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来源:乐视健康    发布时间:2020年01月18日 18:26:16    编辑:admin         

Are you open to new experiences? Are you a risk taker? Do you like parties?你乐于体验新鲜事物吗?你愿意冒险吗?你喜欢派对吗?Odds are, questions like these were not part of your last doctor’s appointment. But one day they might be — a growing body of research suggests that your personality can influence your health. And some experts think changing people’s personal traits might one day help treat diseases — or keep people from getting them in the first place.这类问题不大可能出自你刚看过的医生之口。但有朝一日医生也许真会这么问——越来越多的研究表明,你的个性会影响你的健康。一些专家认为,在未来的某一天,改变人的性格特征或许会有助于治疗疾病——或者把病痛扼杀在摇篮之中。The research also comes at a time when many are calling for a more individualized approach to medicine. Some day, researchers hope, personality testing could be used to help your doctor design treatment specifically to you.相关研究工作取得进展之际,许多人正在呼吁医生以更有针对性的方法来给病人开药。研究者们希望,个性测试有一天可以成为你的医生为你专门设计治疗方案的辅助手段。For a study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, Kavita Vedhara and her co-authors gave personality tests to 121 people, and tested their blood to analyze the expression of genes related to inflammation. They found that the personality trait of extroversion was associated with increased expression of genes promoting inflammation. Meanwhile, conscientiousness, which the authors define as a trait “reflecting planfulness, caution, and harm avoidance,” was associated with decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Since inflammation can be part of the body’s response to infection, higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes can mean a more active immune system; lower expression can mean a relatively less active one.《神经心理内分泌学》(Psychoneuroendocrinology)杂志发表了卡维塔·韦德哈拉(Kavita Vedhara)等人基于其研究写就的一篇论文。他们对121个人进行了性格测试;还为其做了血液检测,以分析与炎症反应有关的基因表达。他们发现,外向型的性格特征是与更高的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。与此同时,勤勉审慎型人格——按照作者们的义中,这种性格的主要特点在于计划性强、谨小慎微、能够避免受到伤害——则是和较低的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。既然炎症可以被看作人体对感染的反应,那么促炎基因表达水平较高可能意味着免疫系统更加活跃,促炎基因表达水平较低则意味着免疫系统不那么活跃。It could be, the authors write, that people with weak immune systems become more introverted to protect themselves from infection (meet fewer people, get fewer germs). They might become more conscientious for the same reason. On the other hand, it’s possible that people’s personalities affect their gene expression — people who go to a lot of fun, germy parties (or who are really bad at washing their hands) might start to undergo gene-expression changes that strengthen their immune systems.这篇论文的作者在文中写道,为了避免感染,免疫系统比较脆弱的人可能会变得更内向(少见人,少接触细菌)。出于同样的原因,他们或许也会变得更谨慎。反过来说,人们的个性也有可能在影响他们的基因表达——经常参加有趣但却在散播细菌的派对的人(或者不会好好洗手的人)或许会在基因表达方面有所变化,而这种变化能强化他们的免疫系统。This doesn’t mean everybody should get a personality test, Dr. Vedhara told Op-Talk. But it does suggest that in general, a treatment approach that considers the patient’s psychological profile may be more effective than one that just looks at physical symptoms.韦德哈拉士告诉本报Op-Talk栏目,这并不意味着每个人都该做性格测试。但由此的确可以看出,在通常情况下,把患者的心理状况考虑在内的治疗方案,可能会比只着眼于生理症状的治疗方案有效得多。“If you’re confronted with a chronic condition” like diabetes or heart disease, she explained, “you may well have underlying beliefs about your condition which influence how likely you are to engage with treatment, you might have an emotional response to that condition which might influence your underlying physiology and your ability to recover or to manage your disease, you may well have an orientation which makes you more or less likely to exercise” — and looking at all of those factors as well as the physical manifestations of the condition itself might help doctors treat it better.她解释说,“如果得了慢性病”,比如糖尿病或者心脏病,“你很可能对自己的疾病有着潜在的看法,这些看法或许会影响你对治疗的投入程度;你可能因为生病而产生情绪上的反应,这种反应或许会影响你的潜在心理、康复能力以及控制疾病的能力;你很可能具有某种倾向性,这种倾向性会影响你锻炼身体的意愿”——把所有这些因素以及疾病本身的生理表现都纳入考量,或许有助于医生更好地治疗你的病痛。“Most areas of medical intervention work quite well,” she said, “but I think that we’re on the brink of seeing a future where we use psychological interventions and behavioral interventions to maximize their efficacy.”“医疗干预在大多数情况下都很管用,”她说,“但我认为,我们即将看到利用心理干预和行为干预来实现医疗干预效用最大化的未来。”Joshua Jackson, a psychology professor at Washington University, also sees understanding personality as a way to improve physical health. In a recent study, he and his co-authors looked at personality and longevity — or, more specifically, at how your friends’ assessments of your personality might predict how long you’ll live. They found that men whose friends thought they were conscientious and open tended to live longer than those whose friends found them less so; for women, the traits associated with longer life were agreeableness and emotional stability. And friends’ assessments of subjects’ personalities were better than their own self-reports at predicting how long they would live.华盛顿大学(Washington University)的心理学教授约书亚·杰克逊(Joshua Jackson)也认为,理解个性是改善身体健康状况的一条途径。