原标题: 涟水县看男科怎么样百家共享
The economics of behavior行为经济学Time and punishment时间与处罚Impatient children are more likely to become lawbreakers心急的孩子更容易成为不法分子IN HIS “Odyssey”, Homer immortalized the idea of resisting temptation by having the protagonist tied to the mast of his ship, to hear yet not succumb to the beautiful, dangerous songs of the Sirens. Researchers have long been intrigued as to whether this ability to avoid, or defer, gratification is related to outcomes in life. The best-known test is the “marshmallow” experiment, in which children who could refrain from eating the confection for 15 minutes were given a second one. Children who could not wait tended to have lower incomes and poorer health as adults. New research suggests that kids who are unable to delay rewards are also more likely to become criminals later.荷马笔下的《奥德赛》里,那抵制诱惑的故事经久不衰。主角将自己绑在船的桅杆上,听得到塞壬美妙却又危险的歌声,但不屈从于诱惑。长期以来,研究人员一直好奇人们是否有能力抵制或推迟与生活相关的满足感。在最知名的“棉花糖”实验里,15分钟内能忍住不吃糖的孩子就可以吃到两块棉花糖。无法等待的孩子成年后往往收入较低,健康状况较差。新的研究表明,不能耽搁而必须立即享受奖赏的孩子们之后也更可能成为罪犯。David Akerlund, Hans Gronqvist and Lena Lindahl of Stockholm University and Bart Golsteyn of Maastricht University used data from a Swedish survey in which more than 13,000 children aged 13 were asked whether they would prefer to receive 0 now or ,400 in five yearstime. About four-fifths of them said they were prepared to wait.斯德哥尔大学的大卫·阿克隆德,汉斯·格伦维斯特,莉娜·林达尔,以及马斯特里赫特大学的巴特·哥斯蒂恩使用了一项取自瑞典的调查数据,调查中,超过13,000名13岁的孩子被问及是希望现在获得140美元还是五年后获得1,400美元,约五分之四的孩子说他们愿意等待。Unlike previous researchers, the authors were able to track all the children and account for their parental background and cognitive ability. They found that the 13-year-olds who wanted the smaller sum of money at once were 32% more likely to be convicted of a crime during the next 18 years than those children who said they would rather wait for the bigger reward. Individuals who are impatient, they believe, prefer instant benefits and are therefore less likely to be deterred by potential punishments.不同于以往的研究者,此次调查中,研究人员追踪所有的孩子,并对其父母的背景和认知能力进行评估。他们发现,比起那些宁愿等待更大奖赏的13岁孩子,想要一次性取得较小金额的孩子有32%的可能在今后18年内犯下罪行。因此,研究人员相信,缺乏耐心的个体喜欢即时的好处,而且不太可能因潜在的惩罚而却步。But those who fret that a person’s criminal path is set aly as a teenager should not despair. The four researchers offer a remedy. When the respondentseducation was included in the analysis, they found that higher educational attainment was linked to a preference for delayed gratification. “We therefore suspect that schooling can deter people from crime by making them value the future more,” explains Mr Gronqvist.但是,那些为一个人的犯罪轨迹在十几岁时就已定型发愁的人也不用绝望。四位研究人员提供了一项补救措施。当受访者的教育程度被纳入分析时,研究人员发现,较高的教育程度与推迟满足感的偏好是有联系的。“因此,我们猜想,学校教育可以使他们更多的看重未来,从而压下犯罪的念头,”格伦维斯特先生解释道。Educational attainment and patience are related either because patience helps students to do better or because schooling makes people more likely to postpone rewards. Fortunately, there is evidence in support of the latter theory. Francisco Perez-Arce of the RAND Corporation, a think-tank, interviewed around 2,000 applicants for Mexican universities. The students had similar credentials but some obtained admission through a lottery to a university that did not charge tuition fees, whereas the rest had to apply elsewhere. As a result, a higher proportion of lottery-winners than losers went to college. After a year, Mr Perez-Arce found, the lottery-winners were more patient than the losers. Since the process was random, he concluded that higher education can make people place more weight on the future.教育程度和耐心的相关性可能是因为耐心能帮助学生们做的更好,或者是因为教育增加了人们推迟奖赏的可能性。幸运的是,后一种理论有着论据撑。咨询研究机构兰德的弗朗西斯科·佩雷斯-阿尔塞采访了大约2,000位墨西哥大学的申请者。学生们手中有相似的凭据,但一些人能凭借抽奖被大学录取且不收学费,其他人则需另谋他处。结果,抽奖赢家们上大学的比例高于未被抽中者。一年后,佩雷斯-阿尔塞发现,抽奖中的赢家比输家更有耐心。由于这个过程是随机的,他得出结论称高等教育可以使人们更多的关注于未来。Victor Hugo supposedly said, “He who opens a school door closes a prison.” Homer is not the only great writer with lessons for economic research.