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2019年08月17日 21:53:05来源:39时讯

DURING its rise in the 17th century, Amsterdam was animportant haven for religious dissidents. It was also the publishing centre forthe racyphilosophical tracts that were too hot to be printed in France or England. The city’s economicfortunes were born of its embrace of international trade and of financialinnovation. And the highly profitable Dutch East IndiaCompany was the world’s first joint-stock company, leading in time to theworld’s first stock and options markets.在17世纪崛起期间,阿姆斯特丹是宗教异议分子的重要避难所,也是激进哲学册子的出版中心,因为这些册子过于惹火而不能在法国和英国出版。国际贸易和金融创新为这座城市带来了经济财富。荷兰东印度公司作为世界上首家股份公司,有着很高的盈利水平,它开创了世界上首个股票和期权市场。In the late 20th century the Dutch capitalwas famous for its tolerance of marijuana cafés and prostitution. But Amsterdam’s liberalheritage has become a battleground. The murder by an Islamist fanatic of Theovan Gogh, a controversial film-maker, in 2004 sparked clashes over relationswith the city’s Muslim minority. City planners have shifted from a socialistvision of liberalism to a yuppified one, rooting out squatters and shrinkingthe red-light district while courting multinational corporations withfavourable tax conditions.20世纪末,阿姆斯特丹因容许咖啡馆出售大麻和卖淫现象的存在而著名。但是阿姆斯特丹的自由主义传统已经使这里演变成了战场。2004年,伊斯兰狂热分子、饱受争议的电影制作人特奥·梵高制造的谋杀案引发了(伊斯兰)同穆斯林少数民族之间的冲突。城市规划师的视角已经从社会主义者的自由主义过渡到雅皮化,在根除棚户区和缩小红灯区的同时,用优惠的税收条件吸引跨国公司的到来。Mr Shorto, an American who has lived in theDutch capital for six years, sprinkles the book with personal anecdotes thatillustrate how history suffuses the present. While studying the journal of anAugustinian prior who had fled to the city to escape the religious violence ofthe Netherlands’war of independence, the author realises that the diary was written, in 1572,next door to his flat. To illustrate a later episode of religious conflict, heintroduces the er to a Holocaust survivor, a childhood acquaintance of Anne Frank. His account of Amsterdam’s physical growth is just asengrossing. The ring of canals, which visitors nowadays think of as quaint,were a marvel of engineering when they were built in the 1600s, a testament tothe city’s status as Europe’s premier trading entrepot.索托先生(Mr Shorto)是一位已在荷兰首都生活了6个年头的美国人,他的书中都是阐明现时阿姆斯特丹弥漫着历史印记的个人轶事。在研究先前一名逃离到阿姆斯特丹躲避荷兰独立战争宗教暴力的奥古斯丁修会会士写的日记时,索托先生发现该日记写于1572年,记录地点就位于他公寓的隔壁。为了阐述下一场宗教冲突,他向读者介绍了大屠杀中的一名幸存者、安妮·弗兰克(Anne Frank)的童年朋友。他记录的阿姆斯特丹有形发展也同样引人入胜。如今让游客们觉得怪异的运河回荡声,是17世纪建造它们的设计师们创造的工程奇迹,这明了阿姆斯特丹作为欧洲最早的贸易中心的地位。But Mr Shorto’s main ambition is to showhow the liberal idea was born in Amsterdam.He leans here on the recent work of Jonathan Israel, a British-born professorof modern European history at Princeton, whose influential three-volumerethinking of the Enlightenment gives a central place to Amsterdam’s most famous philosopher, BaruchSpinoza. For Mr Israel,Spinoza was the progenitor of the “radical” Enlightenment, those thinkers whorefused any accommodation with religion or traditional authority. It isinteresting to consider Amsterdam’s currenttensions in the light of the struggles Spinoza witnessed between tolerantrationalism and religious nationalism, which ended with the lynching in 1672 ofhis political heroes, the De Witt brothers, and the end of Holland’s Golden Age.但是索托先生主要的目的在于告诉人们自由主义思想是如何在阿姆斯特丹诞生的。在书中,他借助了出生于英国的普林斯顿大学欧洲现代史教授乔纳森·伊斯雷尔最近发表的作品,伊斯雷尔具有影响力的启蒙运动反思三大卷奠定了阿姆斯特丹最负盛名的哲学家巴鲁赫·斯宾诺莎的中心地位。对于伊斯雷尔先生来说,斯宾诺莎是“激进”启蒙运动的先驱,这些思想家们与宗教或传统权威不可相容。从斯宾诺莎目睹的宽容理性主义和宗教民族主义之间斗争的角度来看阿姆斯特丹当前的紧张局势是很有趣的,两者的斗争以他的政治英雄德威特兄弟在1672年被处以私刑以及荷兰黄金时代的终结而告终。 /201312/270972。

