明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月18日 16:27:54
On a cold, dark street in Tijuana, Mexico, I asked Eddie Huang a question that many people were sure to ask him in the months to come. “What did you expect?”在墨西哥提华纳一条阴冷黑暗的街道上,我问了黄颐铭(Eddie Huang)一个几个月来大家都会问的一个问题:“你的期望是什么?”For the past week in December, Huang had been venting about his tortured ambivalence toward “Fresh Off the Boat,” the A sitcom based on the memoir he wrote about growing up as a child of Taiwanese immigrants in Orlando, Fla. He deployed his gift for pithy, wounding invective against the show’s producers and writers — before professing gratitude and love for the same people he just vilified. He described what he took to be the show’s falseness and insensitivity to nuance — before praising its first episode as the best sitcom pilot he had ever seen. He lamented the choice he had made to sell his life rights to a major network — before insisting that the premiere of “Fresh Off the Boat” on Feb. 4 would be a milestone, not just in the history of television but in the history of the ed States.十二月的过去一周里,黄一直在发泄他对《初来乍到》(Fresh Off the Boat)所持有的那种令人纠结的矛盾心态。这部美国广播公司旗下的情景喜剧改编自黄的回忆录,讲述了他作为台湾移民的孩子在佛罗里达州奥兰多的成长经历。说起该剧的制作人和编剧们的时候,黄充分发挥了他那说简洁有力的恶毒脏话的天分。可是坏话刚说完,他接着又表达了对这些人的感激和喜爱之情。他批评该剧虚伪,没有传达出原著的精妙之处,可是马上又对第一集大加赞赏,说那是他看过的最好的情景喜剧试播集。他对于把自己人生故事的版权卖给一个大电视网的这一决定后悔不已,但接着又坚称二月四日《初来乍到》的首播不但将是电视历史上,也是整个美国历史的一个里程碑。He had a point. “Fresh Off the Boat” would be the first network sitcom to star an Asian-American family in 20 years and only the third attempt by any major network in the history of the medium. Huang chose to sign with A in deference to the residual power of network television to alter mass perceptions about race, and he had hoped to portray the Asian-immigrant experience without equivocation or compromise.他有理由这么说。《初来乍到》是二十年来在美国电视网播出以亚裔美国家庭为主角的第一部情景喜剧。在美国电视史上,所有的主要电视网加在一起只有三次这样的尝试。黄选择跟A合作,是觉得电视网还有一定的残余影响力,可以改变公众对种族的看法。他希望能够毫不含糊、毫无妥协地描绘亚洲移民的生活经历。“What did I expect?” Huang responded. “I expected I could change things.” He told me that he thought his story was powerful enough for A to allow him to tell it his way. “I thought that people in network television had their own conscience about things.”“我期望什么?”黄回应了我的问题,“我期望能够改变一些事。”他告诉我他本来相信他的故事足够震撼,能够说A不做任何干涉,以他的方式讲述。“我原本是相信电视网的人还是有一点良心的。”Huang, 32, was dressed in an acid-wash denim jacket and a black fur hat with its earflaps folded up, which lent his large, round baby face a not-at-all-coincidental resemblance to a certain East Asian dictator. (Huang likes to give himself nicknames — Kim Jong Trill, the Rotten Banana, the Human Panda, the Chinkstronaut — all of which, like the name of his show, repurpose and reclaim slurs and stereotypes.) He was sitting on the back fender of a Vice Media van, in which a five-man crew was preparing its equipment to shoot. We were waiting for two young female marijuana dealers whom Huang would be interviewing for “Huang’s World,” the gonzo food and travel show he hosts for Vice.黄今年32岁。他穿着一件做旧的牛仔夹克。黑色皮毛帽子护耳上翻,加上他那张又大又圆的娃娃脸,这形象似乎是在有意模仿某位东亚独裁者 。(黄喜欢给自己起诸如“金正雀”、“烂香蕉”、“熊猫人”、“中国佬宇航员”这样的外号。这些外号像他节目的名字一样,重新利用种族侮辱和种族定型,赋予它们新意)黄坐在一辆Vice传媒面包车的后保险杠上。在车里,五位工作人员正准备设备开拍。我们在等两位女大麻贩子。黄将要为《黄的世界》(Huang’s World)采访她们,这是他给Vice主持的一档怪诞的美食旅行节目 。He had, he admitted, been extremely na#239;ve about the realities of network television. By way of explanation, Huang reviewed for me the string of previous triumphs that induced him to overrate his ability to set his own terms in the world. “You have to remember how unlikely all of this was. With Baohaus, for instance,” he said, referring to the basement hole-in-the-wall Taiwanese sandwich shop that took Huang to the forefront of a new generation of hip young New York chefs, “I had never worked in a New York City restaurant. I came out of nowhere. And I did it!” After a brief dalliance with the Cooking Channel, Huang started the Vice show, which at the time was called “Fresh Off the Boat.” “When had there been a television host with an identity like mine — a hip-hop Asian kid? I was the first! And the show was a huge success!” In 2013, he published a memoir, the story that Huang had always wanted to tell, and it became a national best seller. “And so I said, We can do this one more time! But network television wasn’t what I thought it was.”黄承认,他此前对电视网节目的现实情况的认识极度天真。作为解释,他向我列举了自己此前一系列的成功,这些经验使他高估了自己可以在与电视网合作过程中自作主张的能力。“我之前的成功真是不可思议。拿Baohaus来说”——这是他经营的一家开在地下室的台式刈包店,这个简陋小店使黄成了新一代纽约年轻新潮厨师的领军人物——“我没有在纽约市任何餐厅的工作经历。我没有任何背景,但我却成功了!”在跟美食频道的短暂合作后,黄开始在Vice主持他的节目。那时这个节目就叫做《初来乍到》。“之前没有任何一个电视主持人有我这样的身份——一个嘻哈亚裔小子?我是第一个!我的节目大获成功!”2013年,他出版了一本回忆录,讲述了他一直就想讲的故事,而这部回忆录也成了全国畅销书。“所以我会说:‘我们可以再来一次!’但是电视网节目并不是我想象的那回事。”Huang feels that by adulterating the specificity of his childhood in the pursuit of universal appeal, the show was performing a kind of “reverse yellow#173;face” — telling white American stories with Chinese faces. He doesn’t want to purchase mainstream accessibility at the expense of the distinctiveness of his lived experiences, though he is aware of how acutely Asian-#173;Americans hunger for any kind of cultural recognition. “Culturally, we are in an ice age,” he said. “We don’t even have fire. We don’t even have the wheel. If this can be the first wheel, maybe others can make three more.”黄认为,为了迎合大众口味而减弱他童年故事的独特性,会使《初来乍到》变成“反向黄面孔”——利用中国人的面孔讲述美国白人的故事。虽然他很清楚亚裔美国人非常渴望得到任何文化承认,但是他不想为了打入主流而牺牲掉他个人经历的独特性。“我们在文化上还处于冰河世纪,”他说,“我们连火都不会生。连轮子也还没发明。如果《初来乍到》能成为第一个轮子,也许别人可以做出另外三个。”Then, he added, “we can get an axle and build a rice rocket.”接着,他又说道:“我们可以弄个轮轴,造一辆‘亚洲小跑车’。”The story Huang tells in his memoir is one of survival and struggle in a hostile environment — a prosperous neighborhood in Orlando. Though the picaresque book is written in Huang’s jaunty mash-up of hip-hop lingo and conspicuously learned references to American history and literature, it is also an extraordinarily raw account of an abused and bullied child who grows to inflict violence on others. The racism Huang encounters in Florida is not underhanded, implicit or subtle, as it often is for the many Asians from the professional classes living in and around the coastal cities where the American educated elite reside. It is open, overt and violent.黄在回忆录中讲述的是一个在奥兰多某富裕社区中生存和斗争的故事。对他来说那是一个充满敌意的环境。黄在这一充斥着流氓小混混的作品中生动地夹杂了嘻哈语言。与之形成强烈对比的是他对美国历史和文学典故的旁征引。但他的作品远不止于此。黄用异常朴实震撼的笔触描写了一个饱受虐待和欺辱的孩子学会如何以牙还牙的故事。和许多住在教育精英聚集的东西海岸地区的亚裔职业人士不一样,黄在佛罗里达遭受到的种族歧视不是偷偷摸摸、暗示性的,或是含蓄的。在这里,种族歧视是公开的,没有任何掩饰的,甚至是暴力的。“Up North and out West, you have a bit more focus on academics, and there are accelerated programs for high-achieving kids,” said Emery Huang, reflecting on the tumultuous upbringing he shared with his brother. “Down South, you’ve got football and drinking, and that’s it. If you weren’t fighting, you were a nerd and a victim.” In response to this bullying, the Huang brothers did not conform to the docile stereotypes of Asian-American youths, in large part because of the influence of their father, Louis. A hardened, street-smart man, Louis had been sent by his own father to the ed States to get him away from the hoodlums he had been running with in Taipei. “We wouldn’t get in trouble with our dad if we got into a fight,” Emery said. “We would get in trouble if we didn’t win.”“在北部或是西部,人们更重视学业。他们有很多给优等生的快进课程,”黄的弟弟埃莫瑞·黄(Emery Huang)回忆起他和哥哥的成长经历时说道。“在我们南部,除了橄榄球和喝酒,没有别的了。如果你不打架,那你就是个书呆子,就会被别人欺负。”在欺凌面前,黄家兄弟并没有符合亚裔美国孩子的温顺典型,这在很大程度上是受了他们父亲路易的影响。路易是一个坚毅精明的角色。为了不让他在台北和小流氓们混,路易在年轻时被自己的父亲送到了美国。“如果我们打架的话,父亲并不会找我们麻烦,” 埃莫瑞说。“但是如果我们打架输了,那就有麻烦了。”Huang’s memoir records an unusual life trajectory: from tormented outsider, to angry adolescent who would twice be arrested on assault charges, to marijuana dealer, to high-end street-wear designer (under the “Hoodman” label, which eventually led to a lawsuit from Bergdorf Goodman), to corporate lawyer, to successful restaurateur. The book fixates on themes of pain and punishment. As a teenager, Huang was commanded by his father to kneel and bow to police officers after he was caught stealing from neighbors. Later, he would find himself surrounded by cops with guns drawn after he drove his car into a crowd of frat guys who were menacing him and several friends (after one of his own broke a window at their house).黄的回忆录记录了他不同寻常的生活历程:他从一个受欺负的外来者、一个因受到袭击指控被逮捕两次的愤怒少年、一个大麻贩子,成长为一位高端街头时尚设计师(黄的品牌“Hoodman”最终遭到了波道夫·古德曼[Bergdorf Goodman]的侵权诉讼)、一位公司律师、一位成功的餐厅业主。苦难和惩罚是该回忆录的两大主题。在他十来岁的时候,黄因为偷邻居的东西被抓获。他父亲命令他向警员们下跪鞠躬。这之后,他因为开车冲撞了威胁他和他朋友们的一群兄弟会成员而被持的警察围堵(事情的起因是黄的一位朋友砸碎了兄弟会房屋的窗户)。At times, Huang comes across in his memoir as a dutiful son who admires and reveres his parents and feels the enormous weight of obligation to them — “I wasn’t mad at my dad,” he writes after being forced to remain kneeling on his asphalt driveway for several hours, “I deserved it” — and at others as an enraged teenager, rebelling against constant assaults on his self-esteem to which he was subjected in the home — he recalls “constantly being told I was a fan tong (rice bucket), fat-ass or waste of space.” He finds in hip-hop a language for his alienation, citing Tupac Shakur’s “Me Against the World” as the cathartic soundtrack of his youth. (“Our parents, Confucius, the model-minority [expletive] and kung-fu-style discipline are what set us off,” he wrote. “But Pac held us down.”)在回忆录中,黄有时把自已描绘成一个敬重父母、知道自己责任重大的孝顺儿子。有一次,父亲让他在沥青车道上跪了好几个小时。黄这样写道:“我没有生父亲的气, 我是活该。”但在另一些段落里,他却显得是一个愤怒少年,反抗在家中不断受到的对自尊心的打击。他回忆说:“我不断地被叫做饭桶、肥仔或是废物。”黄在嘻哈乐中找到了表达自己疏离感的语言。图派克·夏库尔(Tupac Shakur)的《反抗世界》(Me Against the World)是他青年时代的宣泄之声。(“我们的父母、儒家哲学、少数群体典范和功夫般的严明纪律让我们吃不消,”他说,“是派克给了我们持。”)In Los Angeles later in December, while driving with Huang in his canary yellow Porsche Boxster to his Malibu apartment, I asked him what his parents thought of his portrayal of the abuse they inflicted on him.