维克多·雨果曾说,“谁若是开办了一所学校,他便是关闭了一座监狱。”看起来,写下与经济研究相关的经验教训的伟大作家可不止荷马一人。 /201407/311503Women and work女性和工作Girl talk女人之间的事Working women today have it better than ever before. But few agree on how to help them rise further—or whether they still need help at all今天,职场女性的地位比过去已经有了显著进步。但关于怎样帮助她们进一步攀登职业生涯的更高峰,或者她们到底还需不需要帮助,仍然存在着很大的意见分歧。Work With Me: The 8 Blind Spots Between Men and Women in Business.和我一起工作:男性和女性在职场中的八大盲点By Barbara Annis and John Gray. Palgrave Macmillan; 272 pages; .作者:芭芭拉·安妮丝,约翰·格雷。麦克米伦出版社;272页;27美元。To be published in Britain by Piatkus next month; 13.99.下月将由Piatkus出版社在英国出版;13.99英镑。Buy from Amazon.comAmazon.com有售A Rising Tide: Financing Strategies for Women-Owned Firms.新潮:女性主导公司的金融策略By Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb.作者:苏珊·科尔曼,艾丽西亚·罗布。Stanford University Press; 288 pages; and 77.50.斯坦福大学出版社;288页;85美元/77.5英镑。Buy fromAmazon.com, Amazon.co.ukAmazon.com, Amazon.co.uk有售The XX factor: How Working Women are Creating a New Society.XX因子:职场女性如何创造新社会By Alison Wolf. Profile; 464 pages; 15.99. Buy fromAmazon.co.uk作者:艾莉森·伍尔芙。Profile出版社;464页;15.99英镑。Amazon.co.uk有售PEOPLE have been holding heated discussions recently about women’s experience in the workplace.最近,关于女性职场角色的讨论尤为火热。The catalyst? A single Silicon Valley executive.点燃这场讨论的是一位硅谷的女主管。Last month Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer at Facebook, published “Lean In”, a controversial manifesto on why women have not ascended to the most senior positions at companies.上月,Facebook的首席营运官雪莉·桑德伯格发表了颇受争议的新书《跻身:女性、工作与领导意愿》,讲述女性难以在公司担任高层职位的原因。She concludes that it is partly women’s own fault: they do not “lean in” and ask for promotions, pipe up at meetings and insist on taking a seat at the table.在书中,桑德伯格女士总结说,这一部分是女性自身的问题:她们不愿“跻身”,不主动要求升职,不积极在公司会议上发言,甚至在开会时都不愿上桌。Three new books will not have the same impact as “Lean In”, but they offer some interesting new perspectives on how women are coping at work, and what is holding them back.本文要介绍的三本新书虽然无法在影响上与《跻身》相媲美,但也为我们了解女性如何适应职场、是什么阻碍了她们晋升提供了一些有趣的新视角。Some of it is down to simple miscommunication.有时这仅仅是因为简单的沟通障碍。Barbara Annis and John Gray argue in “Work With Me” that men and women are biologically wired to think and react differently to situations, and have “gender blind spots” when it comes to understanding their co-workers’ behaviour.芭芭拉·安妮丝和约翰·格雷在《和我一起工作》一书中说,男人和女人因为生理结构的差异而注定对同一情况有不同的看法和反应,并且在理解异性同事的行为时,会存在“性别盲点”。Ms Annis, who leads workshops on gender for big companies and governments, and Mr Gray, author of “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, a bestselling book in 1992 about relationship problems, have collaborated to produce an easy-to- guide to workplace communications.安妮丝女士平时经常为大公司和政府机构主持关于性别问题的研习班,格雷先生则是《男人来自火星,女人来自金星》一书的作者,这本书出版于1992年,是一本讲述恋爱关系中存在的问题的畅销书。这样的两个人合作出一本关于职场沟通的简明指南,可谓是珠联璧合。Women ask more questions, gather more people’s opinions and seek collaboration with co-workers more frequently than men.和男性相比,女性通常更喜欢提问题,更多地寻求他人的意见,并且也更愿意与同事合作。Men view these preferences as signs of weakness, and women, in turn, grow annoyed by how competitively men work, and how quickly and unilaterally they arrive at conclusions.这些特点在男性看来是软弱的标志,而女性同样也很讨厌男人工作时的好胜心,以及他们不征求别人意见、迅速作出自己单方面结论的作风。If both female and male employees became more “gender intelligent” about how their work and behavioural preferences are hard-wired, it would contribute to a more harmonious workforce.如果男女职员都能够更加明智地认识到性别对他们的工作和行为习惯的固定影响,或许工作团队中的关系会更加和谐。Women have been choosing to leave companies at twice the rate of men, and more than half the women whom the authors met in workshops were considering leaving their firms.女职员主动辞职的比率是男职员的两倍,本书作者在研习班里接触的女职员中也有一半以上都在考虑离开现在的公司。Women often tell their bosses that they are quitting for personal reasons, but the majority actually leave because they feel excluded from teams and not valued for their contributions.