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2019年09月18日 05:37:29

Science and technology.科技。Parasitology寄生虫学The risks of global worming全球防虫的危险Widesp use of anti-parasite drugs is reducing their value广泛使用抗寄生虫药物正在降低其疗效Safely grazing?正在安全地吃草?FOR decades, the overuse of antibiotics has encouraged the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria which, though they have never broken out and caused an epidemic in the way that was once feared, have nevertheless been responsible for many deaths that might otherwise have been avoided. Now something similar seems to be happening in agriculture. The overuse of drugs against parasitic worms which infest stock animals means that these, too, are becoming drug-resistant. That is bad for the animals health and welfare, and equally bad for farmers profits.几十年来,广泛使用抗生素促进了耐药病菌的进化。尽管它们从来没有失控,爆发人们一度为止恐惧的大规模瘟疫,但还是造成了大量本来可以避免的死亡。现在畜牧业中似乎也有类似现象。人们对家畜身上的寄生虫过分使用药物,这让它们也有了抗药性。这对动物的健康与安乐绝非好事,同样也会减少饲养它们的农民的利润。This, at least, is the conclusion drawn by Ray Kaplan, a parasitologist at the University of Georgia who has just published a review of research on the problem. His results, which appear in Veterinary Parasitology, make grim ing.这至少是乔治亚大学(University of Georgia)寄生虫病学家雷?卡普兰(Ray Kaplan)在他最近发表的有关这一问题的研究综述中得出的结论。他发表在《兽医寄生虫学》(Veterinary Parasitology)上的文章读来让人心情沉重。Sheep and goats are the worst affected. Studies in Australia, Brazil and the ed States suggest that animals in half or more of farms in many parts of those countries are infested with drug-resistant worms. In some cases the parasites are resistant to every drug that can be thrown at them. The proportion of infested farms is lower in New Zealand, a country that has a huge population of sheep, but even there it is rising at a worrying rate.绵羊与山羊受的影响最大。在澳大利亚、巴西和美国所做的研究表明,在这些国家的许多地区,一半或更多的农场中的家畜身上有耐药寄生虫。有些农场的寄生虫对所有可用药物有抗药性。新西兰的农场饲养着大量绵羊,它们受到影响的比例比较低;但即使在该国,受影响农场比例的增长速度还是令人担心。Cattle, too, are afflicted. Dr Kaplan cites work done in Argentina, Brazil and New Zealand. And horses suffer as well, with resistant worms turning up in both America and Europe.家牛也身受其害。卡普兰士引用了在阿根廷、巴西和新西兰所做的研究工作。马也是受害者,美国与欧洲的马身上都发现了抗药寄生虫。The root of the problem is what Dr Kaplan refers to as ;global worming;-giving drugs prophylactically to all livestock rather than reserving them for use as a treatment when an animal actually becomes infested. It is common sense, of course, to try to prevent infestation rather than merely treating it once it has arisen.问题的根源是卡普兰士称为;全球防虫;的现象——预防性地对所有家畜用药,而不是在动物身上真正出现了寄生虫时投药治疗。当然,防病胜于治病是常识。Unfortunately, such promiscuous use of drugs is the best way to put selection pressure on the worms and encourage the evolution of resistant strains.不幸的是,这样的预防性用药是在寄生虫身上施加选择压力的最佳方法,能够促进抗药品种的进化。What is needed, says Dr Kaplan, is more selective drug use, and better management. Worms are not evenly distributed. Instead, a minority of animals play host to most of them. Aiming treatment at those animals would reduce the likelihood of resistance emerging without harming a farmers ability to control infestations. Better husbandry might help, too. Not grazing so many animals on a given patch of land would discourage transmission.