscles. To come to this conclusion, the researchers actually conducted a number of studies. The first was to simply observe people who were shopping with carts and baskets and the sorts of products they were buying.这项研究最令人不可思议的就是,为什么我们在使用小购物篮时会买得更多。显然,提着一个篮子又重又不方便,导致我们在购物时不经过慎重思考,便匆忙做决定。相比推着购物车,提着一个沉甸甸的篮子,购物者购买糖果和汽水之类商品的可能性会更大一些,因为购物车可不会让人的肌肉紧张。这是研究人员进行多项调查后所得出的结论。其中第一项便是观察用购物车和购物篮进行购物的人,以及他们选购的商品种类。Another interesting study was conducted by giving shoppers a list that had choices of healthy items like fruit, as well as candy items, and the people holding small baskets were more likely to choose the candy over the healthy items than the people shopping with carts. So, when a grocery store provides you with a convenient basket, you might just end up buying more than you expect.另一项有趣的调查是向购物者提供一张清单,上面列有水果等健康产品,也有糖果商品,与用购物车的人相比,提着小购物篮的人更愿意选择糖果而不是健康产品。因此,当一个杂货商店为你提供了一个方便的购物篮时,你最终买到的东西可能会比预想的更多。5.Holding an Item May Influence You To Buy It5.手握商品:购买原因Beautiful and colorful displays in advertising are common, but customers are often warned that they shouldn#39;t touch the merchandise for fear of having to buy it if something is accidentally broken. Interestingly, touching an item could actually have a positive effect on the likelihood that someone might make a purchase. According to research conducted by scientists at Ohio State University and Illinois State University, holding an item for just a few minutes could make someone more likely to buy something.广告宣传中常见华丽多的陈列品,但消费者往往会被警告不许触碰商品,唯恐一不小心碰坏了自己就得买下来。有趣的是,触摸商品事实上可能会对人们的购买意愿产生积极影响。俄亥俄州立大学与伊利诺伊州立大学的学者进行了一项研究,结果表明,把商品拿在手里几分钟可能会让人更想购买。An article published at Ohio State University revealed that people who held an item for just a few seconds could form an emotional attachment to it. This attachment formed even if the object was something banal like a coffee cup. Apparently, a feeling of actual ownership of an item can occur after holding it for about 30 seconds. The results of this study show how essential retail stores are to companies who haven#39;t yet given up their “brick and mortar” stores for a fully online existence despite the incredible popularity and growth of internet shopping.在俄亥俄州立大学发表的一篇论文中称,人们把产品拿在手里几秒钟,就会对它产生一种情感依恋。即使是对一些平常的物件,比如咖啡杯,也会形成这种依恋。显然,把一件商品拿在手里30秒钟,可能会产生一种实际拥有它的感觉。这项研究的结果表明,尽管网上购物急速普及和发展,但对于那些没有放弃“实体”店铺专营网店的公司来说,零售商店是多么重要。In the realm of marketing, this concept is called “multisensory design,” and it#39;s part of a style of marketing known as tactile marketing. This idea is influenced by a variety of scientific specialties including cognitive neuroscience and psychology, which help marketers create unique advertising campaigns that may not only influence the design of a product, but even the design of its packaging. When creating an advertising campaign that features tactile marketing, touch is often combined with sight and sound to utilize multisensory design. A product that looks good, sounds good, and feels good offers an unbeatable advantage for a business looking to convince a buyer to make a purchase.在营销领域,这一理念被称为“多感官设计”,是触觉营销的一部分。这个概念受多个学科的影响,包括认知神经学和心理学,它不仅会影响产品设计,甚至还会影响其包装设计,可以帮助营销者打造独一无二的广告活动。在设计以触觉营销为特点的广告活动时,为了利用多感官设计,通常会将触觉与视觉、听觉结合。