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2017年12月16日 07:20:16来源:问医信息

  • Mom always told us we#39;d go blind if we in the dark. Does science back her up? Jim Sheedy, a doctor of vision science and director of the Vision Performance Institute at Oregon#39;s Pacific University, sets his sights on the truth.妈妈总是告诉我们如果我们在暗处看书会弄坏眼睛。这种说法有科学依据吗?且听俄勒冈太平洋大学(Pacific University)视觉功能学院(Vision Performance Institute)所长、视觉科学医生吉姆?希迪(Jim Sheedy)为我们揭示真相。Dark Matter暗处阅读Turns out, our parents were wrong. #39;There is no reason to believe nor evidence to support that any long-term damage to the eyes or change in the physiology to the eyes can be caused by ing in the dark,#39; Dr. Sheedy says。原来,我们的父母是错的。希迪士说:“我们没有理由认为,也没有据明,在暗处阅读会造成眼睛的长期损害,或引起眼睛的生理变化。”That is not to say that nocturnal page-turning won#39;t lead to discomfort or fatigue。但这并不意味着在夜间昏暗光线下看书不会引起不适和疲劳。The lack of light will cause the pupils to dilate, resulting in a smaller depth of field -- the distance between the nearest and farthest object that the eye considers to be in focus. Dr. Sheedy says the added effort to change focus (called the eye#39;s accommodative system) and the effort to change the angle of the lines of sight between the two eyes (called the vergent system) will likely make your eyes feel tired and your body spent. But, of course, that#39;s often the object of ing under the covers。光线不足会引起瞳孔扩张,导致景深变小,即眼睛能聚焦的最近和最远的物体之间的距离变小。希迪士说,费力地去变焦(通通过眼睛的调节系统)和费力去地改变两眼之间的视角(通过眼睛的收缩系统)可能会使你的眼睛和身体感到疲倦。当然,这通常是在被窝里看书的后果。Seeing Clearly看清楚Dr. Sheedy says he assures his students that there isn#39;t enough evidence to argue that what you do with your eyes leads to myopia (nearsightedness): #39;The predominant determinant of myopia is genetics.#39; No link to long-term damage has ever been conclusively shown, says Dr. Sheedy. #39;It#39;s an old tale, a ploy used by moms to get kids to go to sleep when they wanted them to,#39; he says。希迪士说他告诉他的学生现在还没有足够的据能说明用眼习惯会导致近视:“近视的主要决定因素是遗传。”他说并没有确凿的据明长期损害跟近视之间存在关联。希迪士说:“这只是一个古老的传说,是妈妈们希望孩子们去睡觉时常用的一个说辞。”Electronic Age电子时代Reading on a tablet device won#39;t damage your eyes, Dr. Sheedy says. His team has studied various fonts, computer displays and pixel resolutions, and found the difference in effect on the eye between ing e-ink and the printed word to be negligible。希迪士说,在平板设备上阅读文字不会伤害眼睛。他的团队对各种字体、电脑显示器和像素分辨率进行了研究,发现阅读电子读物和印刷文字对眼睛影响的差异是可以忽略不计的。He adds that pixel density and screen resolution have reached the point at which the eye doesn#39;t know which it is seeing. So if ing a printed book in dim light is fine, so is ing a Kindle or iPad。他补充说,像素密度和屏幕分辨率已经发展到了让眼睛分辨不出电子读物和印刷文字之间差异的程度。如果在昏暗的光线下阅读印刷书籍没什么问题的话,在Kindle或iPad上阅读也不会有问题。Moving from Dark to Light从暗处到亮处The eyes adapt quickly when going to the light -- emerging from a tunnel into the sun, say -- but going to the dark #39;requires the regeneration of photo pigments, and that takes some time to reach full dark-adaptation,#39; says Dr. Sheedy。