卡普兰士认为,现在需要做的是加强管理与更有选择性地用药。寄生虫并非均匀寄生在各种动物身上。有少数动物是大多数寄生虫的寄主。集中治疗这些动物则会降低耐药性发生的可能性,同时也不会损害农民控制虫害的能力。改进饲养方法或许也有益处。不在一块草地上过量放牧动物会减轻虫害传播。That, though, would bring problems of its own, as it would reduce the number of animals which could be raised on a given farm. Which leads to the nub of the issue: it is hard to work out exactly how much damage resistant worms are doing, and thus how much effort should be put into trying to stop the sp of resistance-not least because, as Dr Kaplan found out when he conducted his survey, the data are pretty sporadic. But they are worrying enough to be worth following up, for if resistance did get out of hand the consequences could be very expensive indeed.但这本身也会带来问题,因为这会减少一座农场能饲养的家畜数目。这就引出了问题的症结:人们很难确定抗药寄生虫会造成多大的危害,因此也不知道该花多少代价来阻止抗药性蔓延,因为很重要的是,卡普兰士在纵观研究结果时发现有关数据相当零散。但这些数据还是很令人忧虑,值得进一步跟踪,因为一旦人们无法控制抗药性,就确实可能会付出惨重的代价。No one farmer is to blame. This is a tragedy of the commons, in which sensible individual decisions have led to a collective difficulty. But it might behove farmers to think more about how they use anti-worm drugs. If they do not, they may find that those drugs have become useless.无法就此责备某个农民。这是一个公地悲剧 [注],许多明智的个人决定导致了群体的困难。但或许农民们有责任多想想他们应该如何使用抗寄生虫药物。如果放弃这一责任,他们或许有一天会发现这些药物变得全然无用。 201208/193574厦门激光去痘印多少钱厦门欧菲整形正规吗厦门大腿抽脂手术费用

龙海美白针厦门激光去雀斑样痣价格Business Avon boots out its boss Andreas adieu商业 雅芳把老板给炒了 钟彬娴,再见!An ugly mess at a beauty firm化妆品公司的丑陋乱局;YOU have got to go home tonight, Friday evening, and you have got to fire yourself,; a management coach once told Andrea Jung, the boss of Avon, an American beauty firm.美国化妆品公司雅芳的一位经理曾对老板钟彬娴女士(Andrea Jung)说道:;你今晚必须回家,周五晚上,而且你必须辞职。;The idea was for her to come back to work the following Monday as if starting her job anew.该想法是为了让她能在下周一犹如重新开始工作一样重返办公室上班。Alas, this brilliant tip was not enough.唉,这个聪明绝顶的小建议并不能起到明显作用。As Avons share price has wilted like mascara under a sunlamp, Ms Jung is being pushed out for real.当雅芳公司股价像日光灯下的睫毛膏一样萎缩时,钟彬娴女士确实被推到风口浪尖。On December 13th the firm announced that she will be replaced as chief executive.12月13日,公司宣布钟彬娴将只担任首席执行官一职。The makeover will be gradual.该变动将会是平缓的。Ms Jung, who has run Avon since 1999, will stay on as chairman and help the board find a new boss.钟彬娴自1999年来执掌雅芳,她将留着主席的位置上并帮助董事会找到新的主席。It will be a tough job for anyone.这对任何人来说都是棘手的。Avon is the worlds biggest direct-seller: an army of cheery salesfolk hawk its products door-to-door.雅芳是世界上最大的直销公司:雅芳有一热情洋溢的销售大军,挨家挨户的推销产品。The 125-year-old New York-based company has an annual revenue of over billion and operations in more than 100 countries.总部坐落在纽约的雅芳已经有125年的历史,年收入超过100亿美元,But it has stumbled badly of late.经营范围超过100个国家。Its share price has fallen by 45% this year (see chart).但是最近雅芳发展严重受阻,其股价今年已经下跌了45%。(见图表)Ms Jung had a glossy start at Avon, presiding over six consecutive years of double-digit growth.钟彬娴女士在雅芳上任伊始非常顺利,代领雅芳连续六年创下增长率为两位数的记录。Yet she failed to use these fat years to invest in the business.但是她并没有利用公司繁荣发展的这几年对业务进行投资。