时间:2019年10月17日 14:42:08

Books and Arts;Leonardo in London;Deciphering the da Vinci code;文艺;李奥纳多在伦敦;解密达芬奇密码;A new show offers a rare opportunity to compare Leonardo da Vincis paintings;一个新展览为比较李奥纳多达芬奇的画作提供了一个难能可贵的机会;Scientist, engineer, musician and great artist, Leonardo da Vinci is the archetypal Renaissance man. This undisputed genius, who lived to be 67, was also one of historys most accomplished underachievers. He started many projects he did not finish; he accepted commissions he never began; his many planned treatises remained just notes. Only 18 of his paintings survive. Half of them are included in a show that opened on November 9th at Londons National Gallery, making this the most important da Vinci display ever.集科学家,工程师,音乐家和伟大的艺术家于一身的李奥纳多达芬奇就是文艺复兴时期人类的原型。毫无疑问,达芬奇是个天才,他活到了67岁,虽然有很多成就,但是这位天才也是历史上没有充分发挥真实水平的艺术家之一。他启动的很多工程都没有收尾,他接受了任务却从来没开始做,他计划的很多论文却仅仅停留在几条注释上。达芬奇的画作只有18幅流传了下来。11月9日在伦敦国家美术馆举办了一次画展,达芬奇9幅作品也在其中展出,这是迄今为止最隆重的达芬奇画展。The artist was born near Florence in 1452 and went to Milan at the age of 30. Luke Syson, the shows curator, has come to believe that the freedom da Vinci enjoyed there as court painter to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, was the key that unlocked his genius.达芬奇1452年生于佛罗伦萨附近,三十岁的时候他去了米兰。该展馆馆长卢克塞森相信,宫廷画师达芬奇在为米兰公爵Ludovico Sforza创作时,享受了充分的自由,这是激发达芬奇绘画天赋的关键Mr Sysons contention that Leonardos great breakthrough came in Milan and not later in Florence, as has generally been accepted until now, has captivated curators, collectors and museum directors who have been generous in loaning works to the show; from the Vatican, Prague, Cracow, Paris and the Royal Collection.塞森认为,李奥纳多取得的重大突破在米兰,而不是在后来的佛罗伦萨,一直到今天这一看法都被普遍接受。而塞森的这一主张也吸引了许多展馆馆长,收藏家和物馆负责人,他们都慷慨的将作品借给这次画展,这些画作有的来自梵蒂冈,有的来自布拉格,有的来自克拉科夫,有的来自巴黎,还有的来自皇家珍藏。All the pictures on show were painted during da Vincis 18 years in Milan. Never has it been possible to see so many of da Vincis paintings together. There are also some 50 drawings, including the monumental “Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist” (sometimes called “The Burlington House Cartoon”).展出的所有画作都是达芬奇在米兰18年间创作的。以前要同时见到那么多幅达芬奇作品是不可能的。画展还展出了50幅炭笔素描,具有里程碑意义的《圣母圣婴和圣安妮及施洗约翰》(有时也称《柏林顿宫的漫画》)也包括在其中。The one picture missing from this period is “The Last Supper”, which is painted on a wall. This work, which is badly damaged, is represented here by a large photograph and a near-contemporary (though far inferior) copy. In pages from a notebook da Vincis slanted “mirror” writing describes the guests at a dinner. With a novelists interest in detail, he carefully observed the shrug of one mans shoulders, the position of anothers hands, the scowl on one face and the frown on yet one more.在这一时期,绘制在墙上的画作《最后的晚餐》已经遗失了,这幅作品损坏严重,只能用一张大照片和一幅近现代仿品代替(尽管这幅仿品远远比不上真作).达芬奇在一本笔记本里用倾斜的镜像书写描绘了晚餐中的客人。他带着一个小说家对细节的兴趣。细致入微地观察谁耸了一下肩膀,谁的手怎么放,谁的脸上有怒容,或者谁皱了眉。