我再后来见到黄是在12月的洛杉矶。我们开着他那辆鲜黄色的保时捷驶向黄在马里布的公寓。我问他,他的父母对于他在回忆录中描写的他们对他的虐待有什么看法。“My parents have never acknowledged that it was abuse — because in their culture and their country it wasn’t,” he said. Huang believes that the psychological and physical harm that was done to him was largely a matter of context. “I think the abuse had extra meaning that I gave to it, because I saw that it wasn’t happening to other kids.” For a time, every Friday afternoon, Huang said, social workers would take him out of class to inspect him for cuts and bruises. “And I knew that I was weird and different and was made to feel like I had done something wrong, like there was something wrong with us.”“我父母从来不承认这是虐待,因为在他们的文化和国家里这不是,”黄说。他认为他受到的心理和生理的伤害在很大程度上跟周围环境有关。“我看到别的孩子并没有受到跟我一样的遭遇,所以我对我受到的虐待赋予了更多的含义。”他解释说有一段时间,在每个周五下午,会有社工把他从教室里领出来查看他身上有没有伤口或淤青。“这让我觉得我是个与众不同的怪胎,或是我做错了什么,或是我们亚裔本身就有什么不对头的地方。”The book proposal for “Fresh Off the Boat” was sent to publishers not long after an excerpt from Amy Chua’s memoir, “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother,” appeared in The Wall Street Journal. The commercial prospects of Huang’s proposal were almost certainly enhanced by this coincidence: Chua’s book indirectly addressed the chief preoccupation of the American upper-middle class — getting their children into top-tier colleges — and therefore generated one of the infrequent moments in which Asian-#173;Americans aroused the fascination of the wider American public. Chua made Asian-Americans matter just long enough for Huang’s proposal to sell as a counternarrative to hers.在《华尔街日报》登出蔡美儿(Amy Chua)的《虎妈战歌》(Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother)节选后不久,黄就找到出版商,提出了想写《初来乍到》这样一本书。这一巧合大大提升了他的作品的商业前景。蔡的书间接地回应了美国中上产阶层最关心的一个问题——如何把他们的孩子们送到一流大学,从而激起了更大范围内的美国大众对亚裔美国人群体少见的兴趣。蔡让亚裔美国人成为话题中心,而黄正好搭上了东风,可以标榜为《虎妈战歌》的反调作品来营销。The Journal excerpt, titled “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,” gave what Chua would later claim was a misleading impression of the overall arc of her book, which chronicled the crisis that ensued when her younger daughter revolted against “Chinese” parenting methods that might seem “unimaginable — even legally actionable” to Western parents. But the marketing campaign, of which the excerpt was a part, appealed to an underlying (and not entirely unjustified) concern among white American parents that they had grown too indulgent toward their children. Huang found the book repellent. “She Kumon-ized our existence,” he told me, referring to the popular Japanese after-school learning program. “This is something that 50- and 60-year-old Asians are still dealing with.”蔡后来声称,《华尔街日报》的节选《为什么华裔母亲更胜一筹》 误导读者以偏概全,她的书其实是描写了小女儿对中国式的教子方法产生逆反心理后发生的危机。这些方法在西方父母看来“不可想像,甚至会有法律问题”。但是《虎妈战歌》的营销活动——节选也是营销活动的一部分——迎合了白种美国父母对于自己是不是太溺爱孩子的担忧(这担忧不是没有一定道理)。黄对《虎妈战歌》深恶痛绝,“她把我们都给公文式化了,”他告诉我说。公文式是一个流行的日本课后学习教程。“五六十岁的亚裔都有这个问题,”他说。When I spoke to Huang’s parents, they didn’t deny his claims, but they emphasized that there was a cultural and generational gap. They were young at the time, they said, and they had reverted to parenting practices they saw in Taiwan. “I wanted to make them tough,” his father said, “and I think that I did.” Emery, however, claims that his brother’s harsh depiction of their childhood in the book seemed “sugarcoated.”当我采访黄的父母时,他们并没有驳斥黄在书中的描写。但是他们强调和儿子之间有文化和年龄的鸿沟。他们说,自己当时还年轻,教育儿子的时候就沿袭了他们在台湾看到的那套。“我想让他们坚强。”黄的父亲说,“我想我做到了。”但是埃莫瑞却说,哥哥的书对他们的严酷童年仍旧有些轻描淡写。Still, Huang is quick to say that he never thinks of his parents as bad people. “I do think about getting hit, though,” he said. “And I definitely am the way I am because of it. I am quick to react. I am quick to protect myself. I am very comfortable with people yelling at me. And I am very comfortable telling people exactly what I think. I am very comfortable getting personal.”尽管如此,黄还是马上指出他从来没有认为父母是坏人。“但是我仍旧会想起挨打的事,”他说。“这肯定对我的性格有影响。我反应快。会很快地采取行动保护自己。当别人骂我的时候我一点儿也不在乎。我很乐于告诉别人我的想法。我也不在乎互相进行人身攻击。”This mixture of love and loathing toward parents will be familiar to generations of immigrants of every color, but Asian-Americans feel this tension with an unusual acuteness, in part because Confucian tradition is so explicitly directed toward the breaking of individual autonomy in favor of the demands of the family. This tension is compounded by the fact that, as a result of the federal Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which eased national-#173;origin as, Asians began arriving in the ed States in large numbers just as the cultural upheaval of the 1960s was drastically loosening American manners and mores. Today the means that many Asian-Americans apply to achieve academic success (a narrow emphasis on rote memorization and test preparation) could not be more out of step with the attitudes and practices of the socially liberal elite that Asians aspire to join. The ensuing cultural dissonance generates an awkward silence around the topic of Asian-Americans — Asian-#173;Americans don’t want to portray their parents as backward, and white liberals don’t want to be seen as looking down on people of other races and cultures whose parenting practices seem primitive. Huang hates this silence.所有种族的移民都有这种对父母爱恨交加的情感。但是这种情感在亚裔美国人身上体现更为强烈,这其中一部分原因来自提倡牺牲自我以顾全家庭的儒家传统。而在1965年的《移民与国籍法》放宽了国籍配额后,亚裔移民在六十年代文化动荡对美式习俗和道德观念造成巨大冲击的同时大批地来到美国。在这一背景下,亚裔子女更容易对父辈生出矛盾心理。如今,许多亚裔美国人用以取得优异学业的方法(死记硬背和应试学习)与他们期望融入的社会自由派精英的理念和做法格格不入。这种文化上的不协调使亚裔美国人成了一个让人缄口的话题:亚裔美国人不想把他们的父母描述成落后于时代,而白种自由派人士又不想显得看不起别的种族和文化——尽管他们认为后者的教育方式过于原始。黄讨厌在这一话题上的沉默。It is no paradox that Huang’s brazen attitude resembles nothing so much as that of his brash immigrant mother. As we arrived at his apartment in Malibu, Huang casually mentioned that his mother had on more than one occasion turned the wheel of her car sharply into oncoming traffic to terrorize her children into compliance. But Huang would later insist that he owes everything he has become to her. “Every morning, whether it was weekdays or weekends, she would get me up and start demanding: ‘What are you going to do with yourself today? What is the plan? What is the itinerary?’#8201;” Huang credits this with instilling in him the drive that made him relentless in his pursuit of success.黄的坦诚态度跟他泼辣的母亲如出一撤。我们到了他在马里布的公寓以后,黄很随意地提起,他母亲好几次把车突然转向马路对面的车流以吓唬孩子们就范。但是黄后来又说他有今天的成就都要归功于母亲。“每天早上,不论是工作日还是周末,她都会叫我起床,然后问我:‘你今天要做什么?有什么计划?什么行程?’”黄说母亲的唠叨给了他不屈不饶追求成功的冲劲。In fact, his mother’s haranguing inadvertently helped jump-start his writing career. In 2010, his attempt at a second restaurant, Xiao Ye, received a zero-star review in The New York Times. The restaurant’s included facetiously racist items, including an “Everything but the Dog Meat Plate” and “Princeton Review Bean Paste Noodles.” In the write-up, Sam Sifton lamented that “if Mr. Huang spent even a third of the time cooking that he does writing funny blog posts and wry Twitter updates, posting hip-hop s and responding to Internet friends, rivals, critics and customers, Xiao Ye might be one of the more interesting restaurants to open in New York City in the last few months.” Huang’s blog went viral when he published an email his mother sent him after the review came out.实际上,母亲喋喋不休的指教不经意间启动了黄的写作生涯。在2010年,他的第二家餐馆“宵夜”被《纽约时报》评了零分。餐馆的菜单罗列了各种滑稽的、带有种族歧视意味的菜名,包括“非肉大杂烩”和“普林斯顿豆酱面”。在《纽约时报》的食评文章里,作者山姆·西弗敦(Sam Sifton)惋惜地写道:“黄先生的时间都用在写作搞笑客,发幽默推文,上传嘻哈音乐,和他的网上朋友、竞争对手、批评者和顾客互动了。如果他能拿出三分之一的时间来做菜,‘宵夜’没准还能成为纽约市过去几个月新开张的比较有趣的餐馆之一。”在这一发表后,黄在他的客上登出了母亲给他的电子邮件,引来众多人的点击。“Trust me, you much keep your bar license active just in case you need it,” his mother wrote. “You do not even understand your own strength or the whole scope of this business, and you are not even willing to listen. YOU MUST GET BURNT BEFORE YOU WILL HEAR YOUR MOM. Please calm down, analyze yourself, and be honest. You have a lot of potential, but you must make good choice and stick to it with the best choice. With all the staff, and your korean friend, no one was able to point out or warn you the mistakes, or problems you have?”邮件是这样写的:“相信我,你一定要保住你的酒吧执照,说不定以后还会有用。你不知道自己的强项,也不了解这一行业的深浅,而且你从来也听不进去别人的意见。你一定要吃了亏才知道要听你妈的话。现在你应该平静下来,诚实地评估自己。你有潜质,但是你必须做出正确的决定并且以正确的方式坚持下去。你的雇员们,还有你那个韩国朋友,难道他们没有一个人向你指出你的错误或问题吗?????????????”Huang closed the restaurant after repeat visits from the State Liquor Authority, which might have been peeved by his “Four Loko Thursday” deal, when the high-alcohol, caffeinated beverage was sold at a steep discount. (Huang had also floated the idea of an all-you-can-drink deal.) But Sifton grasped something important in his observation that the blog posts and Twitter updates mattered more to the chef than the food did. Huang’s true ambitions always had more to do with writing than with feeding people. He told me he opened the restaurant “because no one wanted to listen to me.”“宵夜”的“星期四Four Loko大狂欢”可能是惹恼了纽约州酒类。Four Loko是一种含咖啡因的酒精饮料,每周四在“宵夜”以超低价出售(黄原来还打算定价不定量出售)。在酒类的多次巡查后,“宵夜”彻底关张。但是西弗敦在他的文章里提到了关键的一点:对于黄大厨来说,更新客和推特比食物更重要。比起美食,黄真正的野心一直在于表达自己。他告诉我开餐厅是因为“没有人愿意听我倾诉”。Huang’s cocky social-media personality kept getting him in trouble, but it only seemed to swell his fame. His inability to censor himself, combined with his talent for speaking frankly and intimately to a mass public, aligned him perfectly with the mood of social media. When the Cooking Channel signed Huang to host a show called “Cheap Bites” — the kind of opportunity that most dedicated chefs would hold on to for dear life — the deal fell apart after Huang lashed out at the network’s biggest stars on Twitter. Huang has no regrets about the dust-up. (“The show looked like trash.”) He was later named a TED fellow, a potential gateway into the world of highly compensated corporate speaking, but quickly got himself booted from the program when he skipped some of the events to appear on a podcast with the graffiti artist David Choe and the porn star Asa Akira. Choe declared it to be a meeting of the “worst Asians in the universe.” Huang would later denounce TED as a “cult.”