2019年08月26日 00:58:58|来源:国际在线|编辑:爱问在线
Talks in Paris aimed at reaching a global climate accord entered a fraught new phase yesterday, even as research showed the carbon dioxide emissions that the agreement is supposed to cut have unexpectedly stalled.旨在达成全球气候协议的巴黎气候大会谈判昨日进入了令人担忧的新阶段,《自然气候变化》(Nature Climate Change)期刊上发表的一项研究表明,气候协议打算削减的二氧化碳排放量已意外下降。It was aly known that emissions from burning fossil fuels barely grew last year. But preliminary estimates from an international group of scientists show they may have fallen by 0.6 per cent in 2015.我们已经知道,2014年化石燃料燃烧所产生的碳排放量几乎没有增长。但是一个由多国科学家组成的小组所做的初步估算显示,2015年化石燃料燃烧所产生的碳排放量或许降低了0.6%。That would be a dramatic turnround from the 2-3 per cent annual emissions growth recorded since 2000 and a rare occurrence in a year when the International Monetary Fund expects the global economy to grow by about 3 per cent. Global emissions normally fall only when economic crises slow the power plants and factories that pump out carbon pollution.相对于2000年以来录得的每年2%至3%的碳排放量增长,这种降低可谓是个重大的逆转;而且,它还发生在一个国际货币基金组织(IMF)预期全球经济将增长约3%的年份,实属罕见。通常,只有在发生了经济危机、导致发电厂和工厂碳污染减少时,全球碳排放量才会下降。“These figures are certainly not typical,” said Professor Corinne Le Quéré of the University of East Anglia in the UK, one of the authors of the analysis published yesterday in the Nature Climate Change journal. She said a stalling of emissions had not coincided with a year of more than 2-3 per cent economic growth since reliable records became available in the 1970s.“这些数字当然是非典型的,”英国东盎格利亚大学(University of East Anglia)教授科琳娜勒凯雷(Corinne Le Quéré)称。勒凯雷是昨日发表的这项研究的作者之一。她表示,自上世纪70年代有可靠数据记载以来,经济增速超过2%至3%的年份从未出现过碳排放量下降。The chief reason for the fall, the scientists said, was the slowdown in coal use in China. The country is the world’s largest carbon polluter, responsible for 27 per cent of world emissions in 2014.科学家们表示,碳排放量下降的主要原因是中国煤炭使用量增长放缓。中国是全球最大的碳污染排放体,2014年中国占全球碳排放量的27%。China’s emissions had been rising 6.7 per cent a year over the previous decade but this growth slowed to 1.2 per cent in 2014. The country’s emissions were expected to fall by as much as 3.9 per cent in 2015, researchers said, largely because of a fall in coal consumption in at least the first eight months of 2015.过去十年,中国的碳排放量年增速达6.7%,但在2014年这一增速下降至1.2%。研究人员称,2015年中国碳排放量预计将减少多达3.9%,主要是由于中国的煤炭消费量至少在2015年的头8个月出现了下降。Emissions also fell in the US and the EU, the second and third largest carbon polluters, with a 15 per cent and 10 per cent share of emissions respectively.美国和欧盟的碳排放量也下降了。美国和欧盟分别为全球第二大和第三大碳污染排放体,占全球碳排放量的比例分别为15%和10%。But the scientists warned it was too early to say global emissions had definitely peaked because other big emerging economies were still planning to burn large amounts of coal.但科学家们警告称,现在说全球排放量肯定已经见顶还为时过早,因为其他大型新兴经济体仍然有计划要燃烧大量煤炭。 /201512/415107

The Asian Development Bank yesterday approved a 0m loan to help clean Beijing’s polluted air as it pledged to support China’s efforts to cut coal use in and around the capital.亚洲开发(ADB,中文简称“亚行”)昨日批准一笔3亿美元贷款帮助治理北京的空气污染。该机构承诺持中国减少首都及周边地区煤炭使用的努力。Beijing officials this week issued their first red alert after particulate ings rose to hazardous levels, forcing closure of factories and many schools.北京官方本周首次发布空气重污染红色预警,原因是空气中的微小颗粒物浓度升至危险水平,迫使工厂关闭,许多学校停课。The loan will be used to cut coal use in Hebei province, which contributes much of the pollution that blights Beijing and Tianjin.亚行的贷款将用于削减河北省的煤炭使用,肆虐京津的污染有很大一部分源自该省。Some 110m people live in Beijing, Tianjin and the surrounding Hebei province, accounting for 10 per cent of China’s economic output.北京、天津及周边的河北省生活着1.1亿人,占中国经济总量的10%。