The exhibition is arranged thematically; in addition to “Beauty and Love”, there is also “Character and Emotion” and “Body and Soul”. The visitor quickly comes face to face with the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, also known as “The Lady with an Ermine” (pictured above). Although the image is familiar from reproductions, the radiance of the painting is surprising. Further along is an unfinished, yet searing, “Saint Jerome”. For the first time, both versions of “The Virgin of the Rocks”, one the National Gallerys own and the other belonging to the Louvre, are shown together.这是一次主题展览。除了“美与爱”的主题外,还有“个性于情感”,“身体与灵魂”两个主题。参观者一进美术馆立即就能与《西西莉亚·加莱拉尼的画像》,也叫《抱貂的女人》打个照面。尽管各种仿制品已经让我们对这幅画很熟悉了,但是真作所散发出来的光辉仍让人惊叹。往前走能看到一幅未完成但却饱含的《圣杰罗姆》。首次,《岩间的圣母》的两个版本同时展出,一幅属于国家美术馆本馆,另一幅来自卢浮宫。The two versions hang at opposite ends of the long exhibition space. The more one looks at the two pictures, the more visible are the differences between them; the strangely formed rocks in the Louvres version create a protective atmosphere, whereas in the National Gallerys painting the rocks seem quite eerie, contributing to the overall sepulchral feel of the work.这两幅画分别挂在长长的展览区两个相对的尽头,遥遥相望。而且你看得越仔细,就会发现它们的区别也更明显。卢浮宫的版本中,岩石奇特的形状营造出一种保护性的氛围,然而在国家美术馆的版本中。岩石似乎十分可怖,给整幅画蒙上了一层阴森森的感觉。As a philosopher and scientist, da Vinci strove to understand what he observed in his close studies of nature. Art was an expression of his thoughts. “The Lady with an Ermine” shows the Duke of Milans teenage mistress in a fashionable red gown, its slit sleeves revealing a pale underdress. Da Vinci, always fascinated by knots, carefully details the way the black ribbons are tied on Cecilias left sleeve. Her right arm is in shadow. The ties on that sleeve are sketchy. The artist has taken into account his observation that visual acuity declines in the dark. The brain fills in necessary information. The sketchiness of the right sleeve helps bring the portrait to life, creating what Walter Pater, a 19th-century British essayist and art critic, described as a “reality which almost amounts to illusion”.做为一个哲学家和科学家,达芬奇总是在努力的理解他在对自然深入研究中所观察到的一切。艺术曾是他用来表达自己想法的一种形式。《抱貂的女人》画的是米兰公爵年轻的情妇,她身着时髦的红袍,从袖子侧缝中透出她浅色的内衣。打好的结,,还有系在西西莉亚左侧袖子上的黑缎带的精心处理过的细节深深吸引着达芬奇。她的右臂处在阴影之中,所以右侧袖子上的缎带只是粗略的几笔。这位艺术家观察到在阴暗处视觉敏锐度会下降,并把这种观察结果应用到绘画中。达芬奇的大脑总是装满了各种必要的信息。正是右侧袖子的模糊轮廓将这幅肖像变得栩栩如生,正如19世界英国家和艺术批评家沃特帕特所描述的那样,创造出了“几乎等同于幻想的现实”Da Vinci would sometimes spend years thinking about a single painting. Mr Syson hopes visitors to the National Gallery will, in turn, look long and hard at these works. Advance tickets for entry to the end of the year had sold out by the opening day. The show does not close until February 5th 2012, but advance tickets for its final weeks are going fast. Meanwhile, the only way to get in now is to queue for one of the 500 tickets being held back for sale each morning. The security checks are elaborate, but the wait is well worth it.达芬奇有时候会花上几年的时间思索一幅画。所以塞森希望来国家美术馆参观的人们反过来也能仔细的欣赏这些作品。到年末的预售票在开馆当天就已经抢购一空。展览将一直持续到2012年2月5日,展览最后一周的预售票正在大卖。现在要进去参观的唯一方式就是去排队买票,每天早上美术馆只出售500张票。而且安全检查十分复杂,不过这种等待是绝对值得的。 /201305/240203