黄在社交媒体上桀骜不驯的形象给他惹了不少麻烦,但是这反而使他的名气看涨。他说话口无遮拦,并且有一种贴近大众坦诚交流的天赋,这些特点使他能和社交媒体完美契合。当美食频道签下他主持“廉价美食”(Cheap Bites)后,他却在推特上抨击频道所属电视网的大明星们。黄不得不和美食频道解约——而大多数兢兢业业的厨师会对这种机会倍加珍惜。黄对此一点也不后悔(“那个节目一团糟”),后来他又被任命为TED研究员,这个机会本来可能让他步入高薪职业演讲者的殿堂,但是不久他就被炒了鱿鱼。原因是他为了和涂鸦艺术家大卫·崔(David Choe)和日裔美国色情女星阿萨·阿基拉(Asa Akira)出现在一档播客节目中,而好几次爽约TED活动。崔说那次节目是“全宇宙最烂亚裔”大聚会。而黄之后指责TED是“邪教”。Huang’s utter lack of instinct for self-preservation has had the curious effect of preserving himself against any harm. While the established institutions he railed against had myriad vested interests to balance and secrets to hide, Huang has always taken the inherently sympathetic role of the only honest man, refusing to compromise with arbitrary or corrupt authority. This has made Huang a particularly good fit with Vice Media, whose food channel, Munchies, seeks to appeal to young hipsters turned off by bourgeois “foodie-ism” but interested in educating their palates. Tricked out in big sunglasses, high-top sneakers and flashy street wear, Huang#39;s on-screen persona often resembles an Asian Ali G — easy to mock, were it not a deliberate self-#173;caricature. Much of the pleasure of Huang’s Vice show comes from watching him slyly emerge from his buffoonish character to make incisive comments revealing an agile, literary mind — and then lapse back into the role of the pot-addled numbskull.黄完全没有自我保护的意识,但这却不可思议地一直使他免受伤害。他所抨击的那些根基稳固的机构企业既要平衡各种既得利益,又要保守行业秘密。 在它们目前,黄是唯一说实话的人,拒绝和专横腐败的当权机构妥协——这是一个总是让人同情的角色设定 。这使得黄和Vice传媒一拍即合。Vice的美食频道Munchies的目标观众是那些对小资“美食主义”并不感冒,但却希望有美食好品味的年轻潮人。黄的电视形象——大墨镜、高帮运动鞋、花哨的街头时装——经常让他看上去像一个亚裔版的阿里·G(Ali G) 。这一形象要不是黄有意的自我嘲弄,倒真会招致讥讽。黄的这档节目带给人最大的乐趣就是看着这个小丑一样的人物灵机一动,说出一些展露他敏捷渊思维的精辟妙语,然后又看着他逐渐回到那个好像吸了大麻、昏头昏脑的傻瓜形象。I met Huang in Los Angeles during a time of high tension surrounding his show, a few weeks after he exploded in a Twitter tirade, accusing the network of neutering his book, and a week before shooting would wrap. The executive producers were, at this point, careful to emphasize that the show was not a biography of Eddie Huang and his family. It was a loose adaptation “inspired” by, rather than “based” on, Huang’s book. The series borrows the setting and the characters but applies them to a plot that was invented almost entirely by a professional writing staff, led by the showrunner Nahnatchka Khan. Though Huang lived the life depicted in the show, 20th Century Fox Television (which produces the show for A) retains creative control over it.当我在洛杉矶见到黄的时候,《初来乍到》的制作正处于一个非常紧张的时刻。几个星期前,黄在推特上突然发难,指责A阉割了他的书。而这时离拍摄结束只有一周时间了。该剧的执行制作人们很小心地强调电视剧并不是黄和他的家人的传记。他们说剧本是受到了“启发”,而不是“基于”黄的著作,改编并不完全忠于原著。电视剧只不过借用了书中的场景和人物,整个情节差不多都是出自该剧主创人娜娜查卡·汗(Nahnatchka Khan)领导的一个职业编剧团队的手笔。虽然电视剧讲述的是黄的生活经历,但是为A制作该剧的二十一世纪福克斯电视公司却掌握着该剧的创意权。Melvin Mar, the producer at Fox who bought the rights to the book, told me that Huang’s arrangement with the studio is atypical. Usually, a production company will pay an author for a book it options and neither seek nor offer further participation. But Huang insisted on being brought on as a producer as a condition of the sale. So, Mar told me, “we decided we would all do this together, like a family.”梅尔文·马(Melvin Mar)是福克斯的一位制作人,正是他购买了黄的著作改编权。马告诉我,黄和电视公司的合作是不同寻常的。通常,一家制作公司在买了一位作者的作品后, 并不会寻求或是提议和作者进一步的合作。但是作为购买条件,黄坚持要成为电视剧的制作人。所以,马告诉我说:“我们决定一起做这件事,就像一家人那样。”More than anything, the fraught dynamic that emerged between Mar and Huang resembles that of Huang’s actual family. The ambivalence Huang feels toward his parents tends to manifest itself in all his dealings with authority, Mar most emphatically not excepted. Huang sometimes describes Mar as a mentor, someone who has taught him about when to pursue confrontation and when to acknowledge the necessity for accommodation. But these sincere expressions of respect often segue quickly to contempt for the compromises endemic to the entertainment industry. “It’s a system that is kind of similar to the Asian upbringing,” Huang told me. By giving up so much autonomy for his career’s sake, Huang said, Mar “got a second set of parents in network television.”黄和马之间的复杂情感像极了黄的和他家庭的关系。黄对父母的那种矛盾心理往往在他与权威人物打交道时显现出来,而马正是这样一个角色。黄有时说马是他的导师,教导他该何时寻求对抗,何时承认合作的必要。但是这些出自肺腑的尊敬之词很快变成了对整个业妥协风气的藐视。“这个体制就像亚裔受到的教育,”黄告诉我。他说马为了自己的职业而放弃了太多的自主权。现在“电视网成了他的第二父母”。Mar and Khan met at a symposium for Asian-Americans interested in the popular arts, where they dealt with a familiar crowd of activists demanding to know why Hollywood seemed so uninterested in casting people who looked like themselves. (Mar’s family is from China; Khan’s is from Iran.) “You go to these conferences, and there’s always people saying, ‘You should do more for Asian people,’#8201;” Mar said. “And my response is, ‘Yes, I agree with you.’ But it’s easier said than done. I have to bring actual projects that are viable and convince the executives that there’s a real business case for making it.”马和汗是在一次主题为流行文化艺术的研讨会上认识的。与会的积极分子他们并不陌生。这些人都想弄明白,为什么好莱坞对亚裔这么不感兴趣。(马是华裔,汗是伊朗裔)“每次去这样的会议,都会有人告诉我:‘你们应该多给亚裔做些东西,’马说,“我的回应是:‘对,我同意。’但是说起来容易做起来难。我得有具体可行的项目来说领导们制作这个东西确实具有商业价值。”The business case for making an Asian-American show is simple: Asian-Americans are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the country, they earn and spend more than the average American and they are overrepresented in the advertiser-coveted 18-to-34-year-old demographic. But if the case were really so strong, surely two decades would not have passed without some network making a bid for this audience. Perhaps the reason is that the so-called Asian-American demographic (some 18 million viewers) is actually made up of many different nationalities with no common culture or language.制作一部关于亚裔美国人电视剧的商业价值显而易见:亚裔美国人是美国发展最快的族群,他们的收入和花销都在平均美国人之上。在广告商最看中的18到34岁这个年龄段,他们的人数也超过其他族裔的比例。但是,如果情况真的这么有说力的话,在过去这二十年里肯定早有电视公司打起这一观众群体的算盘了。但事实是却并非如此。原因可能是所谓的亚裔美国人这一人口群体(也就是1,800万观众)实际上是由很多不同的民族组成,他们之间并没有共同的文化和语言。Moreover, comedies about nonwhite people generally must navigate a trap-laden path between offending the group represented and neutering the comedy to avoid doing so. And they suffer from having to be approved and produced by people who are overwhelmingly white, and thus unfamiliar with the nuances of the stories they are telling, and also intensely wary of giving offense — but all this does is increase the likelihood that these shows will be dull, though still capable of offending their audience. This is exactly what happened to “All-American Girl,” the sitcom starring the comedian Margaret Cho and the last significant attempt to make an Asian-American TV show. The series was disowned by the Korean-American community that it tried to portray and was eventually rejected by the wider audience for being unfunny. It was canceled after just one season, two decades ago.此外,关于非白种人的喜剧作品总是得避免各式各样的陷阱,既不能得罪所描述的种族,又得小心不能牺牲喜剧效果。批准和制作这些作品的大多数还是白人。他们不熟悉故事的微妙之处,又非常小心不要冒犯到任何人。这样的结果就是他们制作出来的东西有很大可能既沉闷无趣,还又冒犯了观众。由玛格丽特·曹(Margaret Cho)主演的情景喜剧《全美女孩》(All-American Girl)正是如此。这是《初来乍到》之前关于亚裔美国人的电视节目的一次重要尝试。《全美女孩》试图描绘韩裔美国人群体,却没有得到他们的认可。更多的观众觉得该剧并不好笑。播放了一季后该剧被叫停。这是二十年前的事了。“Fresh Off the Boat” was meant to be different. Not only is the production staff diverse, but the source material helps indemnify the show against criticism of many of its outlandish elements, which are rooted in Huang’s actual life. For example, the ferociously uninhibited and heavily accented mother portrayed in the series might appear to be an offensive caricature if it were a generic “Tiger mom” conjured out of thin air.|《初来乍到》不想重蹈覆辙。不但它的制作团队来自不同种族背景,而且素材来源也令剧中很多出格内容免遭批评,毕竟,这些内容源自黄的真实生活。例如,剧中那位泼辣不羁、口音极重的母亲,如果只是凭空虚构出来的一位“虎妈”角色的话,就可能如同一个闹剧形象,冒犯很多人。In fact, Constance Wu, the actress who plays Jessica Huang on the show, told me that she underplays her character in relation to the actual woman. “I don’t actually think they would believe she was real,” Wu said. “That’s what reality television is for — to show you people who no one would actually believe were real.” To preserve the appearance of reality, the show has had to depart from it — while also claiming that same reality as its license to go as far as it does in presenting a raw slice of immigrant life.实际上,剧中扮演黄母洁西卡的演员康斯丹丝·吴(Constance Wu)对我说,与原型相比,她在表演中有意弱化了这一角色。“我觉得观众会觉得这个形象太不真实,”她说。“那是真人秀节目做的事——展示那些令人难以置信的形象。”为了保外表的真实性,剧集不得不脱离现实——同时又要以现实来为该剧对移民生活的种种震撼描写提供合理性。When Mar asked Khan to sketch out her vision for the show, she described what would become the opening scene of the series: a tight focus on someone in hip-hop garb that pulls out to reveal .#8201;.#8201;. a short, chubby Asian boy. The apparent incongruity (more apparent than real) is at once a joke for the prime-time network audience and a wedge that protects the series from recapitulating “model minority” representations of Asian-Americans. It is also the sore point that offends Huang more than any other aspect of the show.马请娜娜查卡·汗描述一下她希望此剧达成的效果,她的描述后来成了本剧开篇的一幕:对一个身着嘻哈饰的男子的近距离特写,然后镜头拉开,观众发现…他不过是个矮墩墩胖乎乎的亚裔男孩。这种略显夸张的反差既是讨好黄金时段电视观众的笑话,也为观众打了预防针:本剧讲的可不是“模范少数族裔”的亚裔。但是,这也正是让黄最为不满的一处情节。Hip-hop had been the emblem of Huang’s alienation from his own household and the violence he encountered at school. It provided a language through which to reject the role of the eager assimilator that his own culture seemed to urge onto him. It was, as Huang described it in his book, a means of survival — not some glib, touristic fascination, or even a way of being cool. Huang identified with the black kids at school because they, too, were enduring beatings in their households in a way that white kids weren’t. “It’s a funny position being an Asian in America,” Huang wrote. “You’re the dude who can cross the union line. Your community actually wants you to sell the [expletive] out and work in law, accounting or banking. But I realized then that I wasn’t going to cross the picket line.” (Though he was briefly a corporate lawyer.) “I was down with the rotten bananas who want nothing to do with that.”