一件产品悦目、悦耳又悦心,那么商家就有了一项无可比拟的优势,能够说顾客掏腰包。4.Advertisers Use Special Packaging to Make You Buy More4.特殊包装:销量之光Participants were offered a variety of drink s with varyingly sized drinks on them ranging from 12 ounces to 32 ounces. When a with bundles of small drinks was offered, participants ordered more ounces in total than they did when presented with the single, larger sizes. The researchers conducting the study concluded that reducing the size of sodas or other unhealthy items for the purposes of reducing overall soda consumption could have the opposite effect and encourage people to buy more ounces in the long run.有项研究,在参与者面前有份饮料清单,饮料的大小在12盎司到32盎司不等。面对含有成捆小份饮料的清单,参与者订购的饮料总量比单独大份的饮料更多。研究者总结,为了减少汽水的消耗总量而减少汽水或其他不健康饮料的尺寸大小,结果会适得其反。因为从长远来看,减少饮料尺寸大小的做法会促使人们购买饮料总量上升。Soda manufacturers are aly using this technique to boost sales. Soda and alcohol manufacturers like Coca-Cola and Heineken are offering small versions of their regular drinks. A recent statement made by Heineken revealed a dramatic increase in sales of their small cans. In fact, sales were so good that the growth of that size was outperforming growth in all other areas. Despite efforts in some cities, like New York City, to ban the sale of drinks over a certain size, companies can simply use the tactic of bundling smaller sizes while also enjoying a boost to overall sales.汽水制造商已经使用这种方法来促进销售量了。汽水制造商和酒精制造商,如可口可乐公司和喜力公司都提供了一种比常规包装要小的饮料酒水。喜力公司最新报告显示,小瓶饮料使销售额急剧增加。事实上,这种小瓶饮料的销售额的增长,远远超出其他销售领域的增长。尽管在像纽约这样的一些城市,已尝试禁止销售超过一定规模的饮料。但是一些公司只要实行简单的捆绑消费,就可以享受整体销售的提高。审校:假微信 校对:落花生 Freya然 /201507/385018

LONDON — Kensuke Shichida, the head of a centuries-old sake brewery in southern Japan, had spent a dizzying week in London restaurants tasting a variety of exotic and confounding dishes: pub food, gourmet burgers, French food, Angus beef, ceviche.伦敦——日本南部一家有一百多年历史的清酒厂的老板七田谦介(Kensuke Shichida),在伦敦的餐馆里度过了头晕目眩的一周。他品尝了各种充满异国风情又令人费解的菜式:酒吧餐、厨师汉堡、法式大餐、安格斯牛肉,还有柠汁腌鱼生。The experience left him slightly bewildered and slightly ill, he said, suffering from a food hangover.这场体验让他有点困惑,还有点不适,七田谦介说,就好像经历了一次由食物引发的宿醉。But Mr. Shichida, 43, is on a mission, he said, to bring his family-brewed sake to European restaurants and pair it with Western cuisine, which means charting new territory. It is an exercise of necessity. Japan is proud of its sake heritage, but sales have been falling for decades, and Mr. Shichida and a number of other brewers are trying to help reverse its decline before it is too late.现年43岁的七田谦介说,他现在有一个目标,就是要把自己家族酿制的清酒推广到欧洲的餐馆,让它与西餐搭配,开辟新的市场。七田谦介这么做实属无奈。清酒一直是日本人引以为傲的传统饮品,但它的销量几十年来却在不断下滑。趁现在还不算太晚,七田谦介和另外几位酿酒商都在设法扭转颓势。“I’d be lying if I said pairing sake with burgers didn’t hurt my pride as a Japanese,” he admitted at a recent dinner, hesitantly poking a piece of lamb kidney and sweetbs — a first for him — with his fork. “But we need to be exploring this path to survive as a brewer.”“如果我说,清酒配汉堡不会伤害我作为日本人的自豪感,那是在撒谎,”七田谦介最近在一次晚餐时承认道。他一边说着,一边用叉子迟疑地戳向一片羊腰和一堆羊杂。那是他第一次吃羊杂。“但作为酿酒商要存活下来,我们必须尝试这条路。”“Sake is surprisingly versatile,” he added. “I’ve discovered it goes well with many Western recipes, perhaps even better than wine or beer.”“清酒的搭配范围之广令人称奇,”他接着说。“我发现它与很多西方菜式都可以很好地搭配,甚至可能比葡萄酒和啤酒还好。”