French political fiction法国政治小说What if it were true?如有雷同,纯属巧合?When truth really is stranger than fiction事实远比小说离奇ONE pleasure of the French summer is the publication of political fiction in media usually busy with the soap opera of real political life. During the holidays, reporters let their imaginations run wild. Improbable alliances, liaisons and betrayals are invented. Le Figaro, a conservative newspaper, ran a 17-part fictional series in August entitled “Hollande departs”.LOpinion, another daily, ran a 14-part series originally called “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”.法国夏日的乐趣之一---媒体相传的政治小说通常都是取自于真正政治闹剧或政界风云。在假日里,记者们让自己自由驰骋在想象的大草原上。他们构造出不可能的联盟、伙伴和对手。保守派报刊费加罗报在8月连载了一部17期的系列小说《奥德朗的离开》。另一份观点日报则连载了一部14期的原创小说《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》。Other countries turn out political drama, from Americas “House of Cards” to Denmarks “Borgen”. But the French seem keen on fiction based on real characters. In recent years directors have made films about serving, or recently active, politicians, including “La conquete”, a fictional portrayal of the rise to power of Nicolas Sarkozy, the former president. “Quai dOrsay” was an entertaining glimpse into theatrics at the foreign office under a fictitious Dominique de Villepin, a former foreign minister.从美国的《纸牌屋》到丹麦的《根》,其他国家也有政治题材的电视剧。但是似乎只有法国尤其喜欢基于真实人物的作品。近些年导演们只做了一些关于役、近期政治动作或政客的电影,包括《征》。这部电影虚构的描述了前总统尼古拉斯·萨尔科齐的崛起。《奥尔赛码头》则是对虚构的前外交部长多米尼克·德维尔潘手下的外交部做了一个有趣的窥探。Television does it too. A French series, “LEcole du Pouvoir”, followed five characters who met at the elite Ecole Nationale dAdministration in the late 1970s, ahead of the election of a Socialist president, Fran?ois Mitterrand, in 1981. One seemed rather like Fran?ois Hollande, the incumbent; another resembled Ségolène Royal, his classmate, former partner and defeated 2007 presidential candidate.电视媒体也很热衷政治剧。一部名为《学院权利》的电视剧讲述了19世纪70年代末在精英学校国家行政学院相遇的5名主角的故事。剧中背景为1981年,正值社会主义总统弗朗索瓦·密特朗当选前。其中一名主角就像现总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德,另一个就像他的同学塞格琳·罗雅尔。罗亚尔也是奥朗德的前女友,但她在2007年总统候选人选举中落选。French publishers also like the stuff, although more often as apocalyptic futurism. Recent titles include “La nuit de la faillite”, a racy thriller by Gaspard Koenig, a former speechwriter for Christine Lagarde when she was finance minister, in which he imagines a New York trader provoking a default on French sovereign debt. Nicolas Baverez, a lawyer and writer, recently published “Lettres béninoises”, a novel set in a dystopian 2040 France.法国出版商也很喜欢这种题材,尽管这类作品经常被当做世界末日的预警。最近一些作品名,例如加斯帕德·科尼戈的生动惊悚片《夜间破产》。他是克里斯蒂娜·拉加德就任财政部长期间的前演讲稿攥稿人。在影片中他想象纽约以拖欠国债来挑衅法国。律师兼作家尼古拉斯·巴维莱兹最近出版了一部小说《贝宁的文学》,其背景设定在2040反乌托邦的法国。Why the passion for political fiction? The truth in French politics is often as strange as, or stranger than, such musings. A summer 2013 series in Le Figaro imagined Mr Valls as prime minister; in 2014 it happened. And in “The kidnapping of Arnaud Montebourg”, also penned by Mr Koenig, a group of libertarians snatch the former minister to stop him damaging France. The series was still running when Mr Montebourg was evicted from the government for criticising its economic policy为何媒体如此热衷于政治小说呢?事实上,法国政治经常与这种小说思路一样奇特,有时甚至更甚。2013年夏天《奥朗德的离开》中虚构瓦尔斯担任总理,结果2014年这变为现实。在科尼戈所著的《阿诺德·蒙特的绑架》中,一群自由主义者抓了前任部长以阻止他继续破坏法国。这部剧集在蒙特伯格因批评政府的经济政策而被逐出政府时仍在播映。 /201409/325603