The ADB loan will support policies aimed at reducing annual coal consumption in Hebei by more than 12m tonnes. Seven of China’s 10 most polluted cities are in Hebei.亚行贷款将持旨在把河北省每年煤炭消耗量减少逾1200万吨的政策。中国10个污染最严重的城市中,有7个在河北。“Although they are making a lot of effort, the pollution is still there,” Satoshi Ishii, an ADB development specialist, said.“虽然他们做了很多努力,但污染仍然存在,”亚行发展专家石井晓(Satoshi Ishii)表示。“The fundamental issue is Hebei’s coal-based economy and industrial structure.”“根本问题是河北以煤炭为基础的经济和产业结构。”The package is the first “policy loan” made by the ADB in China. The government has traditionally been reluctant to involve overseas lending agencies in policy decisions on critical issues, but the complexity of the country’s environmental challenges has underscored the need to tap external expertise.这是亚行首次在中国发放“政策贷款”。传统上,中国政府不愿让海外贷款机构介入关键问题上的政策决定,但中国环境挑战的复杂性突显了采纳外部专业知识的需要。“It is less common to do a policy loan for an upper-middle-income country like China,” Hamid Sharif, ADB’s China country director, said.“向中国这样的中上等收入国家提供政策贷款比较少见,”亚行驻华首席代表哈米德∠里夫(Hamid Sharif)表示。“But as China faces complex issues like air pollution, it is open to policy dialogue and inputs.”“但在中国面临空气污染之类的复杂问题之际,它对政策对话和听取意见抱开放态度。”Provincial boundary lines are one of the hurdles to cleaning up China’s air as competing bureaucratic fiefs, concern for local jobs and economic growth get in the way of a regionwide response on the smog-filled North China plain.省际边界是治理中国空气污染的障碍之一,因为官僚体制内部的地盘之争以及对当地就业机会和经济增长的关切,阻碍了对雾霾笼罩的华北平原采取地区对策。Rules coming into effect next year will force emissions disclosure by thousands of factories, mills and power plants. Current rules only require public disclosure by 3,000 of China’s biggest polluters.明年即将生效的规则将强制要求成千上万家工厂和发电厂披露排放数据。现行规则只要求中国3000家污染最严重的企业公开披露。Ma Jun, a Beijing-based environmental activist, said: “You need to know what your neighbour is doing before you can work together.”北京环保活动人士马军说:“你需要知道你的邻居在做什么,然后才可以合作。”At a briefing yesterday, China officials emphasised the importance of a co-ordinated regional response.在昨日的一个新闻发布会上,中国官员强调了区域协调应对的重要性。“Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei need to increase co-operation,” Yin Hailin, deputy mayor of Tianjin, said. “The first thing is to act together.”“京津冀确实还需要进一步加大合作的力度,”天津市副市长尹海林表示。“一个是要统一行动。”In the first 10 months of this year, Beijing closed or moved 315 businesses deemed overly polluting, and demolished 1.7m sq m of buildings.今年前10个月,北京关闭或搬迁了315家被视为污染过于严重的企业,并拆除了面积为170万平方米的建筑。Li Shixiang, Beijing’s deputy mayor, said: “On this problem we share a common fate, and must manage it together. Everybody must have patience and faith.”北京市副市长李士祥表示:“在这个问题上我们是同呼吸、共治理,大家都应该既有耐心,也有信心。” /201512/415976

Online publishers who knowingly link to illegally uploaded content are liable for copyright infringement, according to a European Court of Justice ruling that could have broad consequences for digital media.根据欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)一项裁决,有意链接非法上传内容的网络出版商,须承担侵害版权的法律责任。这一裁决可能会对数字化媒体产生广泛影响。The ruling, which marks the culmination of a five-year legal fight involving a Dutch blog, Playboy magazine and celebrity nude pictures, draws new lines around what has been a highly contested area of online copyright law.这一裁决标志着一轮持续五年的法律诉讼达到高潮,该案涉及一个荷兰客网站、《》(Playboy)杂志和多张名人裸照。该裁决为网络版权法一个始终极有争议的领域划定了新的规范。Until now, Europe’s top court has tolerated the widesp practice of providing weblinks to unauthorised online content — whether films, pictures, or text — concluding that this did not generally amount to a breach of copyright. 