  • BERKELEY, Calif. — TO those of us who visit beaches only in summer, they seem as permanent a part of our natural heritage as the Rocky Mountains and the Great Lakes. But shore dwellers know differently. Beaches are the most transitory of landscapes, and sand beaches the most vulnerable of all. During big storms, especially in winter, they can simply vanish, only to magically reappear in time for the summer season.加利福尼亚伯克利——对于只在夏天去海边游玩的人来说,海滩仿佛是一种永久的自然遗产,就像落基山脉和五大湖一样。然而,住在海边的人知道,事实并非如此。海滩是最容易转瞬即逝的地貌,而沙滩又是其中最为脆弱的一种。遇到大风暴,尤其是在冬天,它们会消失,待到来年夏季将至的时候又会神奇地及时重现。It could once be said that “a beach is a place where sand stops to rest for a moment before resuming its journey to somewhere else,” as the naturalist D. W. Bennett wrote in the book “Living With the New Jersey Shore.” Sand moved along the shore and from beach to sea bottom and back again, forming shorelines and barrier islands that until recently were able to repair themselves on a regular basis, producing the illusion of permanence.物学家D·W·本内特(D. W. Bennett)在《与新泽西海滩共度时光》(Living With the New Jersey Shore)一书中写道,“海滩是沙子在继续前往别处之前停留片刻的地方。”曾几何时,的确可以这么说。沙子沿着水岸运动,从滩涂到海底再到滩涂,塑造了海岸线和堰洲岛。直到不久前,这些地貌还能经常自我修复,制造出一种永恒的假象。Today, however, 75 to 90 percent of the world’s natural sand beaches are disappearing, due partly to rising sea levels and increased storm action, but also to massive erosion caused by the human development of shores. Many low-lying barrier islands are aly submerged.然而今天,世界上75%到90%的自然沙滩正在消失。部分原因在于海平面上升和风暴活动增加,但更重要的是,人类对海滩的开发造成了大规模的侵蚀。许多地势较低的堰洲岛已经被海水淹没。Yet the extent of this global crisis is obscured because so-called beach nourishment projects attempt to hold sand in place and repair the damage by the time summer people return, creating the illusion of an eternal shore.可是,由于所谓的“人工育滩”计划,这一全球性危机的严重程度遭到了忽视。这些工程努力在夏季游客到来之前将沙子留在原处并修复损失,制造出一种海滩永在的幻象。Before next summer, endless lines of dump trucks will have filled in bare spots and restored dunes. Virginia Beach alone has been restored more than 50 times. In recent decades, East Coast barrier islands have used 23 million loads of sand, much of it mined inland and the rest dredged from coastal waters — a practice that disturbs the sea bottom, creating turbidity that kills coral beds and damages spawning grounds, which hurts inshore fisheries.下个夏天到来之前,看不到尽头的自卸车队会运来材料填补裸露的地表并修复沙丘。光是弗吉尼亚海滩,就被恢复了逾50次。近几十年里,美国东海岸的堰洲岛用掉了2300万车的沙子,其中许多采自陆地,其余则从沿海水域挖掘。挖沙的做法会干扰海床,产生不利于珊瑚礁生存并会破坏生物繁殖地的浑浊海水,从而损害近海渔业。The sand and gravel business is now growing faster than the economy as a whole. In the ed States, the market for mined sand has become a billion-dollar annual business, growing at 10 percent a year since 2008. Interior mining operations use huge machines working in open pits to dig down under the earth’s surface to get sand left behind by ancient glaciers. But as demand has risen — and the damming of rivers has held back the flow of sand from mountainous interiors — natural sources of sand have been shrinking.砂石行业的增长如今比整体经济更为迅猛。在美国,开采出来的沙子已形成了每年上十亿美元的市场规模,2008年以来的年增长率为10%。