嘻哈音乐是黄与自己的家庭疏离,并在学校遭受暴力的标志。它为黄叛离自己的文化强加给他的“努力融入美国主流社会”的形象提供了表达的语言。正如黄在书中写的,嘻哈成了他生存的手段,而不是浅薄的、过客般的兴趣,或是扮酷的噱头。黄与学校里的黑人孩子称兄论弟,是因为他们也在自己家中挨打,而白人孩子则没有这种遭遇。“亚洲人在美国处于一种有趣的地位。”黄在书中写道:“大家都认为你会跨越阶层。你的社群指望着你他妈出人头地,进入法律、会计或业工作。但我那时意识到,我不会背离我的阶层。(尽管他的确曾经做过公司律师)我跟那群不成器的‘烂香蕉’们混在一起,他们根本不在乎出人头地。”Huang’s appropriation of the language of racialized resistance might seem intrinsically noncredible to many white, black and even Asian interlocutors, who — implicitly or explicitly — regard Asian-Americans as the minority group that gets ahead by working hard and eschewing the politics of racial grievance. Not Huang, who likes to analogize his relationship with Mar to that of the “field Chinaman” to the “house Chinaman.” (Mar called this comparison “heightened,” which was his diplomatic way of saying “fantastically overwrought.” If there is a class distinction between the two men, it’s this: Mar’s family worked in the bean-sprout business in Los Angeles’s Chinatown, while Huang’s father become a millionaire many times over in Orlando.)黄使用的这种种族化抗争的语言,对于很多关注这个话题的白人、黑人或亚裔人士来说,可能从本质上显得虚假,因为这些人有意无意地仍旧把亚裔美国人当做那个通过努力工作、回避种族政治而获得成功的群体。但黄可不是这样的人。他喜欢把自己跟马之间的关系比作“田地里的中国佬”和“房子里的中国佬”。(马称这种比喻有些“夸张了”,这就是他对“胡言乱语不知所云”的委婉说法。但假如两人之间真的有阶层区别的话,实际是这样的:马的家族在洛杉矶唐人街经营豆芽生意,而黄的父亲则成了奥兰多的千万富翁)Huang especially took issue with the second episode in the series, in which a youthful Eddie develops a protosexual fascination with a blond, large-breasted trophy wife who has just moved into the neighborhood. It includes a scene in which Eddie fantasizes himself into a rap . He “makes it rain” and squirts Capri Sun onto models. Though test audiences found the scene to be innocuously funny, Huang considered the thrust of the episode outright offensive. In his estimation, it denigrates hip-hop culture by portraying it as a vector for adopting sexist attitudes — a perversion of what, for him, had been a vital emotional outlet. His analysis is credible but, as the writers and producers told him, way too abstruse for anyone in the audience to think about.黄对剧集中的第二集尤其不满;其中,少年时代的黄颐铭对邻家刚刚搬来的金发大胸已婚花瓶女萌生“性趣”。剧中有这样一个场景:少年黄颐铭幻想自己拍摄了一部嘻哈MTV,他在其中唱到自己“爱如雨下”,并且用浓缩橙汁喷洒到模特们的身上。尽管在公映前测试剧情时,观众感觉剧情滑稽而不低俗,但黄认为第二集的主要情节非常令人不快。他认为,剧情把嘻哈文化描写为性别主义的载体,从而贬低了他视之为抒发情感关键渠道的嘻哈文化。他的分析不无道理,但是编剧和制片人们对他说,这种想法对于观众们来说太过高深,无法体会。“It’s so interesting, what he’s going through,” Khan told me. “Most people never get the opportunity to experience what he’s experiencing. So now he’s rebelling and manifesting the angst, and that’s what makes him him, and that’s why he wrote the memoir in the first place. Part of me just wants to say, ‘Sit back and enjoy this.’#8201;”“他所经历的情感变化非常有趣,” 娜娜查卡·汗对我说。“多数人根本没有机会体会他现在的处境。他现在处在反叛阶段,在表达他内心的焦虑,这正是他的独特之处,这也是他当初写自传的原因。我有时想说:‘放松点,试着享受这一刻吧。’”When I told Huang that Khan wanted him to sit back and enjoy the ride, he had an immediate response: “That’s what pedophiles tell children.”当我告诉黄,汗认为他应该放松点,尝试享受这个过程时,他脱口而出:“这是恋童癖们对孩子说的话。”Even if Huang’s attraction to black culture is played for cheap laughs, to him it is an essential element of his person. It provides the missing half of the fully human entity that the Asian-American who consents to the model-minority myth has to relinquish. A model minority is a tractable, one-#173;dimensional simulacrum of a person, stripped of complexity, nuance, danger and sexuality — a person devoid of dramatic interest. Huang is something else: a person at war with all the constraints that would fetter him to anything less than an identity capacious enough to contain all his contradictions and ambivalence.尽管黄对黑人文化的向往在剧中不过是廉价的搞笑噱头,对他来说,这可是他个人身份的重要部分。作为排斥了“模范少数族裔”神话的亚裔美国人,他所抛弃的这一半则由黑人文化填补,让他重新成为一个完整的人。所谓“模范少数族裔”是个缺乏自主的、单维度的人像,被剥夺了复杂性、微妙性、危险和性别,是缺乏戏剧色的人。而黄则截然不同:他与所有那些束缚羁绊他的因素斗争,他的身份一定要足够广阔善变,能够容纳下他所有的矛盾和模棱两可的性格。At the hotel on our last day in Tijuana, Huang spent the morning managing his Manhattan restaurant, Baohaus, by Skype. Besides traveling 24 weeks of the year for Vice, writing a second memoir and working on the A series, Huang continues to manage his restaurant. He often finds himself in fights with one cook in particular, an older Cantonese-speaking veteran of Chinatown restaurants. Huang is as exacting a boss as he is an insubordinate employee, but he is often forced to suffer the rebelliousness of his staff. He and the cook argued about how to properly cut chicken. The cook wanted to slice the chicken, which he believed white people prefer. Huang wanted it done the proper way, diced. “He never really accepts what I tell him,” he said. “And as soon as I turn my back, he starts doing it his own way.”我们在蒂华纳酒店的最后一天,黄用了一上午通过Skype电话打理他在曼哈顿的餐馆Baohaus的生意。他在Vice的工作让他每年要有24周到处旅行,而他还在写第二本自传,同时参与A剧集的制作;即便如此,他仍旧要管理自己的餐馆。他跟自己的一位厨师尤其合不来;那是一位讲粤语的老厨师,在唐人街的中餐馆行业工作多年。作为老板,黄的苛刻程度与他作为雇员的刺头程度相比有过之而无不及,但他也经常要忍受自己手下的叛逆。这次,他与厨师吵架的缘由是如何正确地切鸡肉:厨师想切片,认为白人顾客喜欢这样;而黄则要正确的切法:斩块。“他从来不真正听我的,”黄说,“我一转身,他就开始按照自己的办法来。”“I’ve wanted to fire him so many times,” he said. “The problem is, you can’t teach American kids the speed this guy has or his ability to problem-#173;solve on the fly.”“多少次我都想炒掉他,”他说,“问题是,这家伙干活的速度,还有他现场解决问题的能力,美国孩子是学不会的。”As he thought about it, Huang hit on a comparison between Hollywood executives and the typical Chinatown restaurant. Each, he said, think they know what people want and strive to give them exactly that. But it never occurs to either of them to sell people the authentic thing itself — Chinese food the way Chinese people make it for themselves or, in the case of Hollywood, stories that don’t rely on formulaic contrivance to be funny.说着说着,他又想到了好莱坞经理人们与任何一家唐人街餐馆的类比:他说,两者都认为他们了解别人需要什么,并且不遗余力地提供这些东西。但两者都没有意识到,应该卖给顾客真实正宗的东西:对于中餐馆来说,就是中国人吃的菜;而对于好莱坞来说,就是无需为了好笑而陷入巢臼的故事。“I really feel that people don’t always know what’s good for them,” he said. “When you have a strong conviction, you have a duty not to tell people what they want. At least represent yourself and say: ‘Yo, this is what I’m into, and this is what I’m seeing in the world. Let me take your hand and guide you through it, so you can see through my eyes.’#8201;”“我真的觉得,人们并不总是知道什么才是真正适合他们的。”他说。“当你有强烈的信念时,你有责任不告诉人们他们需要什么。至少应该表达你自己,然后说,‘嘿,这是我喜欢的东西,这是我眼中的世界。让我牵着你的手,领你走过这一切,你就可以体会到我的视角了。’” /201502/361298Lesson one: New challenges require new ways of thinking1.面对新挑战,要有新思路Part car, part jet fighter, part spaceship, Bloodhound SSC aims to be the first land vehicle to break the 1,000mph barrier. One of the key challenges has been to design the wheels. How do you create the fastest wheels in history, make them stable and reliable at supersonic speeds, and with limited resources?部分汽车、部分喷气式飞机、部分宇宙飞船,猎犬号超级汽车的目标是做世界上第一辆时速突破1000英里的汽车。而这面临的一项关键挑战是车轮的设计。如果换做是你,你会如何在有限的资源下发明出超音速汽车上用的轮子呢?After much deliberation, and devising ideas that pushed the boundaries of material technology, Mark Chapman, chief engineer of the Bloodhound project said the team decided to take a step back and change the way they were trying to solve problems. “There’s very little we’ve actually developed that’s new,” he says, “what’s unique is how we apply technologies.”猎犬号项目的总工程师马克·查普曼思来想去,觉得材料还是不够好。最后他和他的团队决定退回一步、换个角度看有没有别的办法。“我们实际创新的东西并不多”,马克说:“我们的独特之处在于应用技术的方式别具一格。”They adopted an approach called the design of experiments – a mathematical technique of problem solving through doing lots of little experiments and then looking at the statistics all glued together. “All of a sudden, where we’d been knocking our head against the wall for maybe two, three, four months, we came up with a wheel design that would hold together and was strong enough,” he says.他们采用实验设计的方法做了很多的小实验,综合所得的数据再得出精确设计。“花了三四个月绞尽脑汁做尽各种实验之后,很突然地我们做出了一个大胆的设计:把各种可用的(飞机、飞船所用的)技术都融合在一辆车上,从而使它足够强大。”马克说。Lesson two: Let evidence shape your opinion2.观点要用据来明Like his peers, geophysicist Steven Jacobsen from Northwestern University believed that water on Earth originated from comets. But by studying rocks, which allow scientists to peer back in time, he discovered water hidden inside ringwoodite, which lies in the Earth’s mantle, and which suggests that the oceans gradually made its way out of the planet’s interior many centuries ago.美国西北大学地球物理学家史蒂文·雅各布森曾认为,地球上的水源于彗星。但通过对岩石的研究,他发现地幔的林伍德石里面也藏有水,这一发现表明或许在N个世纪之前,海洋是从地球内部自己慢慢溢出来的。“I had a pretty hard time convincing others,” he admits. Yet two key pieces of evidence uncovered this year seem to support his point of view. Time will tell whether the new theories are true, and there may be further twists to the tale. “But thinking about the fact that you may be the first person to see something for the first time doesn’t happen very often,” he says. “When it does it’s thrilling.”“那时候我难说别的学者相信这个。”史蒂文说。但是今年新发现的两个关键据似乎持了他的理论。所以,一个新理论的正确与否可能需要时间来慢慢印,在被世人接受前可能会经历很多曲折。“但是如果你发现你是第一个发现这个规律的人,且时间又明你是对的之后,你会倍受鼓舞的。”史蒂文说。Lesson three: It really is 99% perspiration3.天才的99%确实是汗水Sheila Nirenberg at Cornell University is trying to develop a new prosthetic device for treating blindness. Key to this was cracking the code that transmits information from the eye to the brain. “Once I realised this, I couldn’t eat, I couldn’t sleep – all I wanted to do was work,” says Nirenberg.康奈尔大学希拉·尼伦伯格正在研究治疗失明的新型假体,其中破解眼睛与大脑的信息交流密码是最关键的。“我意识到这一点之后,就吃不下饭、睡不着觉,只想全身心投入工作。”尼伦伯格说。“Sometimes I’m exhausted and I get burnt out,” she adds. “But then I get an email from somebody in crisis or somebody who’s getting macular degeneration, and they can’t see their own children’s faces, and it is like, ‘How can I possibly complain?’ It gives me the energy to just go back and keep doing it.”“每次觉得筋疲力尽、江郎才尽的时候,我都会收到一些到正处于危险状态马上要失明的、或是患有黄斑部退化症的病人的邮件,这些人将没办法看清自己孩子的长相、无法看这五颜六色的世界。