在最近的研究中,他和合著者调查了个性和寿命之间的关系——或者更确切地说,是用你朋友对你个性的评估,来预测你的寿命。他们发现,那些被朋友评价为谨慎、心态开放的男性,往往比没有得到这种评价的男性寿命长;而对于女性来说,被评价为随和、情绪稳定的人往往有更长的寿命。在预测受试者的寿命方面,朋友对受试者的个性评估,往往比受试者的自我评估的更准确。Conscientiousness people, Dr. Jackson told Op-Talk, tend to “eat their vegetables and exercise,” as well as avoiding risky behaviors like driving without a seatbelt. “They seem to just live a nice, buttoned-up and tidy life, which helps them live longer.”杰克逊士对本报Op-Talk栏目说,谨慎的人往往更愿意“吃蔬菜、锻炼身体”,避免冒险行动,比如不系安全带驾车等。“他们似乎过着有条理、有规律生活,这有助于他们活得更长。”“Open individuals,” meanwhile, “are not necessarily set in their ways, they’re able to change, they’re open to new experiences.” So they may be amenable to altering their diets or making other changes that could improve their health. Openness may also be associated with a tendency to do mentally challenging activities like crosswords, Dr. Jackson noted, which may also promote good health.同时,“心态开放的人不会自我设限,可以做出改变,乐于体验新东西。”因此,他们可能会改变饮食习惯,或者其他习惯,来增进自身健康。心态开放的人可能喜欢填字游戏这样的智力挑战性活动,杰克逊士指出,这也可能会增进健康状况。He thinks the gender differences his team found may have to do with social mores in the 1930s, when the personality assessments were conducted. He and his co-authors write, “It is likely that high levels of peer-rated emotional stability and agreeableness predict mortality because they largely assess positive characteristics indicative of a supportive and easy-going wife, such as that described in the social theory of the time.” However, he told Op-Talk, some research suggests “that personality within women has a less robust relationship with health and longevity.”他认为,其团队发现的性别差异,可能与上世纪30年代进行这项个性评估时的社会风气有关。他和合著者写到,“在女性评估中,同伴在情绪稳定、为人随和方面给出的高分评价,可以预测女性的寿命,这可能是因为,当时评估的女性特性,主要显示她们能不能成为顾家、随和的妻子,就像当时的社会理论所描述的那样。”不过,他告诉Op-Talk,有些研究表明,“女性的个性与健康以及寿命之间的关系,不是太可靠。”Dr. Jackson sees a role for personality research beyond predicting when you’re going to die. Understanding someone’s personality could help doctors determine which patients are going to have trouble following a new medication or exercise regimen (conscientious people, he said, are especially good at doing what their doctors tell them to do).杰克逊士认为,人格研究的作用不仅局限在寿命预测上。了解一个人的个性,可以帮助医生预知哪些病人难以坚持用新药物或遵循新疗法(他说,谨慎的人在遵守医嘱方面做得特别好)。He’s also involved in research into how changes in personality might affect health. “We know that personality changes across the life span” — people tend to become more conscientious and less neurotic over time — “but some people change more than others.” And since personality traits are associated with health, altering those traits might make someone healthier or sicker.他还参与研究了个性变化可能会如何影响健康状况。“我们知道,在整个生命周期里,人的性格都在改变”——随着时间的推移,人们往往会变得更加谨慎,不那么神经质——但有些人变化大,有些人变化小”。既然人格特质与健康有关,那么改变这些特质就可能会让人变得更健康或更多病。Brent Roberts, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Dr. Jackson was once his student), has found that changes in personality can be linked to changes in health. “That sets up an interesting possibility,” he told Op-Talk: If personality can be altered, “then it could be a target of intervention.” People can become less neurotic with medication or therapy, he said, and “if that’s the case, then you have an interesting question about whether interventions like that could be used to help people be healthier at an earlier age because you could change their personality.”布伦特·罗伯茨(Brent Roberts)是伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的心理学教授(杰克逊士曾经是他的学生),他发现,人格改变可以引起健康状况的变化。“这开启了一个有趣的可能性,”他对Op-Talk说,如果性格是可以改变的,“那它就可能成为干预目标”。通过用药物,或者采用一些疗法,人们可以变得不那么神经质,他说,“如果事实如此,那么你就会面对一个有趣的问题:你有了改变人们个性的能力,那么这样的干预是否可以在他们年轻的时候就用来改善其健康状况呢?”The psychiatry professor Benjamin Chapman says personality was long thought to be unchangeable: “the term was, personality was set like plaster.” But now, he told Op-Talk, some believe people can change their personalities if they want to: “You might be able to change at least some aspect of conscientiousness in your 40s, for instance, and not get heart disease in your 60s.”精神病学教授本杰明·查普曼(Benjamin Chapman)表示,长期以来,人们一直认为性格是无法改变的:“也就是说,人的性格都是定了型的。”不过现在,他对Op-Talk栏目说,一些人认为,如果有意愿的话,人可以改变自己的性格:“例如,你至少能在40多岁的时候在某些方面改善自己的谨慎程度,然后,在60多岁的时候就不会得心脏病了。”Therapy is one way to change personality, he added, but its scale is necessarily limited. “Psychotherapy for hundreds of thousands of people is not cost-effective,” he said, and the question is “whether this sort of thing can be accomplished with something that’s less labor-intense and reaches more people.” Some programs in schools, such as those that teach responsibility and goal setting, “probably have a de facto effect on the shaping of personality and traits like conscientiousness,” he noted. “The tricky thing is, how would you do that later in life?”他还表示,改变性格的一种方法是通过治疗,但它的覆盖范围必定有限。“让几十万人去做心理治疗可不划算,”他说。问题是,“能不能通过不那么劳民伤财的办法来达到这个目的,并且惠及更多人。”中小学的某些项目,比如培养责任感和目标设定的课程,“很可能在塑造性格以及培养谨慎等个性特征方面拥有实实在在的效果,”他指出。