Fresh oysters, for example, usually go pair well with Champagne or Chablis, which have a crisp acidity. But Mr. Shichida, who runs the 140-year-old Tenzan brewery, says sake works better. The drink is mellower and less acidic, and its cleansing properties help remove the oysters’ briny taste, he said. And sake’s umami — a savory sensation considered to be the “fifth taste” — helps improve their fleshiness.例如,法国生蚝一般都以口感酸爽的香槟或夏布利酒搭配。但七田谦介却说,清酒配生蚝效果更佳。他经营的天山酒造(Tenzan brewery)已有140年历史。他说,这是因为清酒更香醇、没那么酸,由于能去除邪味,它还可以消除生蚝的腥气。此外,清酒的鲜味(umami)——经常被称为“第五种味道”——则提升了食物的质感。At a recent dinner at Hixter, a restaurant here, the head chef, Ronnie Murray, paired a plate of Launceston lamb and meaty girolle mushrooms with Mr. Shichida’s 75 Junmai, a full-bodied sake that uses unpolished rice, a rarity even in Japan. The Japanese generally prize sake that contains highly polished rice, which produces a flowery and smooth taste. By contrast, Mr. Shichida’s sake had a round, woody flavor with a tempered acidity that complemented the earthy lamb.最近在伦敦Hixter餐厅享用晚餐时,主厨朗尼·莫瑞(Ronnie Murray)以一盘朗塞斯顿羔羊肉和有肉质口感的鸡油菌,来搭配七田谦介的“纯米75”。这种清酒用糙米酿造,口味浓烈,即使在日本也很稀有。日本人一般喜欢用精米酿造的清酒,因为精米能带来一种优雅和柔滑的味道。相比之下,七田谦介的清酒则饱满直接,酸味受到了抑制,与味道浓厚的羊肉相得益彰。“Wine tends to be more acidic and cuts through the taste of meat,” said Gareth Groves, the head of marketing at Bibendum Wine, a retailer that recently announced that it was stocking sake from Japan. “Sake is less about cutting through the food than sitting alongside it.”“葡萄酒往往口感更酸,会盖过肉的味道,”必比登葡萄酒(Bibendum Wine)市场营销负责人加雷思·格罗夫斯(Gareth Groves)说。这家零售商最近宣布,从日本进口了大量清酒。“清酒不太会盖住食物的味道,能够互不影响。”Most Westerners generally view sake as a clear-colored liquor to be savored with sushi and sashimi, with an alcohol content of 15 to 20 percent. It is thought to have originated in the seventh century and is considered the drink of the gods in the Shinto religion.多数西方人只是知道,清酒颜色澄清,要搭配寿司或刺身,酒精度在15%到20%之间。清酒据信起源于7世纪,而在日本的神道教里,清酒则被视作神祗的饮品。There are 80 types of rice specially designed to produce sake, which is made from fermented rice, water and koji — white rice imbued with a special kind of mold. While wine is typically served only in glasses, sake can be poured into a variety of cups that alter its fragrance, including earthenware, lacquerware, glass, porcelain and box-shaped ones made from Japanese cedar.专门用来酿造清酒的大米有80种。清酒是由酒酿、水和酒曲酿成的。酒曲是加入了某种特殊霉菌的大米。葡萄酒一般只用玻璃杯盛,而清酒却可以倒入不同的杯皿,酒香也会因为容器的不同而略有差异。可以盛放清酒的容器包括陶器、漆器、玻璃、瓷器,还有用日本柳杉制做的盒型容器。Sake ranges from sparkling, somewhat similar to Champagne, to namazake, which tastes best straight from the vat, unpasteurized. Meaning “raw sake,” namazake offers a taste of the ethereal, as it can sour within hours. Some other sake uses yuzu, a Japanese citrus, making the drink a tangy cousin of the Italian limoncello, while umeshu is kind of a plummy version of the Hungarian dessert wine Tokaj.清酒种类繁多,从有些类似香槟的发泡酒,到未经杀菌处理的生酒。生酒直接从酒桶汲出时味道最佳,口感妙不可言,但几个小时就会变质。还有一些清酒是用日本柚酿制的,这种柑橘属水果又称香橙,味道就像是意大利柠檬酒(limoncello)的浓郁版。而梅酒则仿佛是梅子味的匈牙利甜酒托卡伊(Tokaj)。