Science and technology科学技术What dinosaurs ate恐龙吃什么The belly of the beast腹中发现A chance discovery from China suggests some dinosaurs lived in trees在中国的一次偶然发现暗示着有些恐龙在树上生活WHAT dinosaurs ate is,恐龙吃什么?of course, a question as interesting and illuminating as what ate dinosaurs.当然,这个问题与什么吃恐龙?一样有趣,一样具有启发性。In the case of one particular dinosaur,Microraptor, the matter was addressed in a presentation to the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology by Jingmai OConnor of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, in Beijing.但就小盗龙吃什么这一问题,北京中国科学院古脊椎动物和古人类研究所的Jingmai OConnor在古脊椎动物学会年会上发表了演说。Microraptoris one of many small, feathered dinosaurs found in what is now China that were alive during the Cretaceous period more than 66m years ago.小盗龙,生活在距今六千六百多万年前的白垩纪,是现今中国境内发现的众多体型娇小、长有羽毛的恐龙之一。Being feathered, it and its kind were cousins to birds.这一种恐龙身着羽毛,是鸟类的近亲。The actual split between the two groups, though, had happened much earlier, during the Jurassic period, and by the late Cretaceous there were many species of bird around.尽管,这两种物种早在侏罗纪时期就已分道扬镳,而且,到了白垩纪后期,已出现了许多种的鸟类。What Dr OConnor and her colleagues have found is the remains of one of those birds, of an as-yet-unidentified species, in the stomach of a specimen of Microraptor.士OConnor和她同事在小盗龙样本的胃中发现了那时期鸟类的残骸,但其种类还未得到鉴别。That is interesting.那是非常有趣的。Discovering direct evidence of what a fossil animal ate,找出古生物吃什么的直接据是有价值的。rather than having to infer it from details such as the shape of its teeth, is always valuable.比起根据其牙齿形状等细节来推测出结果,But the finds true significance is a small detail of the preys anatomy:但是,这个发现真正重要之处却是其骨骼的一个细微之处:the third toe of its foot.它脚掌的第三个脚趾。The size of the preys third toe is important because, among birds, long third toes are helpful for grasping branches and perching in trees.捕食者第三个脚趾的大小是很重要的,因为,对于鸟来说,长长的第三趾可以帮助其抓紧树枝,在树上栖息。Indeed, the trait is so useful for arboreal life that it is used by many avian palaeontologists to decide whether newly excavated species of fossil birds lived in trees or on the ground.的确,对于树栖生物这一特点是相当有用的,而许多鸟类古生物学家也利用这一特点来确定新挖掘出的鸟类化石是栖息在树上还是生活在地面上。And the last meal of this particular specimen of Microraptor did, indeed, have a long third toe.而小盗龙的最后一餐显然长有长长的第三个脚趾。That elongated toe suggests to Dr OConnor that Microraptor, too,那细长的脚趾暗示着OConnor士小盗龙也是树栖的。was arboreal, and hints that its feathers may have helped it to move through an environment where hops, jumps and flaps between branches were a regular part of its daily activity.在一个需在枝桠间跳跃、滑行的生活环境中,它的羽毛可能对它的日常活动有所帮助。Whether the first birds evolved from arboreal or terrestrial ancestors is a matter of lively debate among palaeontologists.关于第一只鸟是从树栖还是陆生的祖先进化而来,一直是古生物学家激烈争论的话题。A fossil formed so long after birds emerged does not, in truth, shed much light on that debate.事实上,一个在鸟类出现很久之后形成的化石并没有使得这一论战明朗化。But it does suggest feathers may have helped promote life in the trees, even for creatures that could not actually fly.但是,这的确说明对于居于树上、即使是那些根本不能飞的树栖生物来说,羽毛可能真的有助于它们的生活。 /201306/242694