“棘手的地方在于,在此后的人生阶段,该怎样开展这种项目?”The time may be ripe for a focus on the personal. “The personalized medicine movement,” said Dr. Chapman, seeks “to get a very individualized prediction of, will you get this disease, will this treatment work for you, how long will you live?” Such predictions are usually made based on demographic information and risk factors like smoking, he said (some, like the chief executive of England’s National Health Service, have called for a personalized-medicine approach focusing on genetic information). But Dr. Chapman believes personality may be a useful element in such predictions: “What we’ve suggested is that certain aspects of personality pick up on a very unspecified and general but highly relevant set of factors related to future health, and you might be able to augment those predictive models with personality-type measures.”关注个体的时机可能已经成熟。查普曼称,“个性化医疗运动”旨在“针对以下问题进行非常个体化的预测:你是否会患某种疾病?这种治疗方法对你是否管用?你还能活多久?”目前,这些问题的预测通常是根据人口统计信息及吸烟等风险因素做出的,他说(有些人已经呼吁采取关注基因信息的个性化医疗手段,包括英国国家医疗务体系[National Health Service]的首席执行官)。不过查普曼认为,在此类预测中,个性或许是一个有用的元素:“我们的意思是,个性的某些方面强化了一系列不明确且笼统、但却非常重要的与未来健康有关的因素,而把性格纳入考虑的话,也许可以提升这些预测模型的效果。”“Especially with the Affordable Care Act,” he added, “there’s been a big shift in medicine toward patient satisfaction and patient-centered care.” And collecting some information on patients’ personalities might be one way of fostering better relationships between patients and doctors: “the question would be, can the doctor use that information to better understand the patient, better understand how to approach them, how to interpret their behavior?” As Dr. Chapman, Dr. Roberts, and Paul Duberstein write in a 2011 review article in the Journal of Aging Research:“尤其随着《合理医疗费用法案》(Affordable Care Act)的出台,”他还说,“在医疗领域出现了向重视病人满意度,以及提供以病人为中心的医疗务的重大转变。”此外,搜集某些关于患者个性特征的信息可以帮助建立更好的医患关系:“问题是,医生能否通过这些信息更好地理解病人,更好地懂得如何接触他们、如何解读他们的行为?”查普曼、罗伯茨和保罗·杜伯斯坦(Paul Duberstein)在2011年刊登在《衰老研究杂志》(Journal of Aging Research)上的一篇综述文章中写道:“Personality assessment could improve the provision of patient-centered care because the physicians better understand how to approach and interact with different kinds of patients. The mere presence of these assessment tools in primary care waiting rooms would convey to patients that the provision of high quality health care is not solely about ordering diagnostic tests, arriving at the correct diagnosis, and prescribing appropriate treatments. It is also about expressing concern and empathy and understanding the patient’s perspective.”“个性评估或可改善以患者为中心的医疗务,因为医生可以更好地了解如何与不同类型的病人接触和互动。单是在基本医疗候诊室设置这样的评估工具,就会向患者传递这样的信息:高质量的医疗务不光是预定诊断检查、得到正确的诊断结果,以及医生开出适当的治疗方案。它也包括表达关心和同情,以及理解患者的想法。”At The New York Times’s Well Blog, Dr. Sandeep Jauhar writes, “quality improvement in medicine is too often a blunt instrument. We try to take what works in certain situations and apply it to all situations. Our methods yield results for populations, not individual patients.” And, he adds, “a shift to more personalized medicine will be needed to continue to make the kind of progress to which patients and doctors have become accustomed.”桑迪普·乔哈尔(Sandeep Jauhar)士在《纽约时报》的健康客(Well Blog)中写道,“医疗质量的提高方法常常十分笨拙。我们总是设法把在特定情形下有效的方式,应用于所有情况。我们的方法对某些类型的人有效,而不是具体的某些个体。”此外,他接着说,“要继续实现患者和医生已经习惯的那种进展,必须向更加个性化的医疗方式进行转变。”Personality research could become part of such a shift. As Dr. Vedhara puts it, “the individual who has the disease is almost as important as the underlying disease itself. So if medicine treated not only the pathology but the person with the pathology, it would probably get more bang for its buck.”性格研究可以成为这种转变的一部分。正如韦德哈拉士所说,“患病的个体几乎与疾病本身同样重要。因此,如果医务务治疗的不光是病症,还包括患有这种病症的那个人,可能会产生更好的效果。” /201501/351620。

Braised Pork with Ear Piece巍山扒肉饵丝Wei Shan, a small town in Yunnan, was stricken by drought around a thousand year ago. For a town which used to enjoy the mild weather all year along, the drought was completely unbearable. Unexpected and unprepared, the residents, mainly from Yi people, were desperate for food. To search for it, Xi Nu Luo, who later became the chieftain of Nanzhao, a regime in Yunnan province, went hunting with a group of young men. Before entering the forest, they were told that the wildfire had sp the forest due to the drought. As a result, the boars, which they were intended to catch, were burned to death. Not like everyone else who was discouraged by the news, Xi Nu Luo was not disheartened, saying: “The boars were just cooked by the wild fire, so we could simply take them home, stew them for a while and then have a nice meal!” Hearing this, those young men cast doubts on Xi Nu Luo’s fantasy, but with nothing to eat they took the dead boar away.Initially the dead boars were repelled by the residents for they were uncomely and insipid, but Xi Nu Luo made them appetizing and attractive. He put the meat in a large pot, to be boiled gently and stirred very little. Considering the meat was greasy, he suggested that it could be eaten with Ear Piece, a local food which looked like noodles. The combination was considered perfect for the flavor of Ear Piece was mild while the flavor of braised pork was strong. Additionally, the color of the dish was black and white which was assumed aesthetic. Later, Braise Pork with Ear Piece has become a popular dish in Wei Shan.据祖辈讲,巍山的扒肉饵丝的创始人是南诏国开国元君细奴逻。细奴逻未发祥时,他同彝族同胞一起以打猎为生。有一天,他们在围猎时碰到大火烧山,森林里的野猪被烧死了,他们就把烧黄了的野猪煮着吃,觉得非常香美。后来他们就经常把猎到的野猪用火烧后再煮着吃,渐渐地就流传下来。再后来细奴逻又创造了独具特色的巍山饵丝,让人们把烧猪肉与饵丝配拢着吃,久而久之发展成为今天色、香、味俱全的扒肉饵丝。 /201505/375881。