她们通常会对老板说,自己辞职是出于私人原因,但实际上,大部分人真正的理由是她们在团队中没有参与感,而且感到自己的贡献没有得到重视。Yet the reality is that women often have trouble communicating with other women at work as well, though the authors do not explain in quite as much detail why this is so.其实还有另外一个现实的原因,女职员经常在工作中与其他女性也存在沟通问题,尽管这一点在本书中并没有详细阐述。Communication and gender equality are not just problems at large firms.沟通和性别平等不是只有大公司才存在的问题。In “A Rising Tide” Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb look beyond women’s experience at big companies.在《新潮》一书中,作者苏珊·科尔曼和艾丽西亚·罗布关注的就是女性在大公司之外的经历。They focus instead on women entrepreneurs, who have the potential to become leaders in their field, earn a high income and hire more women.她们的兴趣点在女企业家身上,这些女性拥有成为本行业领袖的潜力,收入高,并且倾向于雇佣更多的女性为自己工作。In a positive shift, women have been starting more firms in the past decade.过去的十年见了一个积极的转变—女性正在创办越来越多的公司。However, these tend to be in the service and retail industries.然而,这些公司大多从事的是务业和零售业一类的传统产业。They also remain smaller than men’s firms.而且通常在规模上也比不上男性主导的公司。Ms Coleman and Ms Robb point out that part of this may be by design; women sometimes want to keep their businesses small in order to balance their family responsibilities.科尔曼女士和罗布女士指出,这种情况一部分可能是有意为之;女老板们有时就是想要保持公司较小的规模,以便兼顾自己的家庭责任。However, women also often lack the financing that male entrepreneurs enjoy.除此之外,女老板们也经常缺少男老板们所拥有的那样充足的资金。They have fewer savings, so usually launch their businesses with less capital than men, and are less likely to apply for a loan for fear of being denied.她们的存款较少,所以经常在创办公司时,启动资金就比不上男企业家。And they have not had as much access to the masculine world of Silicon Valley: in 2000 they obtained only 5% of funding from venture capitalists, a notoriously male-dominated industry.而且,因为害怕被拒绝,她们也不太愿意去申请贷款。因此,在硅谷这个男权世界中,女性的跻身空间很小。2000年,她们仅从风险投资家手中获得了5%的资金。During their first year of operation men raised 27 times more equity from outsiders for their start-ups than women.众所周知,风险投资也是一个男性主导的行业。新公司运营第一年里,男老板们从公司外部募得的投资是女老板们的27倍。How has the success of high-achievers differentiated them from other women?那么,成功的女性精英们与其他女性有什么不同呢?In “The XX Factor”, Alison Wolf, the director of public policy and management at Kings College London, argues that there are now around 70m highly educated, high-earning women around the world.伦敦大学国王学院公共政策与管理系负责人艾莉森·伍尔芙在《XX因子》一书中说,目前全世界大约有七千万接受过高等教育、拿高收入的女性。They have more in common with elite men than with other women.与其他女性相比,她们与男性精英拥有更多相同之处。These grandes dames tend to marry more often and have fewer children than less-educated women.这些“女强人”通常会比教育程度不高的女性结更多次婚,生更少的孩子。They spend more time working, and, unexpectedly, more time parenting.她们花在工作上的时间更多,但令人意外的是,她们花在养育儿女上的时间也更多。Ms Sandberg also makes this point.桑德伯格女士也表达过同样的观点。As the demands on women in the workplace have increased, so too have the standards for being a good, involved mother—which adds to the challenges for women at the top.随着职场对女性的要求越来越高,要做一个合格的、全身心投入的母亲也越来越难。这也增加了女高管们面临的挑战。Ms Wolf and Ms Sandberg ultimately differ, however, on whether the glass is half full or half empty for women.但是,在对待女性职场前景的态度上,伍尔芙女士和桑德伯格女士有着很大的差别。Ms Sandberg’s book is a call to female arms to change their behaviour so they can rise further.桑德伯格女士的书意在呼吁女性改变她们的一些做法,以便攀登事业的更高峰。Ms Wolf concludes with an economist’s detachment. She says that given how much things have improved for women in the past century, it is “a little surprising to find so many elite women still arguing passionately for directed, top-down social change—change designed to improve things for female elites”.而伍尔芙女士的结论则显示出一位经济学家所拥有的淡然和超脱。她说,在过去一个世纪里,女性地位已经有了很大提升,考虑到这一点,她“有些不理解为什么很多女性精英仍然在乐此不疲地要求有序的、自上而下的社会变革,要求进一步改善女性精英的处境”。Most people agree that more needs to change in the workplace. Men still occupy most top jobs, do not feel comfortable mentoring younger women and judge young men differently from young women.