内陆采砂采用大型机械露天作业,挖开地表,以便开采出古老冰川留下的砂石。不过,随着需求的增加,以及在水上修建大坝的行为阻止了泥沙从多山的内陆地区向外的迁移,砂石自然资源一直在缩减。One might think that desert sand would be a y substitute, but its grains are finer and smoother; they don’t adhere to rougher sand grains, and tend to blow away. As a result, the desert state of Dubai brings sand for its beaches all the way from Australia.人们或许会认为,来自沙漠的沙子应当是现成的替代品。但实际上,这种沙粒更细、更光滑,不能与较为粗糙的沙粒黏合,而且容易被吹走。因此,沙漠之国迪拜需要为了本地的海滩万里迢迢从澳大利亚进口沙子。And now there is a global beach-quality sand shortage, caused by the industries that have come to rely on it. Sand is vital to the manufacturing of abrasives, glass, plastics, microchips and even toothpaste, and, most recently, to the process of hydraulic fracturing. The quality of silicate sand found in the northern Midwest has produced what is being called a “sand rush” there, more than doubling regional sand pit mining since 2009.现在出现了海滩用沙的全球性短缺,而导致这种短缺的是越来越依赖砂石的各大行业。沙子是生产磨料、玻璃、塑料、微芯片乃至牙膏的关键用料,最近还成为水力压裂工艺中不可或缺的一环。美国中西部北面发现的硅砂在当地掀起了一股“淘沙热”,使得该地区的沙坑开采活动自2009年以来翻番有余。But the greatest industrial consumer of all is the concrete industry. Sand from Port Washington on Long Island — 140 million cubic yards of it — built the tunnels and sidewalks of Manhattan from the 1880s onward. Concrete still takes 80 percent of all that mining can deliver. Apart from water and air, sand is the natural element most in demand around the world, a situation that puts the preservation of beaches and their flora and fauna in great danger. Today, a branch of Cemex, one of the world’s largest cement suppliers, is still busy on the shores of Monterey Bay in California, where its operations endanger several protected species.不过,所有工业生产中耗沙量最大的是混凝土行业。自19世纪80年代以来,来自长岛华盛顿港的砂石——1.1亿立方米——一直在为曼哈顿的通道和路面建设贡献力量。采砂业的80%产量目前依然流向了混凝土行业。除了水和空气,沙子是全球范围内需求量最大的自然产物。这一现状威胁到了对海滩和生长在其中的动植物进行保护的工作。就在当下,世界最大的水泥供应商之一西麦斯集团(Cemex)旗下的一家分公司,仍然在加州蒙特雷湾的海滩积极采砂,危及到了数种保护物种。The huge sand mining operations emerging worldwide, many of them illegal, are happening out of sight and out of mind, as far as the developed world is concerned. But in India, where the government has stepped in to limit sand mining along its shores, illegal mining operations by what is now referred to as the “sand mafia” defy these regulations. In Sierra Leone, poor villagers are encouraged to sell off their sand to illegal operations, ruining their own shores for fishing. Some Indonesian sand islands have been devastated by sand mining.全球范围内兴起的大型采砂活动中,许多都属非法行为,但它们并未进入发达国家的视野,也未被放在心上。不过在印度,政府已出手限制在海岸附近采砂,但那些已被人称为“采砂黑手党”的非法开采集团对这些监管规定视而不见。在塞拉利昂,贫困村民受到鼓励,要将沙子卖给非法企业,从而彻底破坏了当地的近海环境。一些印度尼西亚的沙岛因采砂而遭遇重创。It is time for us to understand where sand comes from and where it is going. Sand was once locked up in mountains and it took eons of erosion before it was released into rivers and made its way to the sea. As Rachel Carson wrote in 1958, “in every curving beach, in every grain of sand, there is a story of the earth.” Now those grains are sequestered yet again — often in the very concrete sea walls that contribute to beach erosion.是时候让我们了解沙子的来源和去向了。它曾被困在山上的岩石里,经过亿万年的侵蚀才得以进入山川河流,然后来到海里。正如蕾切尔·卡森(Rachel Carson)1958年写下的那样,“在每个蜿蜒的海滩,在每颗沙粒之中,都藏有大地的故事。”现在,这些沙砾却再次受困——往往就在那些助推海滩侵蚀的混凝土防波堤里。