#39;Some antibiotic resistance was first detected in India. One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose.#39;某些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现,原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。#39;This provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.#39;这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。 Laura Piddock, who leads Britain#39;s Antibiotic Action, tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com how India can defend itself on a war footing against the scourge of superbugs, or bacteria that have become resistant to antiobiotics.劳拉﹒皮多克是英国抗生素运动的领导人,她告诉瓦哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔/Rediff.com印度应如何准备与(对大多数抗菌素产生抗药性的)超级细菌做斗争.A sick child in a hospital in Patna. Hygiene is very crucial to the prevention of the sp of superbugs, says Professor Laura J V Piddock, who heads Antibiotic Action. Photograph: Adnan Abidi/Reuters.上图为巴特那一家医院中的一位病孩。抗生素运动的发起人劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克教授表示,卫生对于预防超级细菌的传播至关重要。 What exactly are superbugs?超级细菌到底是什么?Do all of us need to be worried about these multidrug-resistant bacteria?我们应该担心这些抗生素抗药菌吗? Is India also bleakly facing the approach of a time when antibiotics will be toothless?印度是否正消极面对抗生素失效的那一天?How can we protect ourselves from superbugs?我们应该如何抵御超级细菌? Laura J V Piddock, professor of microbiology at the University of Birmingham, the ed Kingdom, also heads up Antibiotic Action, an independent UK-led global initiative working to push home the gravity of this problem facing people the world over.劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克是伯明翰大学的微生物学教授,也是抗生素运动的发起人。抗生素运动是一项英国主导的独立运动,致力于向全球传播抗生素抗药菌问题的严重性。;It is vital to the health of all nations that antibiotics remain the mainstay of modern medicine and are available to all on an equitable basis,; she tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com in an e-mail interview.皮多克教授在一封电子邮件中,向Rediff.com网站的哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔:“抗生素仍是现代医学中最重要的发现之一,向所有人一视同仁的提供抗生素对于人类健康至关重要。” About Antibiotic Action, Piddock says, contributes to ;national and international activities and acts as a conduit through which all stakeholders -- from the general public to healthcare professionals to politicians -- are educated on the importance of new ways to treat bacterial infections;.皮多克教授表示,抗生素运动为“普罗大众、医疗从业者和政治家 – 所有利益攸关者了解治疗细菌感染的新途径”做出贡献。How did the phenomenon of superbugs becoming drug-resistant come about? What were the factors that led to the misuse and overuse of antibiotics?超级细菌是如何变得具有耐药性的?是什么因素导致乱用和滥用抗生素? Bacteria evolve to survive in hostile environments.细菌通过进化适应恶劣的环境。Antibiotics can be viewed as making a hostile environment and so put evolutionary pressure on bacteria so this drives the evolution of strains resistant to antibiotics. Whilst many bacterial strains remain susceptible within a population, mutations occur very rarely to give resistance.我们可以把抗生素看作为细菌创建了一个不利的环境,从而促使细菌菌株进化出抗药性。然而在一定数量内,许多细菌菌株对抗生素仍十分敏感,发展出抗性的突变是非常罕见的。However, because antibiotics kill all of the susceptible bacteria in that population, the resistant bacteria remain and are able to grow up.因为抗生素杀死了那些对抗生素敏感的细菌,而具有抗性的细菌活了下来,继续成长。Bacteria grow very quickly and their generation time, such as for E.Coli, is 20 to 30 minutes. This means that many rare mutant bacteria that are antibiotic resistant can grow up and become millions and millions of cells within 24 hours.细菌生长的速度非常快,更新换代的速度,如大肠杆菌,是20至30分钟。这意味着许多发展出抗药性的罕见变异细菌能在24小时内繁殖出数以百万计的细胞。Even for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, which grow extremely slowly, resistant bacteria can emerge and proliferate within several weeks.即使是导致肺结核的细菌,其生长速度非常缓慢,但抗药菌仍可在数周内出现并扩散。Bacteria are also able to share genes, some of these confer the ability for bacteria to infect their host and other confer antibiotic resistance.细菌能够分享基因,其中一些传播传染宿主的能力,另一些则传播抗生素抗药性。Again, acquiring resistance gives an evolutionary advantage to those bacteria with the resistance genes over the antibiotic susceptible population. Again, these bacteria survive and grow up very quickly. Any use of antibiotics will select antibiotic resistant bacteria and the more that antibiotics are used (and if there is insufficient dosing to kill any bacteria), then the environment is made to drive and select antibiotic resistant bacteria.再一次,获得抗药性使这些具有抗性基因的细菌保有进化优势。那些对抗生素敏感的细菌被杀死,而这些细菌活了下来,成长的非常快。每一次抗生素的使用是对抗生素抗药菌的筛选,抗生素使用的越多(且如果剂量不足以杀死任何细菌),那么抗生素创造的环境将筛选和保留抗生素抗药菌。In which areas of the world is the risk highest? Why are certain areas at higher risk?