每当这个时候,我就跟自己说‘我怎么能够抱怨呢’,然后就又动力十足的继续工作。”Lesson four: The answer isn’t always what you expect4.结果并不总是和预想的一样Sylvia Earle has spent decades trying to see the ocean with new eyes. Her “dream machine” is a submarine that could take scientists all the way to the bottom of the deepest ocean floor. What sort of material could best withstand the types of pressure you would encounter thousands of miles below the ocean surface? “It could be steel, it could be titanium, it could be some sort of ceramic, or some kind of aluminium system,” says Earle. “But glass is the ultimate material.” By her estimates, a glass sphere about four-to-six inches (10-15cm) thick should be able safely explore the ocean depths she dreams of exploring.西尔维亚·厄尔花了几十年的时间试图让人们用新的方式亲近海底,她的“梦想号”潜艇可以让科学家潜入到最深的海底。那种材料才能够承受住深海的巨大压力呢?厄尔说:“我想过用钢、钛、陶瓷等,但最终发现其实玻璃才是终极王者。”根据她的预计,一块10-15厘米厚的玻璃板就能让她进入梦寐以求的那片深海世界。Glass is the oldest material known to man and one of the least understood, says Tony Lawson, Earle’s engineering director at Deep Ocean and Exploration Research Marine. “It has a higgledy-piggledy molecular structure a bit like a liquid, rather than the ordered lattices often found in other solids. As a result, when glass is evenly squeezed from all sides – as it would be under the ocean – the molecules cram closer together and form a tighter structure.厄尔的项目技术总监称,虽然玻璃是人类已知的最古老材料,但是我们对它的了解却甚少。“玻璃的分子结构有点像是液体,排列方式没有一般固体的有规律。因此,当玻璃被海洋里的压力从四面八方压迫时,它的分子会被压在一起,形成更紧密的结构。”Lesson five: A little luck goes a long way5.偶尔的一点好运也可以维持很久It was hailed as one of the biggest success stories in the history of space exploration – 20 years of planning ended earlier this year with the Philae lander rendezvousing with Comet 67P over 300 million miles (480 million kilometres) away from Earth.菲莱探测器被誉为太空探索史上最大跨越之一,历经20年的策划期终于在年初发射并成功在离地球四亿八千万公里的67P彗星上着陆。The biggest challenge, says Stephan Ulamec, manager of the Philae lander programme, was how to design a probe to land on a body whose makeup they had little knowledge about. “We had no idea of the size, we had no idea of the day-night cycle, which influences the thermal design, we had no idea of the gravity, so how fast would the lander impact, we had no idea how the surface looked,” he says.据菲莱项目的负责人斯蒂芬介绍,在这20年里遇到的最大挑战是对彗星构造了解较少,不知道该如何设计这个探测器。“我们不知道彗星的昼夜循环情况会影响保热设计,不知道彗星的重力也无法预测探测器着陆后对转速的影响,甚至不清楚彗星表面的样子。”They needed to create design parameters that could cope with an extremely wide range of possible comet structures – but banked on the comet being a relatively even potato shape with enough flat surfaces for the probe to land on. Even then, not everything went to plan, and two decades of meticulous planning could have failed within minutes at touchdown. Philae#39;s anchoring harpoons didn#39;t fire as planned, and it bounced off the comet before settling onto its icy surface and successfully beaming data back to its relieved creators.科学家们需要建立尽可能符合多种彗星结构的设计参数,但是还是得寄希望于彗星的表面要够平坦。可即便是花了20年设计、缜密计划过的菲莱还是在着陆的几分钟里有点小失败:“鱼叉”系统未如计划打开,无法准确钉入彗星表面。不过幸运的是,菲莱还是成功地把数据发回了地球。Lesson six: Genius is indefinable6.“天才”定义不明“It’s a funny word: the word ‘genius’,” says Nirenberg. “I just sort of ignore it and just go on with life. You just do what you do independent of whatever label’s attached to you. I don’t know really how else to explain it.”“天才这个词很有趣”,尼伦伯格说,“我常常忽略这个标签继续走自己的路。只需要抛掉别人在你身上贴的各种标签做自己想做到的事就好了。因为所谓天才真是判断标准不一、无法解释的事情。” /201501/356302


  DAVIS, Calif. — IT’S commonplace to call our cats “pets.” But anyone sharing a cat’s household can tell you that, much as we might like to choose when they eat in the morning, or when they come inside for the night, cats are only partly domesticated.加利福尼亚州戴维斯——我们的猫通常被称为“宠物”。但任何一个跟猫共同生活的人都会告诉你,我们虽然很想决定它们早上进食或者晚上进屋的时间,但它们并没有被完全驯化。The likely ancestors of the domestic dog date from more than 30,000 years ago. But domestic cats’ forebears join us in the skeletal record only about 9,500 years ago. This difference fits our intuition about their comparative degrees of domestication: Dogs want to be “man’s best friend”; cats, not so much.家犬的祖先可能出现于3万多年以前。但骨骼化石记录表明,家猫的祖先迟至大约9500年前才进入人类社会。这一差距与我们对两种动物驯化程度差异的直观感受是一致的:想成为“人类最好的朋友”,猫则不然。Fossils are handy snapshots of the past, but a genomic sequence is a time machine, enabling scientists to run evolutionary history backward. The initial sequence of the domestic cat was completed in 2007, but a recent study to which I contributed compared the genomes of the domestic cat and the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and sheds new light on the last 10,000 years of feline adaptations.如果说化石是现成的历史缩影,那基因组序列就是一台时光机,让科学家得以追溯进化的历程。对家猫基因的初步测序是在2007年完成的。但最近,我参与的一项研究比较了家猫和野猫(Felis silvestris)的基因组,可以让人们更好地了解猫在过去1万年间适应环境的过程。Domestic cats are not just wildcats that tolerate humans in exchange for regular meals. They have smaller skulls in relation to their bodies compared with wildcats, and are known to congregate in colonies. But in comparison with dogs, cats have a narrower range of variation in size and form.家猫不仅仅是为了规律饮食,而勉强和人类呆在一起的野猫。与野猫相比,它们头骨与躯干的比例更小;而且众所周知,它们会集群而居。但和相比,不同种类的猫在大小和外形上的差异不是太大。Wesley C. Warren, an author of the study, notes that domestic cats have excellent hunting skills, like their wild ancestors. This, too, supports the notion that cats are only semi-domesticated.研究报告的执笔者之一韦斯利·C·沃伦(Wesley C. Warren)指出,家猫和它们生活在野外的祖先一样,有出色的狩猎技能。这就为家猫只是半驯化动物的观点提供了撑。Comparing the genomes of the wildcat and the domestic cat added much to what we had known. Michael J. Montague, the lead author, told me he’d anticipated that the two genomes would be very similar, but our study found a specific set of differences in genes involved in neuron development. This brain adaptation may explain why domestic cats are docile.比较野猫和家猫的基因组,让我们的既有认知有了极大的拓展。研究报告的第一作者迈克尔·J·蒙塔古(Michael J. Montague)告诉我,他曾经预计两者的基因组会非常相似,但我们在研究中发现了一组涉及神经元发育的特定基因。这种大脑的适应,或许可以解释为什么家猫比较温顺。Scientists have long observed that domesticated species exhibit a suite of strikingly similar traits, from floppy ears to smaller brains, than those of their wild ancestors. Domestication may select for a few similar traits encoded by genetic changes (like smaller brains), but these may produce what we assume are secondary effects (like floppy ears).科学家早就发现,家养物种有着一系列极为相似的特征,如软趴趴的耳朵,以及比野生祖先小的大脑。驯化过程可能会选择一些由基因差异决定的相似特征(如较小的大脑),但这些基因可能又会带来我们眼中的次生效应(如软趴趴的耳朵)。Once they were living among us, cats didn’t need to think so much to stay alive; nor did they need such large jaws after we started feeding them our processed scraps. Hence smaller skulls. The same dynamic holds for dogs: Wolves beat dogs in general intelligence tests.自从和人类生活在一起,猫要生存下去就不需要思考那么多了;以人类的残羹剩饭为食,它们也不再需要大大的下巴了。因此,它们的头骨变小了。也是如此:狼在智力测试中的表现通常好于。By examining patterns in our animals’ genomes, we’ve confirmed that the same sets of genes seem to be targeted again and again in evolution. As far back as Charles Darwin, domestic animals in particular have yielded insights about evolution because we know what sorts of selection pressures they were subject to. After all, it was us they were primarily adapting to.我们通过观察家养动物的基因组图谱确定,在进化过程中,某些特定的基因一再成为选择的目标。早在查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Darwin)的时代,对于家养动物的研究,就帮助拓展了人类对进化过程的认识,因为我们很清楚它们面临着怎样的选择压力。毕竟,它们主要是在适应人类。Which brings us to the genome of one critical tame animal: ourselves, humans. The Nobel Prize-winning zoologist Konrad Z. Lorenz once suggested that humans were subject to the same dynamics of domestication. Our brain and body sizes peaked during the end of the last ice age, and declined with the sp of agriculture.作为一种重要的驯化动物,人类自身的基因组也是进化过程的产物。获得过诺贝尔奖的动物学家康拉德·Z·洛伦茨(Konrad Z. Lorenz)曾表示,人类也受制于同样的驯化机制。我们大脑和躯干的尺寸在最后一个冰川时代结束时达到最高点,继而随着农耕的推广逐渐变小。Instead of poring over the meager fossil record, we can survey patterns of variation across tens of thousands of living individuals. Genomics now provides evidence that humans have been subject to a great deal of natural selection over the past 10,000 years. A beautiful example is the ancestors of Tibetans’ absorption of small portions of the genome of ancient human relatives adapted for living at high altitude.我们不必去钻研匮乏的化石记录,而是可以研究千千万万活人的基因差异。目前,基因组学方面的据表明,人类在过去1万年里一直受到了自然选择的极大影响。一个有力的例子是,西藏人的祖先汲取了少量与其有亲缘关系的适应高海拔生存的古人类的基因。Our cultural flexibility and creativity since the end of the ice age have not freed humans from evolutionary forces, but have opened up novel and startling paths. Thinking of domestication as an evolutionary process that occurs through “artificial” selection creates a false dichotomy of nurture and nature that plays into a conceit of human exceptionalism. In fact, the idea that we are apart from nature, that it is ours to tame and exploit, is an outmoded approach.最后一个冰川时代结束以来,人类的文化适应性和创造力并没让我们摆脱进化力量的影响,而是为这种力量开辟了令人吃惊的新路径。把驯化当成由“人工”选择推动的进化过程,让人们错误地把自然过程和驯化过程分割开来,由此催生出自负的人类例外论。认为人类与自然相分离、人类要驯化和开发自然,其实是一种过时的思维。A more useful interpretation is that over the past 10,000 years, humans fashioned their own ecosystem. We were part of a natural process that altered the landscape. In that light, we can think of the domestic cat as an ecological response to the emergence of parasites (rodents attracted by early Neolithic granaries). The same forces that reshaped the genomes of our domesticates also reshaped ours.一个更有帮助的解释是,在过去的1万年里,人类塑造了自己的生态系统。我们是改造自然面貌的自然过程中的一部分。鉴于此,我们可以这样看:在新石器时代早期,人类储藏谷物的地方就招来了老鼠,而家猫的出现,则是生态系统对这些吃白食的啮齿动物做出的反应。重塑了家养动物基因组的力量,也重塑了我们自己的基因组。No longer roving in small bands subsisting on game and unprocessed plants, we settled down in villages, harvesting the same crops year after year. For millenniums, peasants fed on what we might today term porridge, of various types. Our teeth became smaller — indeed, both dogs and humans show evidence of adaptation to starchy diets.当我们不再组成小群体四处游荡,不再依靠猎物和未经烹调的植物为生,而是在村庄里安定下来,年复一年地收获着同样的作物。数千年来,农民都在食用我们今天称为粥的各种饭食。