We need to stop taking sand for granted and think of it as an endangered natural resource. Glass and concrete can be recycled back into sand, but there will never be enough to meet the demand of every resort. So we need better conservation plans for shore and coastal areas. Beach replenishment — the mining and trucking and dredging of sand to meet tourist expectations — must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, with environmental considerations taking top priority. Only this will ensure that the story of the earth will still have subsequent chapters told in grains of sand.我们不能再认为沙子取之不尽用之不竭,而是要把它当成一种稀缺的自然资源。玻璃和混凝土可以通过回收最终变回沙子,但这永远不够满足度假村的需求。因此,我们需要更好的办法来保护海滩和沿海地区。“海滩修复”项目——用采砂、运沙和挖沙的手法来满足游客的期待——必须一个一个通过评审,并让环境方面的因素成为优先考虑的对象。只有这样,才能确保大地的故事还可以在沙粒中写就后续的篇章。 /201411/340991。
  • As the creative director of the French children’s clothing company Bonpoint, Christine Innamorato spends a lot of time thinking about fashion. But interior design, she said, deserves just as much attention.作为法国童装品牌邦布朗(Bonpoint,法国顶级童装奢侈品牌——译注)的创意总监,克丽丝汀·那莫瑞图(Christine Innamorato)把大把的时间花费在了思考时尚这件事上。但是室内设计也值得同等的关注,她说。If you’re trying to create a happy, comforting environment, “the decoration of a child’s room is very important,” said Ms. Innamorato, 48, speaking through an interpreter. That’s why her company has a dedicated team of antiques shoppers to furnish its 110 stores around the world, she said. In fact, she added, “When we show a nice dress in an armoire, sometimes the moms just want to buy the armoire.”如果你想要打造一个快乐、舒适的环境,“儿童房的装修非常重要。”48岁的那莫瑞图通过翻译这样表示。这就是为什么她的公司里有一专业的古董买手团队,为全球110家店面布置家具,她说。事实上,她补充道:“当我们在一个大衣柜里展示一件漂亮裙子时,有时妈妈们只想要买那个衣柜。”But beyond furniture, “the quality of light is very important, and makes a big difference,” she said. “It has to be warm and cozy. It’s all about good energy.”除家具之外,“灯光的质量也非常重要,而且真是会大不一样,”她说,“灯光必须温暖舒适,给人好的感觉。”In New York for the opening of a new Bonpoint store in SoHo, Ms. Innamorato took time out to shop for the most comforting sort of lighting: night lights.在纽约,邦布朗要在SoHo开一家新店,那莫瑞图花时间实地勘察了店面,找到最舒适的一种布光:夜灯。At the Schoolhouse Electric amp; Supply Co. showroom in TriBeCa, she admired the Ion C-Series lamps in the window: bare bulbs with exposed filaments on brightly colored bases.在位于翠贝卡区(TriBeCa)的Schoolhouse Electric amp; Supply Co.,她对橱窗里的离子C系列(Ion C-Series)灯具喜爱有加:裸灯泡和暴露在外的灯丝,拧在色鲜艳、五颜六色的基座上。“The light is just soft enough for a child’s night light, but it would also be good for an adult,” she said. “I would use a number of them together.”“作为孩子的夜灯,这种光线足够柔和,但对于一个成年人来说也很好,”她说,“我想要把它们好几个放在一起用。”At Babesta, she studied a large, playful lamp modeled on the cartoon character Miffy. “It’s funny, but it’s also comforting,” she said of the bunny-shaped form.在巴贝斯通(Babesta,一家纽约童装店——译注),她看到一座好玩的巨大台灯,是以卡通形象米菲(Miffy)为原型制作的。“它非常有趣,光线也很舒适,”她如此评价这只兔子造型的灯具。And because it was so much bigger than the average night light, she added, “You could put it on the floor or on a table next to the bed.”因为这款灯比其它夜灯大得多,她补充道,“你可以把它放在地板上,或者床边的桌子上。”She also liked the GummiLights by Jellio, battery-powered lamps made to look like oversize gummy bears.她还喜欢Jellio设计的GummiLights这款灯,是靠电池供电的,造型像超大尺寸的小熊软糖。Candy for the eyes, she called them: “You almost want to eat it.”这是个养眼的东西,她这么称呼这款灯,“你几乎想要吃掉它。”And at Kikkerland, in the West Village, she picked out the Moon night light.而在西村(West Village)的仙源(Kikkerland,美国一家品牌家居店——译注),她拿起一款月亮夜灯。A small, plug-in model, it was one of the simplest she chose. But as a design inspiration, the moon is “ideal for a night light,” she said. “It’s a nice invitation to dream.”这是一款小巧的即插式模型,是她挑选的灯具里最简单的一款。但是,作为设计灵感的月亮,是“最完美的夜灯”,她说,“是对美梦的绝佳邀请。” /201407/308996。