世界上哪些地区风险最大?为什么? Selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria can occur anywhere at any time an antibiotic is used, whether it be in people, animals or the environment. Therefore, areas with the highest use of antibiotics, and where dosing is not carefully adhered to, or where antibiotics are freely available, without prescription, means that the risk of selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria is greatest.当使用抗生素时,无论什么时间、什么地点、使用对象是人类、动物还是环境都有可能导致产生抗生素抗药菌。因此,那些频繁使用抗生素,没有掌握正确的使用剂量,或抗生素随处可得,没有按处方使用的地区最有可能产生抗生素抗药菌。Why is this phenomenon so frightening? As this tragedy sps, without being alarmist, what is the worst case scenario we could be looking at globally?为什么这种现象这么可怕?如果抗生素抗药菌四处蔓延,这不是危言耸听,我们所面临的最糟糕情况是怎样的?The phenomenon is frightening because these bacteria cause infections that are so difficult to treat. With so few drugs active against resistant bacteria, patients will now suffer from untreatable infections.这种现象的可怕之处在于抗生素抗药菌造成的感染很难医治。有效治疗抗药菌的药物非常稀少,病人将会饱受无法治愈的感染折磨。This will occur more and more often until we have new ways to prevent and treat bacterial infections.这种现象将变得愈加频繁,直至我们找到预防和治疗细菌感染的新方法。The worst case scenario is that many common place treatments no longer work and people start to die from infections that until recently were fully treatable.最坏的情况是许多常见的治疗方式不起作用,某些直至最近才能彻底治疗的细菌感染将致人死地。What are the key issues that need to be addressed to solve this calamity?解决这个灾难的关键是?The key issues are that we must minimise and prevent the opportunities for bacteria to infect people (and animals) and minimise the use of antibiotics so that they are only used when needed to treat a bacterial infection.解决问题的关键在于我们应该尽可能减少和预防细菌感染人类(和动物)的机会;尽量减少使用抗生素,仅在治疗细菌感染时使用。We need new ways to diagnose bacterial infections quickly so the correct treatment is used, and we need new treatments, including new antibiotics that are active against antibiotic resistant bacteria.我们必须找到快速确诊细菌感染的新方法,对症下药;我们需要新的治疗方式,包括新的抗生素,能有效对抗抗生素抗药菌。To do all of this, new research is required, not least to find the best doses and strategies to minimise the selection of resistant bacteria.为了达到这一目的,我们必须展开新的研究,而不仅仅是找寻最合适的剂量和方案以减少抗生素抗药菌的产生。Why is it that these superbugs evade even the hardest-hitting or last resort antibiotics, like carbapenems (antibiotics which are resistant to most bacteria)? Why are these bugs so super strong?为什么这些超级细菌能够侵入最强力,最顽强的抗生素?比如碳青霉烯(对大部分细菌都有效的抗生素)?为什么这些细菌这么厉害? These bacteria are not super strong. They have just been exposed to many different antibiotics over decades, allowing them to add antibiotic resistances in the same way as trains add carriages.这些细菌并不厉害。他们只是在数十年间历经多种不同的抗生素,使他们能够像火车加车厢一样具备抗生素抗药性。Where does India connect in all this? How much of a problem is this in India? Are there any diseases in particular that India needs to be worried about?印度和这些有什么关系?这些问题在印度常见吗?哪些疾病是印度需要特别关注的?Some antibiotic resistances were first detected in India.一些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现。One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose. 原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。This therefore provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。In what manner does India need to join the fight?印度该如何对抗抗生素抗药菌?India, via the Chennai Declaration (external link,) is aly starting to address the issues of over-prescription of antibiotics by hospital doctors. In addition, with increased awareness it is hoped that use of antibiotics in all sectors will be reduced.金奈宣言(印度医疗界解决抗生素抗药性问题的宣言)说明印度已经开始解决医院医生滥开抗生素的问题,除此之外,随着认识的提高,使用抗生素治疗所有疾病的现象将有所缓和。 What is the most basic advice and precautions you can offer the Indian public, including those who may be illiterate? And what is the most important advice you can offer Indian doctors?皮多克教授,您能向印度大众,特别是那些不识字的人给予一些基本的建议和提醒吗?至于印度医生,您觉得最重要的意见是?The best advice is to have as good hygiene as possible and so prevent infection.最好的建议是尽可能保持卫生,预防感染。Secondly, if an individual gets an infection, to do their best not to pass on the infection to other members of their household, school or workplace.第二,如果有人被感染,尽可能不要传染给家人、学校师生或同事。To also help this, people should not share washcloths, towels or clothes until they have been washed and any bacteria removed. The same goes for preventing transmission of viral infections.还有一点可能有所帮助的是,除非经过清洗和消毒,人们不应该共用面巾、毛巾或衣物。这一点对于预防病毒传播也非常有效。For Indian doctors, they should only use antibiotics to treat infections that are likely to be caused by bacteria. They should be aware of local antibiotic resistance patterns so that they can make the best choice of effective antibiotics.至于印度医生,他们应该对疑似细菌引起的感染使用抗生素。印度医生应该了解当地抗生素的抗药模式,这样他们能选择最有效果的抗生素用于治疗。They need to make sure that they use the correct dose and for the appropriate duration and encourage their patients to take the antibiotics properly.印度医生应该确保使用正确的剂量,适当的用药时限并鼓励病人按需使用抗生素。What does the Indian government need to do on a war footing?