Science and technology科学技术Computer passwords电脑密码Speak, friend, and enter说,朋友和进入Computer passwords need to be memorable and secure.电脑密码须具备两个特性:易记及难猜。Most peoples are the first but not the second.但是大部分人的密码只注重了前者却忽略了后者。Researchers are trying to make it easier for them to be both研究人员正努力让两者兼而有之变得更以实现。PASSWORDS are ubiquitous in computer security.密码在电脑安全领域的应用相当普遍。All too often, they are also ineffective.但他们往往没起什么作用。A good password has to be both easy to remember and hard to guess, but in practice people seem to plump for the former over the latter.一个好密码必须具备易记及难猜两个特征,而实际上人们好像只注意到了前者而忽略了后者。Names of wives, husbands and children are popular.以妻子,丈夫或孩子的名字作为密码的人大有人在。Some take simplicity to extremes: one former deputy editor of The Economist used z for many years.有些人的密码简单到了极点:The Economist的一位前副主编多年来一直用Z作密码。And when hackers stole 32m passwords from a social-gaming website called RockYou, it emerged that 1.1% of the sites users—365,000 people—had opted either for 123456 or for 12345.当黑客在社交游戏网站盗取了3200万用户的密码后,人们才发现原来这个网站大约1.1%的用户-也就是365,000人-选择了12345或123456作为密码。That predictability lets security researchers create dictionaries which list common passwords, a boon to those seeking to break in.安全性研究人员于是根据密码的这种可预见性编制了一些罗列处各种常见密码的字典,这对那些有志于破解他人密码的人来说可说是找到了福音。But although researchers know that passwords are insecure, working out just how insecure has been difficult.但即使研究人员已经知道了密码不安全,要确切地给出个不安全系数却是很困难的。Many studies have only small samples to work on—a few thousand passwords at most.许多研究项目的对象只有一小块样本-最多只有几千个密码。Hacked websites such as RockYou have provided longer lists, but there are ethical problems with using hacked information, and its availability is unpredictable.像Rockyou这样被黑的网站能够提供更多的密码,但使用黑客盗取的密码不仅会引发道德问题上的争议,其可行性也是未知的。However, a paper to be presented at a security conference held under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a New York-based professional body, in May, sheds some light.然而,在五月份由总部位于纽约的一个专业组织-电气电子协会持下召开了一场安全性研讨会议,会上公布的一份文件让我们看到了解决这个难题的一丝曙光。With the co-operation of Yahoo!, a large internet company, Joseph Bonneau of Cambridge University obtained the biggest sample to date—70m passwords that, though anonymised, came with useful demographic data about their owners.在一家大型网络公司-雅虎的协助下,剑桥大学的Joseph Bonneau得到了一份迄今为止最大的研究样本,虽然是匿名的,但是包含了其用户极为有用的人口学数据。Mr Bonneau found some intriguing variations.在这份样本中Mr Bonneau发现了一些有趣的差异。Older users had better passwords than young ones.相较于年轻用户,老用户设置的用户更好。People whose preferred language was Korean or German chose the most secure passwords; those who spoke Indonesian the least.母语为韩语或德语的用户所设置的密码安全系数最高,而说印尼语的最低。Passwords designed to hide sensitive information such as credit-card numbers were only slightly more secure than those protecting less important things, like access to games.被设置用来隐藏像信用卡卡号这样的敏感信息的密码,相比较于另外一些保护游戏登录入口这样不那么重要的信息所设置的密码,其安全性高不了多少。Nag screens that told users they had chosen a weak password made virtually no difference.那些提醒用户设置的密码安全性较低的唠叨屏幕其实没有什么作用。