大多数人都同意,职场确实还有很多需要改变的地方。男性仍然霸占了大多数的高层职位,不愿意指导年轻的女职员,并且在评价年轻的男女职员时采取双重标准。However, after decades of women failing to gain equal representation in executive suites, it is notable how many books now focus on women altering their behaviour, rather than men changing their way of doing things.但是,在女性奋斗了几十年,仍然未能在主管办公室打下半壁江山之后,我们应该注意到,现在的很多书只关注女性如何调整自己的行为,而不是男性怎样改变他们的行事风格。Women cannot change their fate on their own. What happened to the responsibility for men to “lean in” to listen and advance women in the workforce, as well?女性仅靠自己改变不了命运。难道男性不是也有责任要主动倾听女性的声音,帮助女性在职场进步吗? /201404/285006

Ceasefire in Gaza加沙停火A war without winners没有赢家的战争Sadly, the end of the fighting is unlikely to mark the beginning of the peace很遗憾,战斗结束并不就意味着和平到来THE chances are that the latest of more than half a dozen ceasefires inGazawill hold—at least for a month or so, while the sides talk. The pause may even guide the Gazans and the Israelis to a more lasting accommodation. Yet the skies have fallen silent out of exhaustion and the futility of fighting on, rather than because the conflict has reached a resolution. Barring an unlikely change of heart—on both sides—war will probably begin all over again, sooner or later.加沙已经停火许多次了,在各方都在谈判时,最近的一次停火很可能维持下去,至少能维持一个月左右。这次停火也许能让加沙人和以色列人走向更持续的和解。然而,天空之所以静下来,不是因为冲突已经解决,而是因为大家精疲力竭,战斗徒劳无用。双方的心意都不大可能改变,战争很可能会再次开始,这是迟早的事。More than 2,100 people have died in the tiny enclave, most of them civilians and many of them children. At least 230,000 of Gazas 1.8m people have been displaced, says the UN. The likelihood that this war just sets up the next renders their suffering even more tragic. Hospitals, schools and the main electricity plant may take years to rebuild, only to be smashed yet again. The sole glimmer is that this bleak picture may concentrate minds to seek the distant prospect of two states—Israeland Palestine—living side by side in peace (see article).在加沙这块狭小的飞地上,已经有超过2100人丧生,大多数是平民,许多是还是孩子。联合国称,加沙180万居民中,至少有23万失去家园,背井离乡。战争再次爆发的可能,使他们原来就痛苦生活,变得更加悲惨。医院,学校,主要发电厂也许要花数年才能重建,而重建后又可能再次被毁。唯一的希望在于,这苍凉黯淡的图景,能让大家专注起来,寻求两个国家和平共处的遥远前景。No one has emerged from the battle stronger. On the Israeli side, Binyamin Netanyahu, the prime minister, says that he has clobbered Hamas, the hardline Islamists who run the strip, and won this latest round by stopping the firing of rockets atIsraeland by unearthing the cross-border tunnels intended to enable raiding parties to seize or murder Israelis.没人从争斗中变强。就以色列而言,本雅明·内塔尼亚胡总理说他已痛击了哈马斯,阻止了他们朝以色列发射火箭,破坏了让哈马斯突击队能绑架和杀害以色列人的隧道,因此赢了这一轮。If so, he has paid a heavy price. War has weakened an aly slowing economy. He is under attack at home from even more hawkish rivals within his coalition, who argue that he could have destroyed Hamas completely—though that would entail heavy casualties and a ruinous occupation, orGaza quite possibly falling into the hands of another Islamist group. Worse, each timeIsrael bombsGaza, its reputation ebbs in the rest of the world, where the media carry images of suffering children and smashed streets. EvenIsraels vital American allies have shown rare irritation.如果真是这样,他的代价也不菲。战争削弱了本就不振的经济。内塔尼亚胡在国内备受抨击,甚至是他党内更加强硬的对手都在抨击他,批评他没有彻底消灭哈马斯,虽然要做到这一点必然得付出巨大伤亡,占领的也只是一片焦土,而且加沙很可能会落到另一个伊斯兰组织手中。更糟糕的是,每次以色列轰炸加沙,它的国家声誉就会严重受损,痛苦的孩子和破碎的街道的图片充斥在各大媒体。即使是以色列的铁杆盟友美国,也罕见的显示出不耐烦。Meanwhile, Hamas is stuck up a cul-de-sac. It has claimed victory—because it is still standing. And it is true that its grip onGaza, which was weakening before the fighting, still looks secure. But its main policy of sterile resistance toIsraelleads nowhere and comes at the expense of the lives and prosperity of ordinary Gazans. Palestinians should query the common sense, let alone the morality, of Hamas firing its fairly useless rockets randomly intoIsraelif the result is destruction forGazaon such a scale.同时,哈马斯也被困在死巷当中。哈马斯声称已经获得了胜利—因为它依然存在。