在与抗生素抗药性作斗争时,印度政府需要做哪些工作?The Indian government should sign up to the WHO Global Action Plan and do their best to implement it to meet the needs of India and address the current resistance concerns specific to India.印度政府应该签署世界卫生组织全球行动计划,尽全力实施这项计划以满足印度的需要。解决印度特有的抗生素抗药性问题。Is it a race to find better antibiotics? Or a matter of looking at other creative options too and what could they be?我们应该就寻找更好的抗生素展开竞赛吗?还是应该寻找其他更有创造力的解决方案?What are the key issues hampering the bringing of new antibiotics to the global markets quickly and in more variety?是什么在阻碍新抗生素以各种形式快速出现在全球市场上?There are numerous key issues hampering bringing new antibiotics to market, not least regulatory hurdles and that the business model for antibiotics needs to be different to that for drugs for other therapeutic areas.阻碍新抗生素上市的原因太多了,不仅仅是监督障碍,还有抗生素的商业模式必须与其他领域的药物有所区别。All options, including new antibiotics, should be explored.我们应探索所有的解决方案,包括发明新抗生素。How are superbugs different from regular bugs apart from their ability to resist bacteria?除了抗药能力之外,超级细菌与普通细菌还有什么区别吗? Superbugs only differ from #39;regular#39; bugs in that they are antibiotic resistant. Very few antibiotic resistance mechanisms make bacteria fitter.超级细菌和‘普通#39;细菌的区别只是抗生素抗药性。很少有抗生素抗药机制能把细菌变得更强。When AIDS came on the scene people quickly got to know about the disease and its causes although prevention took longer. Why has awareness about superbugs, which is as scary, taken longer?当AIDS出现时,人们很快就了解了这种疾病及其病因,虽然理解AIDS预防措施的时间长了些。为什么超级细菌这么可怕,人们却并不很了解它?People become very frightened of AIDS because it was a terminal disease for which there is no cure.人们非常害怕AIDS,因为这是一种不治之症。For antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we still have some cures although these are diminishing in number day by day.尽管治疗抗生素抗药菌的方法日渐稀少,但仍是可以治愈的。 AIDS also affected particular demographic groups, who were extremely vocal in bringing this to public awareness. Unfortunately, people are used to getting infections and used to being able to treat them with antibiotics.AIDS还对特定人群产生影响,这对唤醒大众的认知非常有说力。不幸的是,印度人已经习惯了被感染和依赖抗生素进行治疗. /201501/354095。

Brown Researchers Believe Gamers Are Able To Learn Visual Tasks Faster Than Non-Gamers游戏玩家的认知能力更强As gaming moves from just a casual pastime to becoming a more significant part of our lives, researchers are getting increasingly curious to find out how it affects learning. A recent study concluded that gamers have better visual skills and other cognitive abilities. Now there is some evidence that gaming not only augments visual skills, but also, helps speed up the learning process.视频游戏正从一项消遣渐渐变成我们生活中重要的一部分,研究者对其是否会影响到我们的认知能力也越来越感兴趣。近期一项实验表明,游戏玩家不仅视觉更敏锐,其他一些认知能力也更强。下面这项实验进一步明了视频游戏不仅增强玩家的视觉能力,还加速了他们的学习能力。The study conducted by Brown University Associate Professor Yuka Sasaki and graduate student Aaron Berard, pitted nine avid gamers against a control group of nine individuals who had rarely if ever, played games. The participants were subjected to two days of visual task learning. Each group was trained in two tasks (in random order). The first was to observe the design of an on-screen texture of horizontal lines and point the area with maximum irregularities as fast as possible. The second task was similar except that the lines were vertical.布朗大学副教授Yuka Sasaki和研究生Aaron Berard共同开展的这项研究,他们挑选了9位游戏玩家与9位很少玩或不玩游戏的人进行对比研究。他们都进行了为期2天的视觉任务培训。受试者按随机顺序进行两项测试,首先是在屏幕上快速(以毫秒为衡量标准)地指出水平线组成的纹理中有何异常之处。第二项测试与前一项相同,只不过换成了垂直纹理。The following day, the study participants were asked to perform the same tasks (again in randomized order) to test if there was any improvement in how quickly they noticed the irregularities. 随后的几天,受试者依然按随机顺序反复做这两项测试,主要是为了检测他们识别无规则纹理的速度是否有所改善。Sure enough, the frequent gamers showed great progress in both tasks - they improved an average of 15% on the second and 11% on the first. The non-gamers did not fare as well. Though they improved by the same amount as the gamers (15%) on the second task, their performance on the first task worsened, declining by 5%!数据显示,游戏玩家组在第一项任务中在速度和准确度方面的表现提高了15%,在第二项任务中提高了11%;非游戏玩家组在第二项任务中也提高了15%,然而在第一项任务中,他们只提高了约5%。Clearly more research needs to be done before firm conclusions can be reached, but the first indications are certainly encouraging. And for those that are still skeptical, a separate study conducted by Oxford University in 2014, concluded that children that play games are happier, more social and less hyperactive than non-gamers! But before you go all out, the study also stipulates that kids should spend no more than 60 minutes a day on this pursuit.为了获得确切的,我们需要进行更多研究,但该实验带给我们的启示还是鼓舞人心的。带着怀疑,2014年牛津大学又单独进行了一项实验,明了玩视频游戏的孩子比不玩的孩子更幸福,更社会化,并且不那么过度活泼!但在你跃跃欲试之前,这项实验也提醒了我们应该控制孩子的游戏时间在60分钟之内,否则过犹不及。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/384631。