By 2005 the firm was looking blemished. Sales declined in major markets.到2005年,公司发展出现问题,主要市场的销量下滑,公司股价下跌。The share price dropped. Ms Jung laid off 25% of senior staff and cut costs everywhere except for advertising and distribution.钟彬娴解雇了25%的高级职员,并且全面消减除广告和配送方面的成本。Avon never really recovered.雅芳从未真正恢复。In March Ms Jung launched the biggest hiring drive in the companys history and nearly doubled the marketing budget.年3月,钟彬娴开始公司成立以来最大的招聘活动并且将营销预算将近翻了一番。She saw in the global economic crisis a chance to overtake Avons rivals. It didnt work.她在全球金融危机中看到打败竞争对手的商机,但是却失败了。Moreover, the company has spent more than 0m on an internal investigation of alleged corruption among sales representatives in China and Latin America.Several have been dismissed. 而且,公司耗资1.5亿美元对中国和拉美的销售代表中所谓的贪污行为进行调查,一些销售代表被解雇。Americas Securities and Exchange Commission is investigating, too.美国券交易委员会也进行调查。If Avon is found guilty of anything, the penalties could be steep.如果雅芳被判定有罪的话,那么处罚将会非常严重。Some problems are beyond Avons control. Brazil, a big market, is slowing down. Europe, which accounts for 28% of Avons sales, is in crisis: its hard to put lipstick on the PIGS.有些问题是雅芳无法控制的。雅芳最大的市场巴西正不断萎缩,为雅芳销售额贡献28%的欧洲市场正面临债务危机:在温饱问题未解决之前,很少有人考虑到美容等形象问题。Avon is doing badly at home in America, too.雅芳在美国本土的业绩同样非常糟糕。顾客们锱铢必较。Shoppers are feeling Grinchy about pennies. And the non-beauty products (such as fashion accessories) that account for a hefty third of Avons sales in America have lower margins than cosmetics. (In other countries non-beauty stuff represents only about 10% of Avons sales.)而且占雅芳在美国销售额高达三分之一的其他非美容产品(诸如时尚饰品)比化妆品的利润要低。(在其他国家,非美容产品只占雅芳销售额的10%。)Other problems are self-inflicted. Avon made a mess of its new IT system in Brazil.其他问题则是自身的原因。雅芳将其用于巴西新的信息技术系统搞得一团糟。Its working capital is chewing up a third of its gross cashflow, mainly due to poor inventory management.由于糟糕的库存管理,雅芳营运资本占现金流总量的三分之一。If Avon reduced its working capital, it would have less trouble paying dividends, says Connie Maneaty of BMO Capital in New York.位于纽约BMO Capital公司的Connie Maneaty说:如果雅芳减少运营资本,那么其付股息的困难就会小很多。It would also have more cash for acquisitions in fast-growing markets such as Vietnam or India.同样会有更多的现金用于诸如越南和印度等快速发展市场的兼并业务。Many will be sorry to see Ms Jung tossed overboard.很多人对钟彬娴被扫地出门深表遗憾。As the Princeton-educated daughter of Chinese immigrants, she embodied the American dream.她毕业于普林斯顿大学,其父母是来自中国的移民,美国梦在她身上得以展现。She was also a role model for women, in particular Avons 6.5m sales representatives, most of whom are female.她也是女性学习的角色模范,特别是雅芳公司650万销售代表,大部分都是女性。One reason why Avon wants her to stay as chairman is that she is popular with the salesforce.雅芳希望任命她为主席的原因之一就是她在销售队伍中颇受欢迎。But Avon is ailing and needs an overhaul.但是雅芳发展存在;诟病;,现在需要彻底检查。A new boss will be a good start, says Ali Dibadj of Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm.研究公司Sanford C. Bernstein的Ali Dibadj认为,新的主席对雅芳来说将会是一个不错的开局。The list of possible candidates includes Ed Shirley, vice chairman of the beauty and grooming unit at Procter amp; Gamble, an American consumer-goods giant, and Elizabeth Smith, who was in line to succeed Ms Jung at Avon before leaving the company to take over as boss of OSI Restaurant, a restaurant chain.