And users whose accounts had been hacked in the past did not make dramatically more secure choices than those who had never been hacked.相对于那些从没被黑过的,有过账户被黑经验的用户的安全防范意识也并没得到显著提高。But it is the broader analysis of the sample that is of most interest to security researchers.但是,对研究样本进行更为综合性的分析才是安全性研究人员的兴趣所在。For, despite their differences, the 70m users were still predictable enough that a generic password dictionary was effective against both the entire sample and any demographically organised slice of it.因为尽管存在各种差异,但是通过分析样本中那7000万用户的资料还是可以预见到,一部通用的密码暴力破解字典就能够有效应付这一整个样本,或者任何根据某项人口学特征而从中抽取的一小块资料。Mr Bonneau is blunt: An attacker who can manage ten guesses per account…will compromise around 1% of accounts.Mr Bonneau直言不讳地说:只要每个账号给破解者10次猜测密码的机会...会有大约1%的密码被破解。And that, from the hackers point of view, is a worthwhile outcome.这在黑客看来绝对值得一试。One obvious answer would be for sites to limit the number of guesses that can be made before access is blocked, as cash machines do.对网站而言,很显然,他们可以在系统上进行类似于ATM机的设置:一旦密码输入错误次数达到规定者,即封锁登录入口。Yet whereas the biggest sites, such as Google and Microsoft, do take such measures,many do not.然而,只有谷歌、微软这样的大型网站采取了类似的措施,很多其他网站对此不以为意。A sample of 150 big websites examined in 2010 by Mr Bonneau and his colleague Sren Preibusch found that 126 made no attempt to limit guessing.在2010年,Mr Bonneau和他的同事Sren Preibusch曾对一份囊括了150家大型网站的样本做过调查,结果显示其中126家并没有对密码输入错误次数作出限制。How this state of affairs arose is obscure.这种状况的状况的出现实在是令人费解。For some sites, laxity may be rational, since their passwords are not protecting anything particularly valuable, such as credit-card details.对一些站点来说,在安全防范上的相对松弛是可以理解的,因为它们站设置的密码并非为了保护类似信用卡信息这样特别重要的内容。But password laxity imposes costs even on sites with good security, since people often use the same password for several different places.但即使对拥有良好安全防范措施的网站来说,密码系统上的疏于防范也会大大增加花费,因为人们喜欢在多个地方使用同一个密码。One suggestion is that lax password security is a cultural remnant of the internets innocent youth—an academic research network has few reasons to worry about hackers.有一种说法认为他们在密码上防范疏松的做法乃是源于网上那群不谙世事的年青一代的文化特征-一个专门用于学术研究的网络几乎不需担心黑客入侵。Another possibility is that because many sites begin as cash-strapped start-ups, for which implementing extra password security would take up valuable programming time, they skimp on it at the beginning and then never bother to change.还有一种可能是许多网站在建站初期都面临资金短缺的问题,而为系统配上更安全的保护措施会消耗大量宝贵的编程时间,因此他们一开始就在这一步上偷工减料,然后再也懒得去加以改善了。But whatever the reason, it behoves those unwilling to wait for websites to get their acts together to consider the alternatives to traditional passwords.无论原因何在,与其等待所有网站都建立起一个完善的密码保护系统的那一天到来,不如由我们自己想出一个传统密码的替代方案。One such is multi-word passwords called passphrases.其中一种选择是使用密码组,Using several words instead of one means an attacker has to guess more letters, which creates more security—but only if the phrase chosen is not one likely to turn up, through familiar usage, in a dictionary of phrases.它由多个词组合起来形成,使用多个词而不是一个词用作密码的优势在于:这使得破解者需要猜出更多的字母,从而提高了密码的安全性-但前提是选择的词组不能是词典里经常出现的惯用语,Which, of course, it often is.可惜这个前提常常未被满足。