A specter is haunting our communications: the specter of emoji. Right now, it’s likely that someone you know is texting a thumbs-up image to confirm a meeting, or maybe sending off a friendly ghost emoji to say “boo” to a friend.人们在日常的沟通中飘荡着名为“emoji表情”的幽灵。很可能就在此刻某个你认识的人就正在发送竖起拇指的表情确认一个会议,或向朋友发送一个友好的鬼怪表情来表达不屑之意。Yet the little guys (and gals, and farm animals, and foodstuffs) aren’t without controversy. Word-centric fuddy-duddies see the decline of literacy reflected in their heart-shaped eyes, while guardians of decorum lament the sp of greasy kid stuff dripping from the characters’ snail trails.然而这些小男孩(还有女孩、农场动物和食物)图标并非毫无争议。那些崇尚文字的老古董们用自己的心灵之窗目睹了文字的衰退,那些礼仪的卫道士们则感慨从这些表情的蜗牛路迹上淋漓滴下的黏腻幼稚的东西在扩散。Given their resemblance to the stickers that adorn the notebooks of schoolgirls, not to mention their widesp adoption as the lingua franca of tweens and teens everywhere, some people wonder whether grown men should be using them at all.考虑到它们与还在念书的女生们用来装饰笔记本的心形图案十分相似,更不用提它们被全世界的青少年拿来广泛使用,导致一些人开始对成年男性究竟能否使用它们产生了怀疑。John McWhorter, a linguist who teaches at Columbia University, said that some men shy away from emoji because, as he put it, “Women use them more.” That may not continue to be the case, he added.在哥伦比亚大学教学的语言学家约翰·麦克沃特(John McWhorter)表示一些男性对使用emoji表情心怀顾忌的原因在于,用他的话说就是“女人才爱用咧”。他又补充说道,现在已经不是这种状况了。“Women tend to be more overtly expressive in language,” he said. “But something women start in language has a way of making it to men. Men would benefit from using emoji more.”“女性在语言表达方面往往有着压倒性的优势,”他说。“但女人把语言方面的发明可以推广到男人中去。男人也将从使用emoji中受益。”Emoji, he said, allow for an expressive, human way of translating the spoken word into text, with the goofy symbols providing a texter or tweeter with the means to convey tone. “There should be male ways to use emoji,” he added.他表示,emoji表情符是一种能有效将口语转化为文字的人性化方式,发短信或推特的人用这些蠢萌的表情符号来表达语气。“emoji也该有男子汉式的用法。”他补充道。While Mr. McWhorter, 49, does not use emoji himself, citing his age, he is an admirer . “I’m not known as the most progressive person in the world, but in some ways I like them,” he said. “I’m a big fan.”而49岁的麦克沃特表示,虽然囿于年龄,他并非emoji表情的用户,但却是emoji的青睐者之一。“我倒不是全球最与时俱进的人,但我就是喜欢它们的某些地方,”他说,“我是铁杆粉丝。”Other experts (that is, emoji users themselves) are less definitive. “It’s a fine line,” said Melissa Karlin, 35, a Chicago-based accounts manager for Kenshoo, a software company. “Emoji-ing is a dance.”其他专家(也就是,那些会使用emoji表情的人)倒没这么坚定。“很不错的产品,”35岁的梅丽莎·卡琳(Melissa Karlin)说,她担任Kenshoo公司在芝加哥的客户经理。“用emoji表情就像一舞蹈。”She noted that some men use emoji in ways she finds inscrutable, particularly in the context of romance, when they are given to texting the symbol of the winky face with the tongue sticking out. “I don’t know what it means,” Ms. Karlin said.她表示一些男士使用emoji表情的方式让她无法理解,尤其是在浪漫的氛围下,他们热衷于发那个眨眼吐舌的符号。“我不知道这是要说什么,”卡琳说。She offered a piece of advice for potential suitors: “Use your words. I’m a big fan of using your words.”她向所有可能的追求者提了个建议:“用文字,我其实超喜欢你们直接用文字表达。”In a discussion that appeared last year on Yahoo Answers, one anonymous poster said of emoji: “They’re fun but I just find them emasculating!” In a spirited th on the same topic over on Reddit, another emoji user counseled, “Like anything else, moderation is key.”去年在雅虎知道(Yahoo Answers)上出现的一场讨论里,一位匿名用户这么评价emoji表情:“它们很好玩,但我觉得它们太娘炮了!”这一话题在Reddit论坛上也有一篇引发热议的帖子,其中一位emoji使用者建议,“和其他事情一样,关键是要适度。”And yet many men find themselves grasping for emoji where words either fail them or come up short (prawn, perhaps).而许多男性发现自己想不起词(比如说,忘了虾怎么写)或语塞的时候,就会求助emoji表情。The tennis star Roger Federer sprinkles his tweets with them, and Mike Scott, a 6-foot-8 forward with the Atlanta Hawks, has several emoji tattoos, including the pair of dancing girls with bunny ears. The rapper Drake blew up the Internet last fall when a photograph of a praying-hands emoji tattoo, inked onto his right forearm, surfaced on Instagram.网球巨星罗杰·费德勒(Roger Federer)在推特上偶尔使用emoji表情,6英尺8英寸(约合2.03米)高的亚特兰大老鹰队(Atlanta Hawks)前锋迈克·斯科特(Mike Scott)在身上纹了几个emoji表情,其中一个是跳舞的兔耳女郎。去年秋天,说唱歌手德雷克(Drake)在instagram上发布了纹有双手合十祈祷的emoji表情的右前臂照片,在网上掀起轩然。Jordan Peele, of the sketch comedy duo Key amp; Peele, proved his fluency when he retold the story of “The Shining” through 96 carefully selected emoji packed into a single tweet, an effort that has won him more than 13,000 retweets.双人喜剧秀“基和皮尔(Key amp; Peele)”中的乔丹·皮尔(Jordan Peele)对使用emoji表情简直得心应手,他发了一条推特,用96个精选emoji表情叙述了《闪灵》(The Shining)的故事,转发量达1万3千多次。Certain men embrace emoji while holding them at a remove. Gil Schwartz, a CBS executive who writes under the name Stanley Bing, called himself a “rare user of ironic emojis.” He said he is partial to the pig and the horse. “I use them because I think they’re stupid,” he said. “At some point, texting is kind of stupid.”有些人虽然接受emoji表情,但却用得很克制。笔名斯坦利·宾(Stanley Bing)的哥伦比亚广播公司主管吉尔·舒瓦兹(Gil Schwartz),称自己是一个“很少使用讽刺性emoji表情的人”。他说自己更偏爱猪和马。“我用它们是因为觉得它们看起来很蠢,”他说。“有的时候,发短信本身也有点蠢。”He has no fear that using them may somehow put a dent in his masculinity. “For a moment you’re Taylor Swift,” said Mr. Schwartz, who is 63. “If you’re confident in your manhood, you can certainly lapse into Taylor Swift-hood momentarily.”他一点也不担心使用emoji表情会折损自己的男子汉气概。“有的时候你就是泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift),”现年63岁的舒瓦兹说。“如果你自信够男人,那变成泰勒·斯威夫特一会儿当然没什么问题。”