Some lesser-known koshu, or aged sake, sells for more than 0 a bottle for a 40-year-old vintage. Shigeri Shiraki, whose family brewery in the mountainous region of Gifu was founded in 1835, is exploring how to make her 20-year-old aged sake, Daruma Masamune, palatable to Westerners. It is brewed manually by a handful of employees, and only in the winter, a practice among koshu brewers that dates to the 17th century. Mrs. Shiraki said her brewery does not use refrigerators.还有一些不那么出名的古酒,即陈年清酒。一瓶40年的古酒售价在300美元以上。白木繁里(Shigeri Shiraki,音)是岐阜市山区一座家族清酒厂的老板。这家酒厂创立于1835年。她正在探索如何让自己酿造了20年的清酒——达正宗(Daruma Masamune)——适合西方人的口味。这种古酒是由几名工人手工酿制的,而且只在冬天酿造,延续了17世纪酿造古酒时普遍采用的方法。白木说她的清酒厂不用冷库。On its own, her sake has a salty undertone reminiscent of soy sauce or Marmite, and it shares notes with port, sherry or the smoky-flavored Islay Scotch whisky. Mrs. Shiraki suggested pairing it with a particularly rich dessert, pouring it over a slice of pecan pie and vanilla ice cream, or trying it as a digestive.白木繁里的清酒带有一种咸味,能让人联想起酱油或马麦酱,还有一丝波尔图葡萄酒、雪利酒,或者烟熏味艾拉岛威士忌(Islay Scotch)的口感。白木繁里建议搭配味道浓郁的甜品,在享用山核桃派和香草冰淇淋时倒上一杯,或者把它当成一种餐后酒。Some chefs and food lovers describe the experiment with sake as a shot in the dark, but for brewers, the challenge is more urgent.一些大厨和美食爱好者称,用清酒所做的这种尝试结果还很难说,但对于酿酒商来说,面前的挑战越来越迫在眉睫。Sake consumption has fallen sharply in Japan since the 1970s because of a decreasing birthrate and a switch by many drinkers to wine, much of it imported, or other domestic drinks like beer, whiskey or shochu, a Japanese spirit. Japan exported 5,000 tons of sake in 2012, but mostly to Japanese restaurants, limiting its audience. Overseas sales are still a small fraction of total sales.自1970年代以来,清酒在日本的消耗量就大幅下降,一个原因是出生率的不断下滑,此外许多饮酒者转而饮用葡萄酒——很大一部分是进口的——或者国内生产的其他酒类,如啤酒、威士忌或烈性的烧酒。2012年,日本出口了5000吨清酒,但主要都流入了日式餐厅,这就限制了清酒的受众。海外销售仍然只占总销量的很小部分。The number of brewers — mostly old-fashioned and family-owned — has shrunk to around 1,000 from around 4,600 in the earlier part of the 20th century.清酒厂的数量已经由上世纪上半叶的约4600家,减少至目前的1000家左右。大部分清酒厂都是传统的家族式酒厂。“The sake industry won’t survive on its local market,” said Barry McCaughley, a food and beverage consultant based in London. “Unless it makes changes now, it will be dead in 20 to 30 years.”“清酒行业单靠本地市场根本无法生存,”伦敦的餐饮行业咨询师巴里·麦可利(Barry McCaughley)说。“除非现在就做出改变,否则二三十年后清酒业就会消亡。”Restaurants and retailers are starting to push sake as the next drink fad, similar to craft beer, whose popularity has exploded in Britain. A Scottish brewer, Arran, plans to start producing Britain’s first sake on a commercial scale later this year, the second European brewer to do so after Nogne O of Norway. Many bars are aly using sake in their cocktails.餐厅和零售商正开始把清酒包装成新的时尚饮品,就像在英国人气爆棚的手工酿制啤酒一样。苏格兰的酒厂Arran计划今年晚些时候,商业化生产英国的第一款国产清酒。它是继挪威的纳酷欧(Nogne O)之后,第二家采取这种做法的欧洲酒厂。许多酒吧已经开始使用清酒调制鸡尾酒。For all the gambling on foreign sales, brewers say they have one ultimate aim: bringing sake back in Japan as well.除了进军海外市场的,酿酒商说,他们还有一个终极目标:让清酒在日本重新流行起来。“If we’re able to tell the Japanese, ‘Look how much foreigners are enjoying sake,’ that would give them an opportunity to rediscover sake and revive demand,” Mr. Shichida said. “We don’t want our culture to disappear. We really don’t.”“如果我们能够告诉日本人,‘看,外国人多喜爱清酒啊,’就会让他们重新发现清酒的魅力,进而提振需求,”七田谦介说。“我们不想让自己的文化消失。真的不想。” /201411/345176

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