于是我们的牙齿变小了——的确,和人类都表现出了适应淀粉类食物的迹象。Just as the fur of our mammalian domesticates, freed from the constraint of needing to fade into the landscape, became a riot of diverse colors, human pigmentation started to change and many populations became light-skinned. With a cheek-by-jowl existence, humans and their animals began sharing diseases, remolding the immunity of whole populations, but leaving those who did not experience this co-evolution untouched and vulnerable. Possibly, some pathogens incubated in cats, like Toxoplasma gondii, may even alter human behavior.经过人类驯化的哺乳动物的皮毛,在不需要适应环境的颜色后,变化成了各种各样的颜色。与此相同,人类的色素沉着开始发生变化,许多人群变成了浅肤色。在紧密共处的过程中,人类和他们的动物开始患同样的疾病,从而重塑了整个种族的免疫系统,但那些未曾经历这种共同进化历程的种族,却没有受到影响,因而容易患病。弓形虫等在猫体内育的病原体,甚至可能会改变人类行为。Many of us conceive of our relationship to our pets as analogous to that between a parent and child. But the natural history tells a more pragmatic tale. Cats emerged in the context of profound ecological changes to the post-ice-age landscape wrought by humans.许多人都认为,我们与宠物的关系就如同父母与孩子的关系。但是,自然史讲述了一个更加实际的故事。在冰川时代过后的地貌上,人类造就了显著的生态变化,猫就是在这种背景下出现的。We were the authors of those changes, but in the process of telling that story, we became protagonists within it. One of the essential steps in knowing ourselves, and seeing where we are going, is to look around and take note of how we’ve reshaped those nearest to us, and they us.我们是这些变化的作者,但在讲述这个故事的时候,我们也成了它的主角。在了解我们自身、观察我们将走向何方的过程中,一个关键步骤是环顾四周,研究我们怎样重塑了离我们最近的那些生物,以及它们如何塑造了我们。 /201412/345429。


  LOS ANGELES — When Edmund G. Brown Sr. was governor of California, people were moving in at a pace of 1,000 a day. With a jubilant Mr. Brown officiating, California commemorated the moment it became the nation’s largest state, in 1962, with a church-bell-ringing, four-day celebration. He was the boom-boom governor for a boom-boom time: championing highways, universities and, most consequential, a sprawling water network to feed the explosion of agriculture and development in the dry reaches of central and Southern California.洛杉矶——当老埃德蒙·G·布朗(Edmund G. Brown Sr.)担任加州州长时,平均每天有1000人搬到该州。1962年,在布朗热情洋溢的主持下,加州庆祝了成为美国第一大州的那一刻。教堂钟声响起,为期四天的庆祝活动拉开帷幕。他是繁荣时期一位有魄力的州长:持建造公路、大学,以及最具深远影响的庞大供水网络,满足农业的迅速扩展,以及加州中南部干旱地区的发展。Nearly 50 years later, it has fallen to Mr. Brown’s only son, Gov. Jerry Brown, to manage the modern-day California that his father helped to create. The state is prospering, with a population of more than double the 15.5 million it had when Mr. Brown, known as Pat, became governor in 1959. But California, the seventh-largest economy in the world, is confronting fundamental questions about its limits and growth, fed by the collision of the severe drought dominating Jerry Brown’s final years as governor and the water and energy demands — from homes, industries and farms, not to mention pools, gardens and golf courses — driven by the aggressive growth policies advocated by his father during his two terms in office.大约50年后,轮到布朗唯一的儿子杰瑞·布朗(Jerry Brown)执掌当代加州,一个由他父亲参与创建的加州。加州繁荣发展,人口数达到了老布朗——又被称为帕特(Pat)——1959年担任州长时的1550万人口的两倍多。但作为世界第七大经济体,加州正面临有关限制及增长的根本问题,其原因来自两方面的碰撞。一方面是杰瑞·布朗州长任期最后几年出现大旱的情况,而另一方面就是家庭、工业及农场需要大量水和能源的现实,更不用说还有水塘、花园及高尔夫球场。而其父在两个任期内曾推出积极增长政策,从而促使上述领域快速发展。The stark challenge that confronts this state is putting a spotlight on a father and son who, as much as any two people, define modern-day California. They are strikingly different symbols of different eras, with divergent styles and distinct views of government, growth and the nature of California itself.该州面临的严峻挑战让大家的目光投向了这一对父子,他们比其他任何两人都更多地塑造了现代加州。他们来自不同时代,象征着截然不同的东西,风格迥异,并对政府、发展和加州本身的性质持有大不相同的看法。Pat Brown, who died in 1996 at the age of 90, was the embodiment of the post-World War II explosion, when people flocked to this vast and beckoning state in search of a new life. “He loved that California was getting bigger when he was governor,” said Ethan Rarick, who wrote a biography of Pat Brown and directs the Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service at the University of California, Berkeley. “Pat saw an almost endless capacity for California growth.”帕特·布朗于1996年逝世,享年90岁。他是二战结束后迅猛发展的体现。当时人们涌入这个幅员辽阔、极具吸引力的州,寻求一种新的生活。“他担任州长时,加州不断发展壮大,他喜欢这种感觉,”帕特·布朗的传记作者、加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)松井武男政治与公共务中心(Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service)负责人伊桑·拉里克(Ethan Rarick)说。“帕特认为加州拥有几乎无穷尽的发展能力。”Jerry Brown arrived in Sacramento for the first of two stints he would serve as governor in 1975 — just over eight years after Pat Brown was defeated for re-election by Ronald Reagan. He was, at 36, the austere contrast to his father, a product of the post-Watergate and post-Vietnam era, wary of the kind of brawny, interventionist view of government that animated Pat Brown. The environmental movement had emerged in the years between Pat Brown’s defeat and Jerry Brown’s arrival — the first Earth Day and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries oil embargo took place during that period — and among its most passionate adherents was Pat Brown’s son.杰瑞·布朗两度担任加州州长,他于1975年,也就是帕特·布朗在连任竞选中败给罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)的八年之后,到达萨克拉门托,开始了第一个任期。那时,36岁的布朗与其父形成鲜明对比,他是后水门事件时代及后越战时代的产物,不认同帕特·布朗所热衷的强大政府及其干涉主义行事风格。在帕特·布朗竞选失败与杰瑞·布朗首次上任之间的时间里,环保运动横空出世。在那段时间里,出现了第一个地球日(Earth Day)及石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)的石油出口禁令。当时,帕特·布朗的这个儿子是环保运动最热诚的拥护者之一。If Pat Brown wanted the stunningly ambitious California State Water Project that he muscled into law to “be a monument to me,” as he later said of what was the most expensive public works project in the state’s history, Jerry Brown championed the modest if intellectually provocative “Small Is Beautiful” viewpoint espoused by the economist E. F. Schumacher, which emphasized the dangers of depleting natural resources. (Mr. Brown flew to London to speak at Schumacher’s funeral in 1977.) As governor, Jerry Brown spoke of limits and respect for the fragility of the planet from the moment he took office.如果说帕特·布朗希望他强力推动、并使之成为法律的宏大的加州水资源计划(California State Water Project)成为“我留下的丰碑”——就像他后来提到该州历史上耗资最大的公共工程计划时说的那样,杰瑞宣扬的则是经济学家E·F·舒马赫(E.F. Schumacher)提出的“小即是美”(Small Is Beautiful)的观点,这个并不宏大的观点在知识界曾颇具争议性,强调了消耗自然资源的危险。(布朗于1977年飞往伦敦参加舒马赫的葬礼并发表讲话。)作为州长,杰瑞·布朗自上任伊始,就开始谈论这个脆弱星球面临的限制,以及对它的尊重。“He positioned himself as very, very different from my father,” said Kathleen Brown, who is Mr. Brown’s youngest sister. “Some looked at it as a psychological battle between father and son. I don’t think it was that at all. I think it was a coming-of-age in a different period. The consciousness that our resources were limited was just beginning to take hold in the broader community.”“他对自己的定位与先父完全不同,”布朗最小的凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“有人将这看作是父亲与儿子之间的心理战。我认为根本不是这么回事。我觉得这是成长于不同时期所造成的差异。当年,那种资源有限的意识刚刚开始在更广泛的人群中扎根。”Since taking office as governor for the second time, in 2011, Jerry Brown has again been the voice of limits — though this time, his view is informed less by the theories of environmentalists and more by the demands of trying to manage a drought of historic proportions. One month Mr. Brown is ordering a 25 percent reduction in the use of potable water in urban communities; the next he is pressing for a 40 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions to battle the choking pollution that is another byproduct of the heady growth.自杰瑞·布朗于2011年开始第二个任期以来,他再次提出资源有限的观点,尽管这次他的观点更多的不是受环保主义理论的影响,而是源自努力应对史上罕见旱情的需要。布朗刚刚要求城市社区的饮用水量减少25%,接下来就要求将温室气体排放量减少40%,以对抗令人窒息的污染,而污染是快速发展造成的另一个附带结果。“We are dealing with different periods,” Mr. Brown said in an interview. “The word ‘environment’ wasn’t used then: You talked about conservation. Environmentalism came in after my father left. There was this sense that we can become No. 1 ahead of New York — they rang church bells when we did — but now, you fast-forward 60 years later, and people are concerned about whether the water is available, the cost to the environment, how to pay for suburban infrastructure.”“我们应对的是不同时期的问题,”杰瑞·布朗接受采访时说。“当年人们还不怎么使用‘环境’一词,谈的都是保护。我父亲离开后才出现环保主义这个说法。当时有那种我们能超越纽约,成为第一的感觉。当我们做到这一点时,他们纷纷庆祝。但现在,快进到60年后的今天,人们担心的是,是否有水可用,对环境的影响,以及怎么付郊区基础设施建设的费用。”“All of these insights and concerns developed after most of his governorship,” Mr. Brown said of his father. “But they preceded mine — and they have intensified.”“在他的任期过了大半时间后,才出现这些深刻看法及担忧,”杰瑞·布朗提到他父亲时说。“但它们出现在我的任期之前,而且自那时起愈演愈烈。”The House That Pat Built帕特的功绩When Pat Brown, then 53 and the state attorney general, was elected governor in 1958, the Republicans controlled both houses of the Legislature and most statewide offices. He swept to victory in an election that signaled a new direction for California: Brown was a Republican turned Democrat who identified with the New Deal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt.1958年,时年53岁的州总检察长帕特·布朗当选为州长。当时,共和党控制着议会两院和全州范围内的大部分机构。他在一次选举中以压倒性优势获胜。那次选举标志着加州的新方向:布朗是一名从共和党转变而来的民主党人,认同富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)的“新政”(New Deal)政策。“He really in many ways built the modern California that we know,” said Raphael J. Sonenshein, the executive director of the Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles. “Even though he only had two terms, they were enormously consequential. I have to think that the California that we live in bears his stamp more than that of any other governor.”“他真的在很多方面打造了我们所知道的这个现代的加利福尼亚,” 加州大学洛杉矶分校埃德蒙·G·“帕特”·布朗公共事务研究所(Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles)的执行主管拉斐尔·J·索南沙因(Raphael J. Sonenshein)说。“只当了两届,但那两届影响巨大。我必须承认,他在我们现在所生活的加州留下的印记,比其他任何州长都多。”The new governor pledged in his inaugural address to follow “the path of responsible liberalism.” He rejected warnings from aides about the state’s deficit, and advocated tax increases to finance spending on school construction, parks and transportation. During his years in power, the state built three new campuses for the University of California and six more for the state college system — though that was not his top interest.