新主席的候选人中包括:美国日用消费品巨头宝洁公司美容与装饰部门的副总裁艾德雪莉,以及伊丽莎白?史密斯,她在离开雅芳之前是钟彬娴的继任者、目前是OSI连锁餐厅总裁。Whoever gets the job, the changes required will be more than cosmetic.不论是谁成为新的总裁,雅芳想要改变,化妆品是远远不够的。 /201211/211292厦门市妇保医院公立还是私立We all shop for groceries, but we don’t always think about how the stores we shop in influence our buying decisions.Many consumers shop on autopilot and stores, they take advantage of that.我们都去杂货店购物,但我们不一定知道我们光顾的商店是怎样影响顾客的购买决定。许多消费者都去商店自主选购,商店则利用这一点。Researchers found that shoppers who started on the right-hand side of the store and shopped in a counterclockwise direction spent more on average than shoppers who started on the left. Consumer report says stores use displays that stick out (to) make products look more tempting, manufacturers pay stores to place their products in certain areas. So be sure to check shelves below eye level and those items at the end of the aisle.They may not actually be on sale.研究人员发现,从商店右边开始逛以及以逆时针方向逛商店的购物者比从左边开始逛的购物者平均花费更多。消费者报告说道,商店利用伸出式排列使商品看起来更加诱人。厂家付钱给商店,以把商品摆在特定的位置。所以一定要检查低于眼镜位置的货架和那些摆在过道尾巴上的商品。他们可能不打折。Now according to consumer reports, Americans make an average of 88 trips to the store each year and spend an average of 60, but you can save hundreds of dollars a year by shopping smart.根据消费者报告,美国人平均每年去商店光顾88次,平均花费5060美元,但是如果多花点心思,你就可能每年节省数百美元。Begin by taking a flyer. Consumer Reports says that stores will often sell items for less than they paid for them to draw you into the store and get you to buy more expensive items, but just because an item is in a flyer, doesn’t mean it’s on sale.首先从传单开始。消费者报告说,商店通常会以低于批发价的价格出售产品,吸引消费者进入商店,从而让你买更贵的商品。但是传单上的低价商品在商店并一定有售。Coupons are also a great way to save. Newspaper inserts are still the main source for coupons, but you can also find coupons online at store online sites, and manufacturer websites as well.优惠券也是一种省钱的好方法。优惠券仍主要来源于报纸插页,但你也可以在商店的官网上找到电子优惠券。Loyalty that pays as well, consumer Reports says stores are increasingly saving the best deals for customers who have loyalty cards, but be sure to check the store’s privacy policy before giving up your personal information.忠诚度也能帮您省钱。消费者报告称,商店倾向于为持有会员卡的顾客保留最好的优惠。但是在提供个人信息之前,一定要考察一下商店的隐私保护策略。Finally don’t keep your age a secret.Some stores offer extra savings to older shoppers on certain days.If you have two products that look the same, don’t compare the item price, check the unit price instead. That’s the cost per ounce or cost per pound, and Consumer Reports recommends trying the store brand. Almost 3 quarters of respondents to a consumer report survey said they bought store brand products, and 89% of those respondents reported that the store brands were as good or better than the national brand.最后,不要对年龄保密。有些商店在特定的日子,会为年老的顾客提供额外的优惠。如果有两件看起来一样的商品,不要去比较总体价格,而是要比较单价。看它是以盎司还是英镑为单位计价,消费者报告还建议试试商店自己的品牌。在消费者报告调查中,几乎3/4的受访者说他们购买过商店的品牌产品,89%的受访者说商店品牌跟全国的品牌一样好,或者比全国的品牌更好。For top tips, I’m Alison Kosik.贴心提示,我是埃里森·柯西卡。201205/184385集美区去老年斑多少钱

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