确实,哈马斯对加沙的控制看起来依然稳固,而在开战之前,哈马斯对加沙的控制力似乎是在减弱。但哈马斯坚决对抗以色列的主要政策没有前途,而且会以牺牲普通加沙人的生活和繁荣为代价。哈马斯胡乱朝以色列发射火箭,根本没什么用处,其后果是对加沙如此大规模的破坏,巴勒斯坦人应该问问,这么做究竟有没有常识,更不要说合不合乎道义。Crumb of comfort些许安慰Can anything good be salvaged from the rubble? This war has been bad even for the people who stayed out of it.Israels moderates have not gained noticeably from Mr Netanyahus travails. Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the more moderate Palestinians, is painted by his own people as an Israeli stooge, sapping his strength as a negotiating partner. But at least he still presides over a unity government that is committed to peace and is still—remarkably enough—backed by Hamas. He could press Hamas to disarm in exchange for a programme to rebuildGaza, with a neutral force overseeing the process. Or how about another crack at good-faith talks about two states? The ground has been dug over so often, including byAmericain the past, that progress could in theory be rapid.能从瓦砾中挖出什么有用的东西吗?这场战争,即使是对置身事外的人而言,都已经够糟糕的了。以色列温和派没能从内塔尼亚胡的行动中得到什么。巴勒斯坦温和派领导人穆罕默德·阿巴斯,则被自己人说成是以色列的傀儡,削弱了他作为谈判人的实力。但是,至少,阿巴斯领导着一个致力于和平的联合政府,而且跟不可思议地拥有哈马斯的持。阿巴斯可以对哈马斯施压,要他们放弃武力,以换取对加沙的重建计划,重建进程将由中立力量监督。或者,干脆再推动两国的诚意谈判怎么样?谈判的基础早就有了,而且之前也有过很多次努力,包括美国在过去所做的许多工作,理论上说,谈判进程可以进行得很快。It is not the ideas of well-meaning outsiders that are lacking, but the iness ofIsraeland Hamas to strive for peace. Sadly, even with a ceasefire, that prospect still looks very distant.身在局外,但用意良好的人并不少,但以色列和哈马斯走向和平的意愿却不足。遗憾的是,即使实现了停火,和平的前景依旧渺茫。 /201409/325604

Books and arts文艺New fiction最新小说Comfort food温馨食物COOKING is a sensual experience.烹饪是一种感官体验。It has the power to comfort, unite and anchor a family in tradition.传统上认为,它具有安逸、粘合和撑一个家庭的力量。In his new novel, Amit Majmudar uses food to tell a larger story about life, death and the immigrant experience.Amit Majmudar在他的新小说中,通过食物讲述了一个关于生命、死亡和移民经历的宏大故事。At the centre of the book is an unnamed Indian mother who makes dahi the traditional way, curdling each new pot of yogurt with a spoonful from the one before it.故事的中心是一位无名的印度母亲,她用传统的方式制作家乡的酸奶,即从之前一罐酸奶中取用一匙来发酵新一罐酸奶。To ensure this dynastic succession, she smuggled some in a test-tube when she emigrated from Gujarat to Ohio.在她从古吉拉特邦移民至俄亥俄州时,为了保酸奶的世代更迭,她悄悄用试管带入了一些老酸奶。Now, with two grown children who have their own families, she colonises grandchildren with the magical cultures.现在,随着她的两个孩子长大成人并组建家庭,她开始给孙辈们灌输这神奇的文化。This small but significant attempt at cultural continuity becomes more meaningful when she is diagnosed with terminal cancer.这举动虽小,却对文化连续性非常重要,尤其当她被确诊为癌症晚期时,更显得意义重大。Feeding her family allows her to maintain some normality during the slow sloppy business of dying.在缓缓步入衰亡的过程中,教育她的家庭使她在一定程度上保持了正常状态。As the narrator grows weaker, her daughter, Mala, becomes determined to learn all of her mothers recipes.随着主人公渐渐衰弱,她的女儿Mala决心学习她所有的食谱。A doctor like her father, she is strong-willed but deferential.和她父亲一样,她是位医生,意志坚强却又谦恭。They fight, but they always have done.她们经常争执,又很快停止。Harshness, paradoxically, is intimate. The ailing mothers son Ronak, however, rebuffs the familys traditions.所谓苛刻反而是因为亲密。He lives as a gambling banker in Manhattan with his pale-faced American wife.患病母亲的儿子Ronak却抵制家庭的传统。His affection for his mother is more distant.他是一个投行家,和面青唇白的妻子住在曼哈顿。Despite these slight fractures, the mother longs to preserve the semi-dysfunctional status quo.他对母亲的感情比较疏远。尽管有些许裂痕,这位母亲依然渴望能维持这半失调的家庭现状。But her cancer casts everything in shadow, and tests the relationships that matter most.但癌症给一切都笼罩上阴影,考验着最重要的亲情。The narrative is slow, but sumptuous with recipes and reflection.小说叙事节奏很慢,但充满了对烹饪以及沉思的描写。Mr Majmudar, who is also a poet, imbues his prose with phrases and metaphors that linger with the warmth of spices.作者Majmudar先生也是一个诗人,短语和隐喻混合着调味品的温香,弥漫在字里行间。Tension rises from the pages as his characters struggle to enjoy the present with the knowledge that everything must soon change.