Mr Bonneau and his colleague Ekaterina Shutova have analysed a real-world passphrase system employed by Amazon, an online retailer that allowed its American users to employ passphrases between October and February 2012.Mr Bonneau和他的同事Ekaterina Shutova曾经研究过一个真实的密码组系统,该系统由网上零售商Amazon使用,Amazon曾与年10月至2012年2月间允许他们的用户使用密码组作为密码。They found that, although passphrases do offer better security than passwords, they are not as good as had been hoped.他们发现,密码组虽然较一般密码而言安全性更高,但实际效果并不如预期中好。A phrase of four or five randomly chosen words is fairly secure. But remembering several such phrases is no easier than remembering several randomly chosen passwords.用一串由4,5个随机选择的词组合成密码是相当安全的,但问题是记住这样一些组合并不比那些随机选择的密码容易。Once again, the need for memorability is a boon to attackers.又一次,密码需具备易记性成为了破解者的福音。By scraping the internet for lists of things like film titles, sporting phrases and slang, Mr Bonneau and Dr Shutova were able to construct a 20,656-word dictionary that unlocked 1.13% of the accounts in Amazons database.通过在网上一点点搜集像电影名,体育相关用语和俚语这样的一个个词组,Mr Bonneau和Dr Shutova编制了一部囊括了20,656个词的字典,它已经成功开启了Amazon数据库里1.13%的账号。The researchers also suspected that even those who do not use famous phrases would still prefer patterns found in natural language over true randomness.研究人员还怀疑,即使是那些不使用著名短语的,他们也会更倾向于按照自然语言中得模式而不会安全基于随机性。So they compared their collection of passphrases with two-word phrases extracted at random from the British National Corpus, and from the Google NGram Corpus.所以他们将收集的密码组同从英国国家语料库中随机选取的两词组合短词,还有google的Google NGram Corpus进行了比较。Sure enough, they found considerable overlap between structures common in ordinary English and the phrases chosen by Amazons users.果然,他们发现在惯常英语中得常见结构与Amazon的用户所选的短语间出现了一定程度的重叠。Some 13% of the adjective-noun constructions which the researchers tried were on the money, as were 5% of adverb-verb mixes.在研究人员分析的样本里面,在与金钱有关的组合中,有13%的形容词-名词,而副词-动词则达到了5%。One way round that is to combine the ideas of a password and a passphrase into a so-called mnemonic password.一个折中的解决办法是将普通密码和密码组的概念揉合成一种所谓的助记性密码,This is a string of apparent gibberish which is not actually too hard to remember.它是一种看起来莫名其妙的字符串,但实际上要记住并不太难。It can be formed, for example, by using the first letter of each word in a phrase, varying upper and lower case, and substituting some symbols for others—8 for B, for instance.助记性密码可以这样形成:挑出一个词组里每个单词的第一个字母,可以将其中一些进行大小写变化,另外一些则用某些符号来代替,例如8代替B。Even mnemonic passwords, however, are not invulnerable.然而,助记密码也并非是牢不可破的。A study published in 2006 cracked 4% of the mnemonics in a sample using a dictionary based on song lyrics, film titles and the like.在2006年就有一项公布的研究成果显示一个样本里4%的助记密码遭到破解,手段是利用一部基于歌词,电影名及相似内容的字典。The upshot is that there is probably no right answer.看来这个难题是找不到完美的了。All security is irritating,and there is a constant tension between peoples desire to be safe and their desire for things to be simple.任何安全措施都是烦人的。在人们对安全的需求及万事从简的愿望间存在着不可调和的矛盾。While that tension persists, the hacker will always get through.只要这种矛盾存在,黑客们就总能找到. /201403/279627

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