那时,他作为新州长在就职演说中承诺,将遵循“负责任的自由主义道路”。他拒绝了助手有关该州赤字的警告,持增税,以便为学校建设、公园和交通运输开提供资金。在他当权的那些年里,该州为加州大学修了三个分校,并为该州高校体系建了六所学校。而这还不算是他最关心的领域。“Water was the No. 1 thing on his agenda,” said Martin Schiesl, a professor emeritus of history at California State University. In his first year in office, Pat Brown persuaded the Legislature to pass and send to voters a .75 billion bond to begin the state water project — a network of dams, pipes and an aqueduct designed to take water from the relatively wet north to Southern California, where 80 percent of the population lived.“水是他当时要处理的首要问题,”加州州立大学(California State University)历史学荣休教授马丁·席泽尔(Martin Schiesl)说。执政第一年,帕特·布朗说州议会通过了一项17.5亿美元的债券计划,并向选民兜售,以便开始州级水利项目——这是一个由水坝、管道和一条引水渠组成的网络,旨在把水资源从相对湿润的加州北部输送到州里80%的人口聚居的南部。Pat Brown was offering an ambitious vision of California as he campaigned across the state for the measure: California as its own vast and diverse nation, where the water of the north would feed the population and farm growth to the south. “He thought it was irresponsible not to plan for the growth that was coming,” Kathleen Brown said. “He used to say, ‘If you don’t want to manage and build for this growth today, we’ll have to do something else tomorrow.’ ”在州内各个地方为这项提案做宣传时,帕特·布朗勾画了一个关于加州的宏伟蓝图:加州本身就是个广阔而多元的地方,北部的水资源能够供养南部的人口,并保障那里的农业增长。“他认为,不为将来的增长做打算,是不负责任的行为,”凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“他常说,‘如果你今天不愿意为这种增长进行管理和建设方面的工作,我们明天就不得不去做额外的事情。’”In a letter cited in “California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown,” the biography by Mr. Rarick, Pat Brown argued that he had no choice. “What are we to do? Build barriers around California and say nobody else can come in because we don’t have enough water to go around?”拉里克撰写的传记《加州的崛起:帕特·布朗及其时代》(California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown)中引用了一封信。帕特·布朗在其中表示,自己别无选择。“我们该怎么办?用栅栏把加州团团围住,说其他人等不得入内,就因为我们没有足够的水资源?”A New Tone新基调Jerry Brown did not originally go into the family business, spending his years as a young man as a Jesuit studying for the priesthood. He spent three years in the seminary, before emerging to prepare for law school and what would prove to be an almost- unbroken lifetime in public office. When he became governor, he arrived in the shadow of his father, who had gone from having an outsize reputation to a second-term decline and defeat in 1966 as he struggled with student unrest at Berkeley and a conservative shift by the electorate.杰瑞·布朗刚开始并没有子承父业,年轻时曾作为耶稣会士而研习神职。他在神学院度过三年,后来才为进入法学院做准备,随后开始了几乎不曾间断的公职生涯。在他成为州长的时候,父亲的阴影随之而来。他父亲最初享有很高的声望,却在第二任期时人气急跌,后来因为疲于应对伯克利的学生运动,再加上选民朝保守主义的转变,他在1966年落败。Jerry Brown’s new tone was clear from his first inaugural address as he warned of “the rising cost of energy, the depletion of our resources, the threat to the environment, the uncertainty of our economy and the monetary system, the lack of faith in government, the drift in political and moral leadership.”杰瑞·布朗的新基调在第一次州长就职演说中就表现得很清晰,他对“日益增长的能源成本、资源的损耗、环境所受到的威胁、我们的经济和货币体系面临的不确定性、政府公信力的缺乏,以及政治和道德领导力方面的偏移”发出了警告。With one notable exception — he campaigned, unsuccessfully, to win voter support for another water tunnel to finish his father’s project, which to this day he calls essential to the state’s long-term health — this would not be an administration about building roads, bridges, dams or college campuses. Instead, Mr. Brown focused on policies that regulated growth.这将不是一届致力于修建道路、桥梁、大坝或大学校园的政府。布朗关注的是调控增长的政策。不过,还是有一个引人注意的例外:他曾试图赢得选民对又一条引水渠的持,从而完成父亲的工程,但未能成功。迄今为止,他一直说该工程对加州的长期健康发展至关重要。Still, if Jerry Brown is different as a governor from his father, he is different from what he was 40 years ago as well. Even as he talks about strains on California, he is championing the kind of big projects that his father was known for: a high-speed train line from San Francisco to Los Angeles and two massive underground pipelines. The pipelines would help convey water through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, east of San Francisco, to central and Southern California — the state water project his father began. Some of that, no doubt, reflects the consideration of a man who realizes he has only so many years left in office. “Jerry has appreciated, as time has passed, that leaving a legacy as a political figure often requires concrete,” Kathleen Brown said. “My father’s legacy is very much tied and identified with building. Jerry’s first term was very much more about ideas and fundamental shifts in the focus of government.”不过,如果说杰瑞·布朗作为州长与父亲有所不同,那么他与40年前的自己也不一样。就算会谈论加州面临的压力,他仍在持让他父亲闻名的那种大工程:从旧金山到洛杉矶的高铁线路,以及两个大型的地下管道项目。这些管道将把水从旧金山以东的萨克拉门托-圣华金河三角洲输送到加州的中部和南部——这属于他父亲开启的州级水利项目。毫无疑问,其中有些元素反映出他意识到了自己在任的时间有限。“随着时间的流逝,杰瑞已经体会到,作为一个政治人物,留下的政绩往往需要是有形的东西,”凯瑟琳·布朗说。“先父的政绩很大程度上与建筑工程密不可分。杰瑞的第一个任期更多地强调理念,以及政府关注点方面的根本性转变。”Still, Mr. Brown said he would have done what his father did if he had been governor during Pat Brown’s era — and expected that his father would be doing the same thing Jerry Brown is doing were he running the state today.不过,杰瑞·布朗表示,如果在帕特·布朗的时代担任州长,他会采取和父亲同样的做法,而且他认为,如果父亲在今天担任州长,也会做和自己同样的事。“What else could you do?” he said. “Who sets the agenda? The times set the agenda. It’s not like I don’t have a lot of things I want to do. There are a lot of challenges — you have to respond, whether it’s water or drought or education. Health. Immigration. Here they are — do something. That’s what I do. I think my father would do the same thing.”“还能有别的什么选择吗?”他问道。“谁来设定议程?是时代在设定议程。并不是说我自己没有很多想做的事情。是太多挑战了——你必须加以应对,无论是水利、干旱、教育,还是卫生、移民。问题就摆在那里——你得采取行动。我就是这么干的。我认为父亲也会做同样的选择。” /201505/376333

  THERE I was, at the height of the great Disco Summer, selling hot dogs in the shadow of a six-story, elephant-shaped building on the shores of Margate, N.J. Most nights, my shift started at midnight. It was June 1977, just after my freshman year at Wesleyan, and I was hard at work at Lenny’s Hot Dogs.那是迪斯科音乐正值流行的夏天,在新泽西州马盖特市的海滩边,我在一座大象形状的六层建筑的阴影下卖热。很多时候,我的班次都是从午夜开始。那是1977年6月,我在卫斯理大学(Wesleyan)刚刚结束了大一的课程,正努力在雷尼热店(Lenny’s Hot Dogs)工作。The big rush came just after 3 a.m., when the disco across the street, The Music Box, unplugged its rotating mirror ball and its denizens spilled out in search of hot dogs, frozen yogurt cones and Lenny’s pepper hash. At that late hour the lines stretched from Lenny’s across the parking lot, past Lucy the Elephant, and toward the rumbling Atlantic beyond.汹涌的客流在刚过凌晨3点时涌来,那时街对面的迪斯科舞厅“音乐盒”(The Music Box)关掉了旋转的水晶球,舞厅里的人群涌出来寻找热、冻酸奶蛋卷和雷尼辣椒碎。在深夜里的那个时刻,顾客的队伍从雷尼热店一直向后排,穿过停车场、经过大象露西(Lucy the Elephant),一直向汹涌的大西洋的方向延伸。Lucy the Elephant is now a National Historic Landmark, but Lenny’s, sadly, has been gone for decades. Still, plenty of freshmen will spend this summer selling hot dogs, waiting tables, tending bar or supervising the archery range at clam shacks, taverns and summer camps from Maine to California.大象露西现在是一处国家历史名胜,但是很遗憾雷尼热店已经关门几十年了。不过,还是有很多大一的学生在暑假卖热、在餐厅当务员、在酒吧当酒保,或者看管靶场,从缅因州到加州各个地方的海鲜餐馆、旅店和度假营地都有他们的工作。One question, of course, is what kind of work is best for college students?当然,有一个问题是,什么样的工作对大学生是最有益的?For many, summer employment means taking whatever job can best reduce the burden of debt, which was more than ,000, on average, for members of the class of 2015.对很多人来说,夏季的工作经历意味着接受一份最能减轻债务负担的随便什么工作。对2015级新生来说,平均债务负担超过3万美元。Other students, both with and without the burden of debt, feel the pressure to take on internships. The fields of politics, media and entertainment, to name three, now virtually demand a period of unpaid work.其他学生,无论有没有债务负担,也都感受到了从事实习工作的紧迫性。试举三例,政治、媒体、领域,现在实际上必须经历一段无薪工作的时间。But there are times, I suspect, when a mind is a terrible thing not to waste.但我猜想,有些时候不让头脑浪费一下,就太糟了。One example of a mind well wasted is that of my friend Richard Russo. Richard, who is now a novelist, worked on a construction crew, not as the guy who worked the jackhammer, but as that guy’s assistant. One day they had to break up a concrete wall, and it was Richard’s job to hold the business end of the jackhammer steady — and horizontal — while the other guy operated it, leaving Richard feeling, for the rest of the summer, as if his brains had actually bounced around the inside of his skull. I had another friend, Billy Warden, who dug graves one summer and learned, on the occasion of some not very deeply buried 19th-century caskets collapsing just beneath the place where he was standing, what it was like to be hip deep in dead guys.完全浪费头脑的一个例子就是我的朋友理查德·罗索(Richard Russo)。现在已经成为小说家的罗索曾经在建筑工地工作,不是操作风钻的那个家伙,而是他的助手。有一天,他们要拆掉一堵混凝土墙,理查德的工作是抓稳风钻钻头的一边,保持稳定,而另一个人操作风钻。这导致理查德一整个夏天都觉得自己的脑子真的在头颅里面弹来弹去。我还有另外一个朋友,比利·沃登(Billy Warden),他有一年夏天挖掘坟墓。有一次在某个埋着19世纪棺椁的坟地,墓穴比较浅,就在他站的地方塌陷了。他由此知道了站在齐腰深的死人堆里是什么感觉。I had a lot of so-called stupid jobs between high school and the time I turned 30. I sold hot dogs. I worked as an office temp. I was a messenger. I sold T-shirts at Grateful Dead concerts. (They sold faster when I hawked them with a British accent.) I cleared brush. I cleaned swimming pools.我在高中毕业到30岁之前,做过很多所谓愚蠢的工作。我卖过热、当过办公室临时工、当过收发员。我在“感恩而死”(Grateful Dead)的演唱会上卖过T恤衫。(我用英国口音兜售的时候,卖得还更快一些。)我清洗过刷子,也清洗过游泳池。And for years and years and years, I mowed lawns.我还割草坪,割过很多很多很多年。There was a lot to like about mowing lawns. For one, the smells: the sharp, green scent of freshly cut grass, the fumes of gasoline, the whiff of exhaust. Then there was the sound: the endless roar that made it impossible to hear anything else, including the voice of the irate homeowner standing less than two feet away, yelling that I’d run right over his tulips. It was dramatic, too: Sometimes I’d plow through a field of fallen apples and applesauce would spew out of the mower in a shocking arc of sweet-smelling goo. Other times, I’d run straight over a rock, and the mower would stop with a tremendous clang, as if the engine itself had just been executed, military-style, by firing squad.