文中的角色努力享受着当下,相信一切将会很快改变,情节愈加充满张力。But the simple repetition of cooking and eating brings the family together, softening the hard edges like boiling water on rice.不过烹调和用餐的简单惯例能让一家人聚在一起,软化矛盾,就像沸水煮大米一样。Was America better for the family or did the move make everything harder?来到美国让这个家庭更好,还是让一切更糟?This country gave us clean quiet luxury and charged us nothing but our children, the mother observes.母亲评述说;这个国家带给我们清静祥和的享受,没有索取我们任何东西,但带走了我们的孩子。Mala and Ronak are in many ways alien to their parents, and sometimes to themselves. Ohio has offered them wealth and opportunity.Mala和Ronak与他们的父母在很多方面都大相径庭,有时候与他们自己都格格不入。For nourishment and love, they have the bowls of dahi and dishes of bhindi at the family table.俄亥俄州给予了他们财富和机遇,至于食物和爱,家里的餐桌上,有一杯杯的家乡酸奶和一碟碟的羊角豆。 /201404/283741

Longevity risk长寿风险My money or your life我的钱,或者,你的人生New financial instruments may help to make pension schemes safer新的金融工具或许有助于养老金计划更加稳妥OVER the past 50 years, every forecast of how long people will live has fallen short. Despite fears that obesity and global warming would reverse the trend, life expectancy in rich countries has grown steadily, by about 2.5 years a decade, or 15 minutes every hour. That is good news for health-care providers, cruise companies and humanity. It is most unwelcome for those paying the bills to finance this extended lease on life.在过去的的五十年间,关于任何人类能活多久的预测相较之前都变短了。尽管人们对于肥胖症以及全球变暖的担心将要扭转这一趋势,在发达国家的平均寿命正在稳步增长—大约每过十年便增长2.5岁,或每过一小时增长15分钟。这对卫生保健的供应商、邮轮公司以及人类确实是个好事。不过这对于那些为这个拓展生命的长度而付账单的人来说却绝对不是什么受欢迎的事情。Longevity risk, the chance that people will live longer than expected, is potentially very expensive. Never mind the dramatic impact of a cure for cancer: adding an extra year to the average lifespan increases the worlds pension bill by 4%, or around 1 trillion, according to the IMF.长寿风险,这是使人比预期活的更加久远的机会,可能是非常昂贵的。更别说是癌症治愈的巨大冲击:根据国际货币基金组织的报告:人类的平均寿命每增加一年便会增加4%的养老金账单,大约一万亿美元。Firms that have sold annuities are the most obvious victims of living longer, as they keep on writing cheques to oldies they expected would have passed on by now. But the most severe risk lies with defined-benefit pension schemes, in which participants are promised an annual payment throughout their retirement, however long it may last. Globally private defined-benefit schemes aly have 23 trillion of liabilities—the amount they owe current and future pensioners. Many are grossly underfunded as it is.那些出售养老金的企业明显是那些平均寿命增长的受害者,因为他们还得继续为那些寿命超过他们预期的的人开票。但是最严峻的风险取决于分期给付固定型养老金计划,使得参与者承诺每年付款直到她们退休,无论这要持续多久。全球的私人分期固定型养老金计划已经有高达23万亿美元的负债—他们对于是现在以及将来的养老金领取者的负债。他们许多对此都负担不起。Such statistics are enough to send a pension trustee to an early grave. Yet there is an apparent cure, in the form of “longevity swaps”, which pension schemes can use to insure against the risk that their members will live longer than expected. In July, the pension scheme of BT, Britains former telecoms monopoly, which is wrestling with a deficit of 7 billion, offloaded the longevity risk on over a quarter of its liabilities to Prudential Financial, an American insurer. BT will pay Prudential a monthly fee and it in turn will pay the extra pension costs if the shuffleboarders in question live longer than forecast.这些数据都足以让养老金受托人一只脚都踏进坟墓了。但是但表面上还有有治疗方案的,以“长寿互换”的形式,也就是养老金计划免除了他们要承受的成员寿命超过预期的风险。在七月的时候,英国前电信垄断行业—英国电信的养老金计划正在设法解决高达七十亿英镑的赤字,他们已经出售了四分之一的长寿风险给保德信金融集团—一家美国的保险公司。英国电信将每月向保德信付固定的费用,如果讨论中的老人们苟延残喘的活过了他们的预期保德信将会反过来向英国电信付额外的费用。Such arrangements have become increasingly common, with 2014 aly setting a record for liabilities offloaded in Britain, the centre of the market. BTs deal, which covered pension debt worth 16 billion, was the biggest yet. Most of the 20-odd deals so far have been between big pension schemes and insurers such as Prudential and Swiss Re. The deals should help them hedge a risk they aly have through their other businesses, which pay out if clients die unexpectedly early.