希迪士说,从暗处到亮处时眼睛适应起来非常快,比如从隧道里出来重见天日时,但从亮处到暗处时“需要新生成光色素,因此需要一些时间来完全适应黑暗”。Adjusting to the dim light next to your bed should only take seconds. But when going from bright light to maximum darkness, studies have shown, eye sensitivity continues to change for up to 25 minutes, he says。他说,你对自己床边暗光灯的光线的适应只需要几秒钟的时间。但有研究表明,如果从亮如白昼转到漆黑一片,眼睛的感光度要持续变化长达25分钟的时间。Just ask a pirate。问问海盗吧#39;Ever wonder why a pirate wears patches? It#39;s not because he was wounded in a sword fight,#39; says Dr. Sheedy. Seamen must constantly move between the pitch black of below decks and the bright sunshine above。希迪士说:“想知道为什么海盗总是戴着眼罩吗?这并不是因为他在剑战中受了伤。”真正的原因是水手必须经常在漆黑的甲板下和明亮的阳光下这两处地方之间变换位置。Smart pirates #39;wore a patch over one eye to keep it dark-adapted outside.#39; Should a battle break out and the pirate had to shimmy below, he would simply switch the patch to the outdoor eye and he could see in the dark right away -- saving him 25 minutes of flailing his cutlass about in near blindness。聪明的海盗“在一只眼睛上戴着眼罩,就能保有一只眼睛始终能适应黑暗。”如果战斗爆发,海盗必须转战到甲板下面,他只需要把眼罩换到另一边,就可以马上在黑暗中恢复视力──这样一来他就不用在近乎失明的情况下挥剑战斗25分钟了。 /201307/247821。
  • A woman walks up to a little old man rocking in a chair on his porch.I couldn#39;t help noticing how happy you look, she says. 一位女士走向坐在门廊的椅子上摇动的小老头。我无意中发现,你是多么幸福,那女士说。What#39;s your secret for a long, happy life? I smoke three packs a day, drink a case of whiskey a week, eat fatty foods and never, ever exercise.Wow, that#39;s amazing, says the woman. How old are you?Twenty-six.你幸福而长寿的秘密是什么?我每天抽三包烟,每周喝一箱威士忌,吃高脂肪食品,而且从来不曾锻炼。哦,真神奇,女士说。你高寿?二十六。 /201306/245552。
  • While breaking off an engagement may help a couple dodge a messy divorce, it doesn#39;t always keep them out of the courtroom.虽然解除婚约可能会帮助两个人避开离婚时的纠葛,但并不意味着他们不会法庭上见。More than ,000 is spent on the average engagement ring.一般的订婚戒指都要花费5000美元以上。And deciding who gets to keep the ring when the big day gets called off is such a hotly-contested issue that most states have laws governing its ownership. 确定谁在订婚取消后保有戒指是一个极具争议的问题,几乎每个州都有法律来规定它的所属权。Some bitter lovers even take the case to court. 一些满腹怨怼的恋人甚至为此诉诸法庭。Colette DiPierro, 31, thought her broken engagement was behind her when she learned that her ex-fiancé Christopher Reinhold was suing, demanding the return of her ,500 diamond engagement ring.Colette DiPierro, 31岁,在了解到前未婚夫Christopher Reinhold 上诉要求她归还价值1.75万美元的订婚戒指时,认为自己不是婚约取消的过错方。They had dated for almost two years when Reinhold proposed in May 2009.在恋爱了接近2年的时间后,Reinhold于2009年5月向她求婚。 But the couple began to fight, often about money, and they split four months later, said DiPierro, a physician assistant in Staten Island, N.Y. 但是后来,这对情侣开始经常因为钱而争吵,并在4个月后他们分开了,DiPierro 如是说。她在纽约州史德顿岛做一名医生助理。The followingspring, he filed a lawsuit. 第二年春天的时候,他提起了诉讼。Reinhold and his attorney did not respond to requests for comment.Reinhold和他的律师没有回应记者的置评请求。Poll: Who do you think should keep the ring?