  • Talk about fashion with a long lead time: Today, May 20, marks the 141st birthday of the Levi#39;s 501 jean. As CEO Chip Bergh remarked at Fortune#39;s Brainstorm Green conference in Laguna Niguel, Calif., ;We are the ultimate in sustainable apparel. If you buy [our jeans] they will last a lot longer than most people#39;s waistlines will.; Levi#39;s are also, Bergh said, the No. 1 brand in secondhand apparel stores.今天我们来说说一个具有悠久历史的时装品牌:5月20日是李维斯(Levi#39;s )501牛仔裤的141岁生日。在《财富》杂志(Fortune)于加州拉古纳尼古尔主办的绿色头脑风暴大会(Brainstorm Green)上,李维斯CEO奇普·伯格表示,“我们把可持续装做到了极致。如果你购买我们的牛仔裤,它们的使用寿命将比大多数人的腰围长得多。”伯格说,李维斯也是二手装店的头号品牌。At a time when throwaway, or ;fast; fashion remains dominant, Levi Strauss amp; Co. is something of an anomaly. Not only are its clothes known for their durability and longevity, but the company is far ahead of the sustainability curve, especially for an apparel company.在这个一次性或“快速”时装依然占主导地位的时代,李维斯公司(Levi Strauss amp; Co)多少有点另类。它的装不仅以耐用性和长寿著称,而且这家公司也远远领先于可持续发展曲线,尤其是对于一个装公司而言。One of the most innovative ideas Bergh discussed was part of the company#39;s Wellth initiative, a small Dockers collection that is, in his words, ;sustainable in every facet of the word,; which means both economically and socially sustainable. Not only are the clothes much greener -- made with much less energy and water out of fabrics that are easier to recycle -- but they are manufactured in plants where workers#39; well-being is measured and meets high standards. For now, it#39;s just an experiment, and a ;premium-priced; one at that, available in Europe (and online in the U.S.), but Bergh says he is ;encouraged; by early results.伯格讨论的最有创意的想法之一是Dockers品牌旗下的一个小时装系列,它是该公司Wellth行动的组成部分。用他的话说,“这个单词的每一面都是可持续的,”意味着经济和社会发展的可持续性。这款装不仅更加环保(面料更易于回收,耗费的能源和水也比过去少得多),而且它的加工工厂按照高标准来衡量工人们的福利。就目前而言,它只是一个实验,这款“高价”产品已在欧洲门店上市(美国消费者需要在网上购买),但伯格说,早期的销售成绩“让他备受鼓舞”。Bergh also had some surprising things to say about how to reduce water use in his business. Only half of water usage happens in the jean production process, which means that the other half happens at home, when the customer washes his jeans repeatedly in order to end up with the right color and fit. Levi#39;s is producing a line of products called ;Waterless,; which you can request in stores.此外,谈到该公司如何减少水消耗时,伯格也说了一些令人惊讶的事情。牛仔裤的生产用水只占用水量的一半,这意味着另一半是在家中消耗的——为了保裤子颜色正,更加合身,顾客反复地洗他的牛仔裤。李维斯正在生产一款名为“无水”(Waterless)的系列产品,消费者现在可以在门店订购。And if you want to do your part for sustainability, Bergh has another idea: Stop washing your jeans. ;These jeans have yet to see a washing machine,; he said of the dark blue pair he wore onstage, which he#39;s owned for an entire year. ;I have yet to get a skin disease.; Still, one has to hope those jeans will be washed before they celebrate their second birthday -- let alone their 141st.如果你想为可持续发展尽一份力,伯格提出了另一个建议:别洗牛仔裤。“这条牛仔裤还没有见过洗衣机呢,”他说的是自己身上那条已经穿了一年的深蓝色牛仔裤。“我并没有患上皮肤病。”尽管如此,人们还是希望在这条牛仔裤庆祝它的第二个生日(更不用说第141个生日)之前,奇普·伯格最好能把它洗一洗。 /201405/300897。
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