割草坪的工作有许多让人喜欢的地方。比如,它的味道:刚刚割过的青草的那强烈而清新的香味、汽油的味道、废气。还有声音:那让你听不见任何其他声音的无休止的轰鸣,包括不到两英尺开外那位愤怒的屋主,大喊着我要踩到他的郁金香了。它也很有戏剧性:有时我会割过一块落满了苹果的草地,苹果泥就会从割草机里喷出来,散发着香甜气味的粘液呈现出一道惊人的弧线。有时,我还会碰到石头,割草机就会停止工作,发出一声巨响,好像发动机自身刚刚被一军人行刑队给处决了。The summer after I worked at Lenny’s, I was a teller at Continental Bank in Philadelphia. I thought it was clever to give my customers their money in bills, or in Eisenhower dollar coins, or in some strange combination of Kennedy half-dollars and bills. My drawer, at the end of day, was always “under” or “over,” and all the other tellers had to stand around as I counted and re-counted the float. One time, I accidentally left ,000 by the coffee maker in the lounge. I had no choice except to tell my boss the truth: I’d been on my way to the safe with the cash when I remembered we were out of creamer.在雷尼热店之后的那个夏天,我在费城的一家大陆(Continental Bank)做柜员。我以为把钱以两美元钞票、艾森豪威尔硬币、或以肯尼迪的0.5美元和50美元钞票等奇怪的面值组合交给顾客是很聪明的。每天下班时,我的抽屉不是“太少”就是“太多”,其他的所有柜员都得站在周围,等着我清点、再清点找零备用金。有一次,我不小心把1万美元落在休息室的咖啡机旁边。我别无选择,只能向老板说明真相:我在拿着钱去保险柜的路上突然想起来,我们没有奶精了。These jobs made me aware of class privilege in a way that my hours in Econ 101 surely did not. I remember getting back to Wesleyan after my summer at the bank and gushing to a teller, “I was a teller this summer, too!” only to realize, as she glowered at me, that what had been a summer lark for me was, for her, the continuing reality of her working life.这些工作让我意识到阶级特权,这是我在经济学基础课程里学不到的 。我还记得在的暑期工作结束后,我回到卫斯理大学,兴冲冲地对一名柜员说,“我今年暑假也去当柜员了!”结果我只是在她沉着脸看着我的时候意识到,我的一份暑期工作,对她而言却是一辈子望不到头的一份生计。My own sons are engaged this summer with work that feels more relevant to their college majors — my older boy, the actor, is a production assistant on a television show; my younger, the astronomer, has an internship at an observatory in California, searching for planetoids and brown dwarfs.我自己的两个儿子今年夏天参加了一些与他们的大学专业更相关的工作——我的大儿子想当演员,目前在一档电视节目中担任制片助理;我的小儿子想成为天文学家,正在加州的一家观象台实习,每天搜寻着小行星和褐矮星。These are very cool jobs, to be sure, and I am insufferably proud of my sons: How could I not be? But I also wonder whether their summer jobs are as likely to build their characters as their résumés. I am hoping, for their sakes, that these opportunities provide them with both.当然了,这些都是很酷的工作,我为我的儿子骄傲得不得了:我怎么可能不骄傲?不过我也好奇,这些暑假工作在为简历增砖添瓦的同时,是否也能影响他们的性格。我希望,这些机会能带给两者兼得的收获,这是为了他们好。One of those mornings after my shift at Lenny’s ended, I walked home along the beach as the constellations of summer — the Scorpion, the Archer — sank in the skies behind the six-story elephant. Later, a flock of sea gulls took wing as I approached, and circled around me as the sun burst over the ocean.在雷尼工作期间,我在一个夜班之后的清晨,沿着海滨往家走,夏日的星辰——天蝎座、人马座——深深地嵌在六层的大象建筑后的天空里。然后,我的脚步惊起了一群海鸥,它们在我周围盘旋,就在这时,太阳在海面上喷薄而出。It was several miles back to the house, but I was in no hurry. I had faith that I’d get there in time, if I just kept walking long enough.#9744;离家还有几英里路,但我一点也不着急。我相信我会按时到达,只要我走得足够久。 /201506/380292People with a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder are at higher risk of dying young than those without the disorder, usually in automobile crashes and other accidents, suggests research reported on Wednesday, from the largest study of A.D.H.D. and mortality to date.周三,《柳叶刀》杂志(The Lancet)上发表了迄今关于A.D.H.D.(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,注意缺陷多动障碍)与死亡率的规模最大的研究,该研究报告:与无注意缺陷障碍者相比,确诊此疾病的患者的早逝风险较大,他们常在交通事故或其他意外中丧生。The study, an analysis of nearly two million Danish medical records, found that the odds that any individual with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder died young were still very low, about three in 1,000. But those with the disorder often had companion problems — drug abuse, for example, or antisocial behavior — that increased those odds.研究分析了近200万名丹麦人的病历,然后发现:注意缺陷多动障碍患者的早逝几率依旧很低,约为千分之三。但该疾病的患者往往并发有其他问题,例如药物滥用、反社会行为等,这些都会增加他们的早逝几率。Previous research had provided reason to suspect a link between attention deficits and mortality. But the new paper gives a clearer picture of the risks, and the possible reasons behind them, experts said. The study was published in The Lancet.既往已有研究怀疑注意缺陷与死亡率之间存在关联,并提出了一些理由。然而,专家指出,这篇新论文对死亡风险及其背后可能的原因都做出了更清楚的阐述。Stephen Faraone, a professor of psychiatry at SUNY Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, said the findings should not panic parents of children with attention problems. “But this is a large, well-done study, and I see it as a red flag planted in the terrain, a reason to identify and treat A.D.H.D.” earlier rather later, said Dr. Faraone, who was not involved in the research.美国纽约州立大学上州医科大学(SUNY Upstate Medical University,位于锡拉丘兹市,又译雪城)的精神病学教授史蒂芬·法劳内(Stephen Faraone)表示,存在注意问题的患儿的家长无需因该研究结果而感到恐慌。“但是,我认为,这项大型、高质量的研究为我们敲响了警钟,并为及早识别并治疗A.D.H.D.提供了依据,”法劳内士补充道,他本人并没有参与这项研究。In the study, a research team led by Dr. Soren Dalsgaard of Aarhus University analyzed the medical histories of all children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2011. The team found that of 32,061 who had been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D., 107 had died before age 33. That was roughly twice the rate of premature death among those without the disorder, after factors like age, psychiatric history and employment were taken into account.在这项研究中,丹麦奥胡斯大学(Aarhus University)的苏林·达尔斯高(Soren Dalsgaard)士领导研究团队分析了在1981年至2011年之间出生于丹麦的所有儿童的病史。他们发现,在32061名确诊为A.D.H.D.的患儿中,有107人在33岁之前死亡。在将年龄、精神病史和就业情况等因素纳入考虑后,患者的过早死亡率几乎是非患者的两倍。The risk was even higher in people who received a diagnosis at age 18 or later, the study found — possibly because of the severity of such cases, the authors wrote. They included researchers from the Lundbeck Foundation in Denmark, which funded the research, and the Child Study Center at Yale.研究发现,在年满18岁后确诊的患者中,上述风险还要更高——这可能是因为这类病例通常较为严重,作者写道。研究团队还包括来自丹麦伦德贝克基金会(Lundbeck Foundation,研究的资助方)和耶鲁大学(Yale)儿童研究中心(Child Study Center)的研究人员。But that heightened risk could also reflect a late diagnosis, Dr. Faraone said. Children with undiagnosed attention deficits often go off track, academically and socially, and by 18 may be living more recklessly than their peers.法劳内还说:这种高风险也反映出该疾病的诊断往往偏晚。患有注意缺陷却漏诊的儿童在学术和社交领域都更容易脱离正轨,他们在18岁前也很可能比同龄人更加冒失鲁莽。“If you look at the groups of problems that tend to go with A.D.H.D — conduct disorders, antisocial behaviors, substance use,” he said, “only one of these is easily treatable. And that’s A.D.H.D.”“看看这些经常伴随A.D.H.D.出现的问题吧:品行障碍、反社会行为、物质使用障碍,”他说,“其中唯一容易治疗的就是A.D.H.D.。” /201504/369446


  Answer the Iron接听熨斗A guy walks into his office ,and both of his ears are all bandaged up.有一个人走进他的办公室,他的两个耳朵都包扎了绷带。The boss says,;What happened to your ears?;老板说:“你的耳朵怎么啦?”He says,;Yesterday I was ironing a shirt when the phone rang!I accidentally answered the iron.他说:“昨天电话响的时候,我正在用熨斗烫衬衫。我竟然无意闾就把熨斗拿来接听。The boss says,;Well,that expains one ear,but what happened to your other ear?;老板说:“ 嗯,好吧,那解释了一个耳朵,可是你的另一个耳朵又是怎么一回事呀?”He says,;Well,jeez,I had to call the doctor!;他说:“嗯,哎呀!我得打电给医生嘛!” /201504/368412。

  Beautiful women, it seems, really do find life easier.对美丽的女人来说,生活似乎真的更容易一些。Whether it#39;s in the office or in the courtroom, a new study backs up the belief that pretty women can broker deals more easily.据一项新研究实,无论是在办公室里还是在法庭上, 美丽的女人都更能轻松地驾驭一场谈判。This, according to the research, is because beauty overrides the brain#39;s reaction to fairnesss - a fact tied to a subconsciousness rooted in male evolution.根据研究表明,这是由于我们对美的感受会凌驾于我们对公平的反应之上——这种现象与男性在进化过程中产生的无意识心理机能有关。As part of the study, 21 male students at Zhejiang University in China, were asked to look at 300 photos of Chinese women.在实验过程中,研究人员让浙江大学的21名男学生看300张中国女性的照片。A different group of men had judged half of the women as attractive and the half unattractive.在此之前,另一组男士已经对这些女性的颜值做出了评判,他们认为这些女性中有一半面容姣好,另一半长相平庸。The men were then teamed up with some of the women whose faces they had just seen while playing a computer game.接着,研究人员将这些男士与一组女士进行了分组搭对,之前他们曾和这些女士一起玩过电脑游戏,目睹了这些女士的容姿。In the game, they decided whether to split a small amount of money. At the same time, the researchers studied their brain waves and noted their response times.在游戏中,每组男女都能获得一小笔钱,他们要判断他们是否愿意跟对方分得这笔钱。同时,研究人员会观测这些男士的脑电波,记录他们的反射时间。They found men were more likely to accept bad deals from attractive women.研究人员发现,男士们更乐意于接受来自漂亮女性的不平等交易。They were also quicker to respond to fair offers from good-looking women and slower to respond to unfair offers.在面对漂亮女性时,如果分钱的方式是公平的,他们的反应速度也更快。而当分钱的方式不公正时,他们的反应速度则更慢。Meanwhile, brain scans revealed that men were more sensitive to unfair offers when the woman was unattractive, and felt greater reward when the woman was attractive.同时,通过他们的脑电波扫描,研究者发现,当男士们面对长相平庸的女性时,他们对不公平交易的反应更加敏锐。而面对面容姣好的女性时,他们在分钱过程中获得的满足感也更多。University of Stirling psychologist Anthony Little, who was not involved in the study told people,it was not entirely clear why we behave differently toward attractive people.并未参与此项目的英国斯特灵大学的心理学教授安东尼·利特说,对于人们为什么会对面容姣好的对象特别优待,人们还没有彻底弄清楚原因。#39;We appear to have a bias toward being nice to attractive people even when the rewards to ourselves, such as increasing the chance of a date, wouldn#39;t apply,#39; Little said.“我们倾向于对面容姣好的人更加友善,即使这样做收获甚微,比如说,并不会增加我们与这位漂亮女士去约会的可能性。”#39;This suggests our motivations to be nice to attractive people are unlikely to be based on conscious decisions to maximise our own benefits.#39;“这说明,我们对漂亮女士更加友善的行为动机并不是基于意识层面上的逻辑判断,即并不是基于让自身利益最大化的需求。”Previous studies have also found a pretty face can be a source of lifelong advantage - beginning at secondary school.之前已经有研究发现,拥有姣好的面容可能成为一个人能终身受惠的一项优势——这一优势从中学阶段就已经凸显出来。 /201507/385158



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