Amina Akhtar, the editorial director of TheFashionSpot, a website, isn’t buying it. “If I’m seeing a guy, and he emojis, I feel uncomfortable,” said Ms. Akhtar, 37. “We’re too old to be doing this. To have a man in his 40s and 50s using emojis is uncomfortable to me.”TheFashionSpot网站的主编阿米娜·阿赫塔尔(Amina Akhtar)显然不接受这套说辞。“看到一个男人用emoji表情符,我一定会觉得不舒,”37岁的阿赫塔尔说。“这些对我们来说太幼稚了。一个男人在四五十岁的时候还用emoji表情符,实在让我觉得不自在。”Katey Nilan, a 29-year-old writer and tech consultant in San Francisco, said: “If Drake can emoji, anyone can emoji. He’s pretty hard.” She added that, while she is pro emoji , there are limits . Like Ms. Karlin, she finds the winky face tongue-wagging emoji troublesome, especially when it is sent by men trying to flirt. “It seems like that’s the go-to if a guy can’t come up with something else to say,” Ms. Nilan said.29岁的卡蒂·尼兰(Katey Nilan)现居旧金山,是作家兼技术顾问,她表示:“如果德雷克都能用emoji表情符的话,那谁都可以用。他挺有男子汉气概的。”她补充说,尽管自己持emoji表情符,但仍觉得它有不足之处。她和卡琳一样,觉得眨眼吐舌的emoji表情有点烦,尤其当一些男人在调情的时候使用它们。“感觉男人想不出说什么的时候 ,准会打出这样的表情,”尼兰说。What does she do after she receives that one?她收到这个表情后一般怎么办?“Ghost,” she said.“鬼啊,”她答道。Meaning, she replies with the ghost emoji?意思是,回一个鬼魂的emoji表情符?“No, no, no,” she said. “Ghosting is when you stop texting.”“不不不,”她说。“意思是不聊了,你去见鬼。”Stephen Lynch, a 33-year-old public relations professional in San Francisco, holds that emoji are neither good nor bad in themselves. “People can be as creepy using emoji as anything else,” he said. “Some people have troubled communication no matter what.”现居旧金山的33岁公关专家史蒂芬·林奇(Stephen Lynch)认为emoji表情符本身没什么好也没什么不好。“像其他任何东西一样,人们有本事把emoji表情符用得很变态,”他说。“有些人就是有沟通障碍,跟用什么没关系。”To him, furthermore, the question of whether grown men should use emoji is loaded. “The whole ‘should’ reeks of an old-fashioned and hetero-normative view of the world,” he said. “Second thing is, why wouldn’t they reciprocate?”对他来说,成人男性是否应该使用emoji表情符的问题本身就具有导向性。“‘应该’这个词指向的是异性恋主导、老套的世界观,”他说。“另外一点是,他们为什么就不能用相同方式回复别人呢?”In other words, if someone sends you an emoji, why not reply in kind? “Why wouldn’t you engage in the same way someone is engaging you?” Mr. Lynch said.换句话说,如果有人给你发了个emoji表情符,为什么不回他一个?“为什么不能融入别人为你营造的言语环境?”林奇说。Bruce Feirstein, a screenwriter and journalist living in Los Angeles, seems to agree: “When my 14-year-old son sends me the face palm emoji, I laugh. I immediately respond. But that’s a conversation with my 14-year-old son.”住在洛杉矶的编剧、记者布鲁斯·费尔斯坦(Bruce Feirstein)对此表示同意:“我14岁的儿子给我发了用手捂脸的emoji表情符后,我笑了,然后很快就回复了他。但这是和我14岁儿子的对话。”His business correspondence, on the other hand, has a tone that doesn’t allow for a smiley face, or even the mustache man. “It’s all about context,” he said. “I’ve never gotten a serious piece of communication or a message from an adult with an emoji.”反观另一面,他商业上的一切通信往来都透着一种连笑脸都加不进去的腔调,甚至连个小胡子男人的表情也加不进去。“都是由内容决定的,”他说。“我从没收到过成年人发来带有emoji表情符的正式通信或消息。”Mr. Feirstein, 61, is something of an authority on the subject of what men should or should not do, having written the 1982 best seller “Real Men Don’t Eat Quiche,” a satirical “Guidebook to All That Is Truly Masculine,” as the subtitle put it.61岁的费尔斯坦堪称男人该做什么不该做什么这方面的权威,他著有《真男人不吃蛋饼》(Real Men Don’t eat Quiche)一书,1982年成了畅销书。如副标题所说,它是讽刺风格的“真正男子汉的行为指南(Guidebook to All That Is Truly Masculine)”。“When I wrote the book, things were simpler than they are now,” he said. “I don’t know if, in the year 2015, defining what a ‘real man’ would do or not do is relevant, because the culture has changed. I don’t know if you can make these grand pronouncements anymore.”“我写书的时候,事情比现在简单不少,”他说。“我不知道在2015年,讨论‘真男人’的定义还有没有意义,因为文化改变了。我不知道现在还能不能做这么宏大的声明了。”Besides, grand pronouncements are likely to have no effect on how language is changing in the digital sphere. “I say it’s like a new form of communication,” said Adrian Rodriguez, a 26-year-old office manager in San Francisco. “It’s just the way things are evolving. It’s just there. You don’t want to overthink it.”此外,这类宏大的声明似乎也无法撼动电子领域的语言变化。“我觉得这像是一种新的传播方式,”旧金山26岁的办公室经理艾德里安·罗德里格斯(Adrian Rodriguez)说。“只是事物演进的方式罢了。它就存在于这个世界上。真的不用想太多。” /201505/374891。

Over half (55%) of people say they are satisfied with their looks, according to a new global study.市场研究机构GfK最新调查显示,全球超过半数的人对自己的外貌感到满意。The findings, put out by market research company GfK, are based on interviews that were conducted last summer across 22 countries with more than 27,000 people aged 15 and older.去年夏天,这项研究调查了来自22个国家的2.7万多名民众,其年龄都在15周岁以上。Complete satisfaction with personal looks is highest in Latin America, with Mexico, Brazil and Argentina all appearing in the top five of the global rankings.对自己相貌非常满意的受访者中,拉美人最多,其中墨西哥人、巴西人、阿根廷人都排在全球前五名。The Japanese are the most critical of their own looks, with 38% not too satisfied or not at all satisfied, followed by the British at 20%, then Russians, South Koreans, Swedes and Australians all at 19%.对自己外貌最自卑的是日本人,有38%的受访者对自己的外貌不太满意或完全不满意。其次是英国人,有20%的人不满意,并列倒数第三的是俄罗斯人、韩国人、瑞典人和澳大利亚人,这些国家有19%的人对自己外貌不满意。Chinese people is in the middle level with 10% completely satisfied, 44% fairly satisfied.中国内地人对自己外貌“非常满意”的为10%,“比较满意”的则有44% /201506/378849。