直至目前,对于提供指向未授权在线内容(无论是电影、图片、视频,还是文本)的网页链接的普遍行为,欧洲最高法院一直持容忍态度,认定这么做通常不等于对版权的侵犯。Instead, the website that hosted the underlying content was liable.相反,提供相关内容的网站须承担法律责任。But on Thursday the ECJ decided that linking to such material did infringe copyright unless it was done without the pursuit of financial gain by a person who did not know or could not reasonably have known the illegal nature of the publication.然而,周四欧洲法院裁定,对这类资料的链接确实侵犯了版权——除非此举是由不了解或无法足够了解这一出版活动非法属性的人士,在无盈利目的的情况下实施的。The ruling means that professional publishers must now take steps to ensure that any links to copyright content have been lawfully uploaded. 这一裁决意味着专业出版商如今必须采取措施,确保对于指向版权内容的任何链接,相关内容都是合法上传的。Profit-making websites can be expected to take necessary checks to ensure that the work concerned is not illegally published, according to the judgment.根据这一判决,营利网站默认应采取必要审查措施,确保相关作品不是非法出版。Search engines such as Google aly remove search results that link to websites that host pirated material once informed by rights holders. 谷歌(Google)等搜索引擎已经采取了措施,只要版权持有者告知,就会移除指向提供盗版资料的网站的搜索结果。After Thursday’s ruling, they could be forced to go further by taking down search results featuring publishers that merely link to other websites hosting unlicensed content, according to some copyright lawyers.按照部分版权律师的说法,在周四的裁决之后,它们可能不得不更进一步,撤下指向一类出版商的搜索结果,这类出版商只会提供指向其他非授权内容网站的链接。The case began in 2011 when Geen Stijl, an anarchic Dutch blog and one of the most popular websites in the Netherlands, linked to illegally uploaded naked photos of a Dutch celebrity in Playboy.该案始于2011年,Geen Stijl网站发布了指向非法上传内容的链接,这些非法上传的内容是一位荷兰名人在《》上的裸照。Geen Stijl是荷兰一个无政府主义客,也是荷兰人气最高的网站之一。The pictures were hosted on file sharing website Filefactory, to which the blog linked. 该客文章里的链接指向的照片位于文件分享网站Filefactory。Playboy publisher Sanoma demanded that Geen Stijl remove the link to the photos, but the Dutch website refused.《》出版商Sanoma要求Geen Stijl撤下指向这些照片的链接,却遭到这家荷兰网站的拒绝。In fact, the blog went further and repeatedly uploaded other links to the pictures, with titles such as: Update: Not yet seen the nude pics#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.? They are HERE, and Bye Bye Wave Wave Playboy.事实上,该客更进了一步,反复上传了指向这些照片的其他链接,并带上了更新:还没看过这些裸照……?它们在这里和《》,再见!挥手!之类的标题。Brussels is on the cusp of launching a controversial overhaul of its copyright rules, in which rights holders stand to gain more power. 欧盟目前正要对其版权法规开展一轮争议极大的整改,在这一整改中版权持有者将获得更大权力。Under the plans, news publishers will be given more rights over their content in a move that would force the likes of Google to agree terms before showing snippets of news content.按照这一计划,新闻出版商将围绕其内容被赋予更多权利,此举或迫使谷歌之类的网站在显示新闻内容摘要前同意相关条款。Critics warned that the ruling — combined with the proposed reforms — could have a chilling effect online. 批评者警告称,这一裁决以及拟议中的改革可能会在网上引起恐慌。Jakob Kucharczyk, director of CCIA Europe, which represents the technology industry, said: This case shows that the freedom to hyperlink is under attack.代表高科技产业的计算机与通信行业协会欧洲分会(CCIA Europe)主席雅各布#8226;库哈尔奇克(Jakob Kucharczyk)表示:该案表明,超链接自由正遭受攻击。Following the verdict, a post on Geen Stijl warned: Careful hyperlinking, people — today there is a minefield on the free internet.该判决发布后,Geen Stijl网站上一个网帖警告称:伙计们,小心超链接——如今,自由的互联网上存在着地雷阵。The decision will be welcomed by rights holders, according to Josephine Curry, associate in Taylor Wessing, as it offers some protection against commercial websites.按照泰乐信律师事务所(Taylor Wessing)律师约瑟菲娜#8226;库里(Josephine Curry)的说法,该裁决将受到版权持有者的欢迎,因为它针对商业网站提供了一定程度的保护。 /201609/465999

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