投票:你认为谁应该保有这枚戒指呢?According to DiPierro, she held onto the ring because he hadn#39;t repaid her for his share of ,000 worth of living expenses. DiPierro声称她不愿意还回戒指,是因为男方没有偿还他应付的价值4万美元的生活开销。Their deal: she had paid for rent, food, car payments and other bills while Reinhold saved for the ring.他们的约定:她付房租、食物、车贷和其他账单,而Reinhold则攒钱买戒指。;I helped him save so I felt that I was holding onto the ring for collateral,; she said. ;我帮助了他存钱,所以我觉得有必要保留戒指作为抵偿,”她说。Laws vary by state, but many consider the ring a ;conditional gift; until the couple says ;I do,; -- meaning that regardless of who gets cold feet, the ring must be returned to the person who bought it, said Alton Abramowitz, a New York-based attorney and president of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. 不同州的法律有所不同,但很多人认为戒指在情侣说“我愿意”之前都属于“有条件赠与”,--意思就是不管谁先临阵退缩,戒指都必须归还给购买的人,Alton Abramowitz是这样说的,他是总部位于纽约的美国婚姻律师协会的律师兼会长。But it#39;s not always that simple。但事情往往没有那么简单。A New York judge ruled in 2006 that a woman could keep her 3.4-carat diamond engagement ring because her ex had not yet been divorced from his previous wife when he proposed. 一位纽约法官在2006年裁定一名妇女可以保有她的3.4克拉钻石订婚戒指,因为她的前未婚夫在求婚时没有和其前妻离婚。The Montana Supreme Court, meanwhile, has shot down the conditional gift theory entirely, ruling that the ring is the rightful property of its recipient.同时,蒙大拿州高级法院彻底推翻有条件赠与的论据,规定戒指属于受赠人的合法财产。In certain states, determining who gets the ring rests on who called off the wedding.在某些州,戒指归谁所有要看是谁取消了婚礼。And, to complicate matters further, some states treat an engagement ring given on a holiday differently than one given on a non-holiday.而且,使问题更加复杂化的是,有些州将在节日赠送的婚戒与非节日赠送的婚介区别对待。In DiPierro#39;s case, because the ring was given to her on her birthday, she argued that it should be hers to keep.在DiPierro的案件中,由于戒指是在生日时收到的,所以她辩称戒指应该归她所有。Related: How to ask a friend to pay you back 相关话题:如何让朋友还钱New York State law was on her side, said George Muscato, a Lockport, N.Y.-based attorney who recently represented a female client in an engagement ring-related suit. He did not represent DiPierro. 纽约州的法律偏向于她那边, George Muscato这样说。George是纽约州洛克波特市的一名律师,他曾是一起订婚戒指相关的诉讼案中一名女性客户的代表律师。但他不是DiPierro的代理律师。;If you give her that ring on a holiday like Christmas or Valentine#39;s Day or her birthday, then you are making a gift to her as a present [that is] unconditional,; he said. “如果你在诸如圣诞节、情人节或她的生日等节日里送给她戒指,那么你就是将其作为非有条件性的礼物送给她的。”他说。But as legal proceedings dragged on for more than a year, DiPierro said she ultimately agreed to a financial settlement with Reinhold. 但是介于法律诉讼已经拖了一年多的时间,DiPierro最终同意与Reinhold进行财务和解。While she#39;s glad her time in court is behind her, DiPierro said it drastically changed her perspective on money and romantic relationships. DiPierro说,虽然她很高兴在法庭上时自己是有利的一方,但它也极大地改变了自己对金钱和恋爱关系的看法。;I guess, in some cases, I was naive,; she said. ;Money became very complicated in every future relationship.; “我想,自己在有些方面太过天真了,”她说,“在未来的每段关系中,处理金钱都会变得很复杂。” /201303/232362。
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