以上的形式已经变得越来越普遍,截至2014年在英国这样世界市场的中心地区,出售负债的记录达到了一个新的高潮。英国电信高达一百六十亿英镑养老金的交易是迄今为止最大的一笔。到目前为止在这20笔奇怪的交易都是在养老金计划以及保险商诸如保诚集团瑞士再保险之间进行的。这些交易将有助于他们对冲通因其他业务所获得的风险—因客户过早意外死亡所带来的出。But the potential liabilities that need to be neutralised far exceed what insurers might want to take on. So new investors are being sought to take on risks associated with ever-older clients through “longevity” bonds, whereby outsiders take on the unwanted risks. Bondholders get paid a coupon, but start to lose money if life expectancy pushes beyond a pre-agreed rate.但是那些需要中和的潜在债务远胜于保险公司想要承担的那部分。因此都在试图争取新的投资人来承担因为“长寿”债券而由那些永远长寿的客户所带来的风险,即由外界来承担那些不必要的风险。债券持有人获得了一张联票,但是如果预期寿命超过了原先率他们就要开始赔钱了。In 2012 Aegon, a Dutch insurer, passed the longevity risk associated with 12 billion of pension liabilities to investors looking for an asset that does not move in tandem with wider financial markets. Chris Madsen, a managing director there, hopes they will follow the trajectory of “catastrophe bonds”, which pay out if there are no hurricanes or earthquakes in a defined period. These have recently become popular with large investors looking to diversify away from stocks and bonds.在2012年荷兰全球人寿保险公司,一家荷兰的保险公司,与那些寻找不动资产与更广泛金融市场的投资者们达成了一项关于养老金债务的高达一百二十亿欧元的协议。Chris Madsen,一位常务董事,希望他们能够追随“灾难债券”的轨道,即对于在固定时期内对于没有发生飓风或者地震的偿付。这在大的投资者们正在寻求摆脱股票以及债券的近期变得非常流行。But whereas protection against natural catastrophes tends to be offered for a year or two, longevity bonds are only useful over longer periods—enough time needs to pass for past projections to have been proved wrong. This does not suit the average investor, particularly in the absence of a liquid secondary market. So far, only a tiny fraction of the 23 trillion in liabilities in private defined-benefit plans have been protected. Whoever hits on the right formula will do a brisk trade.但是鉴于防范自然灾害往往是限于一至两年,而长寿债券只是在长时间见内有用—需要足够的时间来验过去预测正确与否。这并不适合普通的投资者,特别是在缺乏流动性的二级市场。到目前为止,只有二十三万亿美元这一小部分的私人养老金固定收益债务得到了保护。任何想到正确方案的人都将能够生意兴隆。 /201408/324482This creates steam in oasis and a profusion of life. Today, these warm springs are a refuge for one of Floridas most tropical inhabitants. The West Indian Manatee wasnt present during the last ice age, but returned here as the waters warmed up. 这使得绿洲之中产生了小溪也同时育了大量的生命。如今,这些温泉成为了佛罗里达一种最具热带特色的生物的避难所。西印度海牛在冰河时代末期并不存在,但是当这里的温度升到后来到了这里。Even now, it is only found around this subtropical tip of the continent. But these springs arent just a haven for modern day wildlife. Theyve also yielded many secrets of the distant past. 即使现在,我们也仅仅能在这块大陆的亚热带地区发现他们的踪影,但是这些温泉并不只是现代野生动物们的天堂,他们还蕴含着遥远过去的秘密。When these pools were first explored, they would have looked like this, strewn with astonishing fossil remains from ice age beasts. 当这些温泉最初被探索的时候,他们应该是这幅模样,到处都是存在于冰河时代的动物们惊人的化石和骨骼。Florida has one of the richest fossil records of the ice age anywhere on earth. So what kind of creatures did such bones and skulls belong to? And how did these springs become their graveyards? 佛罗里达是在世界上拥有冰河时代化石记录最多的地区之一。那么这些骨骼和头骨们有属于那些动物呢?而这些动物又怎么葬身于此?Many of the fossils are from animals that you can still see today. Indeed, weve recognized the vast majority of Floridas ice age wildlife. Nevertheless, the most spectacular ice age beast did become extinct. And remarkably, some of them share a common ancestor with modern manatees.很多的化石都属于那些今天我们还能看到的动物。确实,我们能够识别出佛罗里达大部分的冰河时代动物化石。然而,那些最为壮丽的冰河时代动物已经灭绝。让人吃惊的是,他们之中的一些动物和现代的海牛属于同一祖先的后裔。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201307/248685

So you made lasagna last night, and it was delicious.你昨晚做了千层面,之后享用了一顿大餐。You saved the leftovers by wrapping aluminum foil over the top of the pan, and putting it in the fridge.大快朵颐之后,你将剩下的千层面用铝箔纸包好放入冰箱中。When you get hungry today, you go to look for that lasagna, but it looks like the lasagna was getting hungry too!今天你饿的时候,便去拿昨天吃剩的千层面,但是你会发现千层面似乎也饿了!Its eaten tiny holes in the aluminum foil that was covering it.包裹它的铝箔纸上出现了一个个的小洞,好像被咬过一样。Why does this happen?为什么会这样呢?A listener asked this question and well find the answer on todays moment of science.一位听众问到了这个问题,我们将在今天的科学一刻中为你解答。There are really two things responsible for those holes in the aluminum foil: the acidic nature ofthe lasagna and some curious properties of aluminum.铝箔上出现这些洞有两个原因:一个是千层面本身具有酸性,另一个就是铝具有一些非常奇特的属性。Lasagna gets most of its acid from the tomatoes in its sauce.千层面的酸性主要是来自酱汁中的番茄酱。Almost everything you eat is at leastslightly acidic, but tomatoes are especially so.几乎你吃的每样东西都会至少呈轻微酸性,而番茄的酸性尤为明显。This acid wouldnt be a problem for a glasscontainer, or stainless steel, or plastic wrap, or for most of the materials we use to store andprepare food.这种酸对玻璃容器,不锈钢,塑料袋或大多数我们用于储藏和准备食物所用的材料都不会产生任何影响。Aluminum, though, is especially vulnerable to acid.但铝却非常容易受到酸的侵蚀。Heres why.这就是原因。Most metals form a protective layer on their surface called an oxide layer.大多数金属会在表面生成一种叫做氧化层的保护膜。Aluminum forms an oxide layer too, but it is very thin, allowing the tomatos acid to easily break through.铝金属也会形成氧化层,但是这层膜很薄,番茄中的酸能轻易腐蚀透。This lets the tomato sauce dissolve the aluminum, and it creates grey or black chemicalson top of the lasagna that taste very bad.由此番茄酱就会溶解铝,在千层面上产生一种灰色或黑色的化学物质,会使千层面变得非常难吃。The same thing can happen if you use aluminum cookware for acidic sauces.如果用铝制厨具来做酸味儿酱料,也会发生相同的情况。Sauce made in an aluminum pot will be grayer and not as tasty as sauce made in other cookware.铝制锅所做的酱料颜色看起来会更灰些,吃起来也不如其他厨具所做的酱料味道好。 201403/282540Browser wars浏览器之战Chrome rules the web谷歌浏览器掌控网络What Google’s browser has in common with Queen Victoria谷歌浏览器跟维多利亚女王的共同点是什么?Aug 10th 2013 |From the print editionEMPIRES rise and fall swiftly on the internet. Google’s Chrome browser, which celebrates its fifth birthday next month, has captured much of the territory of older browsers and is now responsible for about 43% of all the web traffic generated by the world’s desktop computers. When Chrome was launched the dominant browser was Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE), with a 68% share—it is now down to just 25%.网络帝国兴败迅速。谷歌的Chrome浏览器下个月就要庆祝诞生15周年了。它攻城拔寨,抢夺了旧浏览器不少的份额,现在拥有台式机领域网站流量的43%之多。谷歌浏览器发布的时候,占据主导地位的浏览器是微软的IE浏览器,当时台式机市场占有率为68%,现在已经降到了25%。It is only 20 years since Mosaic, the first browser capable of combining words and images in a single page, was made available. Some of its developers went on to launch Netscape, an improved version, in 1994, just as the internet was taking off. But Netscape’s dominance quickly crumbled after Microsoft started bundling IE with its Windows operating system. IE and Microsoft’s other software became so prevalent that in 2000 an American court briefly contemplated breaking the company into two.从第一款能同时显示文本和图像的Mosaic浏览器诞生到现在也不过20年的时间。当年Mosaic的许多开发者继续在1994年开发了改进版的网景浏览器。当时互联网刚要大规模发展。但是网景的主导地位很快被微软取代,因为微软将IE浏览器与其系统绑定销售。微软包括IE在内的很多软件风行一时,以至于2000年的时候,一家美国法院曾经考虑将微软公司一分为二。By 2010, when the European Commission forced Microsoft to start offering Windows users a choice of browsers, many were switching anyway, especially to Mozilla’s Firefox. Now Chrome is increasingly pushing Firefox to the margins. Measuring browser use is difficult and subjective: one source shows that IE is still in front in terms of numbers of visitors to websites. But for e-commerce, share of traffic matters more. By this measure Chrome now dominates much of the planet. Like the boast made of the British empire in Queen Victoria’s time, the sun never sets on its dominions.2010年,欧盟执行委员会强制命令微软为Windows使用者提供浏览器选项,很多用户选择了Mozilla公司的火狐浏览器。现在Chrome浏览器的崛起将火狐推到了边缘。衡量一款浏览器的使用情况既困难又主观。一个来源显示按照访问者访问网站的数量算,IE仍然领先。但是对电子商务来说,信息流量份额才是最重要的。按照流量算的话,谷歌浏览器主导了全球的浏览器市场。就像维多利亚时期大英帝国引以为豪的景象:大英帝国的领土上太阳从不落山。 /201308/252232

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