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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年04月23日 06:13:58
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Business.商业。Pfizer.辉瑞制药有限公司。Taking its medicine.自尝苦果。A drug giant coughs up to settle bribery charges.一个制药巨头被迫出钱就撤销行贿指控与司法部达成和解。IN AMERICA, it was once common for drug firms to offer doctors ;perks; to encourage them to prescribe their pills. Regulators now frown on such iffy sales techniques, and drug firms have more or less stopped using them. But in emerging markets, it is a different story, as a settlement on August 7th between Americas Department of Justice and Pfizer, a big American drug firm, made clear.在美国,制药公司给医生;回扣;鼓励他们开处方时使用该公司生产的药物曾是很常见的事。现在相关管理部门开始禁止这样不规范的销售技巧,因此一些制药公司也或多或少不再使用这种技巧。8月7日,美国大型制药公司辉瑞就海外贿赂行为与美国司法部达成了和解。此事正好表明新兴市场的情况与美国的有所不同。In China Pfizer established a ;club; that provided ;high-prescribing; doctors with all kinds of entertainment under the guise of attending conferences. In Kazakhstan Pfizer awarded an exclusive distribution deal to a local firm after it was told there was no other way to secure government approval for a Pfizer product.辉瑞公司在中国成立了一个;俱乐部;,该俱乐部以开会的名义邀请那些;开药量较大;的医生参加各种活动。辉瑞公司还与哈萨克斯坦一家当地公司签订了独家经销协议,因为此前辉瑞得知,除此之外没有其他的办法可以获得哈萨克斯坦政府对辉瑞制药的批准。Unfortunately for Pfizer, such acts violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), an American law that criminalises bribery abroad. Doctors in many of the countries in question are state employees, making the gifts bribes to government officials. This week Pfizer agreed to pay a fine to settle corruption charges and to disgorge related illegally earned profits to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The settlement, which will cost it m or so, covers similar offences committed by Wyeth, another drug firm, before it was acquired by Pfizer in .不幸的是,辉瑞的这些行为违反了美国专门用来定罪海外行贿的《反海外腐败法》(FCPA)。受到质疑的多国医生都是国家机关的工作人员,于是这些礼物也就成了贿赂政府官员的赃物。本周,辉瑞公司为了了结腐败指控同意付罚款,并愿意向美国券交易委员会上缴相关非法所得利润。辉瑞公司进行此次和解将需要花费六千万美元左右,这笔费用还包括了对惠氏公司贿赂行为的罚款。惠氏制药公司于年被辉瑞公司收购,此前它也曾涉嫌海外贿赂。Johnson amp; Johnson, another big drugmaker, paid m last year to settle civil and criminal bribery charges. On August 6th Teva, an Israeli firm that is the worlds largest generic drugmaker, said it was co-operating with SEC investigators. Indeed, eight of the worlds ten biggest drug firms have warned of potential costs related to charges of corruption in markets abroad, according to Reuters. So Pfizers behaviour seems to have been normal for the industry, not an aberration.去年,另一家大型制药公司强生因民事和刑事行贿受到指控,并为达成和解花费了七千万美元。今年8月6日,世界上最大的学名药(通用名药)生产公司以色列梯瓦制药工业有限公司称,它正在协助美国券交易委员会调查员的调查工作。据路透社报道,事实上,世界上十大制药公司中有八家公司都在警惕因受控海外贪污可能造成的潜在开。所以这样看来,辉瑞公司的行为在这个行业里并非异常。Citing the settlement, regulators will crow that the FCPA is being enforced more vigorously than at any time since it became law in 1977. They will also hope that it is evidence that their new carrot-and-stick approach is starting to work. Most successful prosecutions in the past have been the result of whistle-blowing or a lucky break; regulators have long suspected that many companies have publicly supported the law while privately turning a blind eye to dodgy activities abroad, doubtless assuming that they would never be caught. The new approach is designed to encourage companies to police themselves, by punishing them only lightly when they turn themselves in.相关管理人员拿此次和解做文章,自鸣得意地称这是自1977年《反海外腐败法》(FCPA)颁布以来实施最有力的一次。同时,他们还希望此次事件能明他们采取的软硬兼施的措施已经开始生效。以往一些控诉成功的案件不是有人揭发就是运气使然,监管者一直怀疑许多公司虽然在公开场合坚决拥护法律,但私底下却对那些海外不法行为视而不见,还相信自己永远不会被绳之以法。现在新的监管方法目的在于鼓励那些公司进行自我监督,并对他们采取坦白从宽的政策。The relatively small fine imposed on Pfizer was the Justice Departments way of showing that firms that co-operate will be treated leniently, says Ben Heineman of Harvards Kennedy School of Government. Pfizer has gone out of its way to placate prosecutors: it has been co-operating on the case since 2004, helping to identify illegal practices throughout its industry. It also oversaw the process that uncovered the misbehaviour at Wyeth.哈佛肯尼迪政治学院的Ben Heineman称,此次美国司法部门对辉瑞公司罚款力度相对较轻就是为了表明会对那些协助调查的公司宽大处理。辉瑞公司早就开始煞费苦心地讨好检察官:从2004年起辉瑞就开始协助调查员调查此案,帮助其调查全行业的非法行为。辉瑞还监督了一项揭发惠氏不法行为的调查。The regulators have accepted Pfizers claim that the offences were committed by local staff acting without the knowledge of head office in America. This follows Aprils decision by the SEC to charge a senior executive at Morgan Stanley, a bank, with corrupt activity in Shanghai, but not to impose legal penalties on the bank, which tipped off regulators about its rogue employee. A few more examples of such regulatory forbearance and perhaps business will get the message.辉瑞公司称,这些不法行为都是当地一些员工在美国总公司不知情的情况下做出的,监管者也接受了这一说法。在此前的四月,美国券交易委员会控告根史坦利投资的一位高管在上海涉嫌贪污。但由于该主动向监管者揭发了员工的不法行为,因此美国券交易委员会并未对该做出处罚。或许这样宽恕处理的例子再多一些,企业就能更好地领会监管者的意图了。201208/195671

Science and Technolgy科技Polio小儿麻痹症A Rotary engine扶轮社计划Can a businessmens club eradicate polio from the world?商人组织能否根除世界各地的小儿麻痹症?IT IS a year since the last case of polio was diagnosed in India. That is not enough to pronounce the country polio-free-three clear years are the conventional period required for that to happen. But it is a good start. And if India really is clear, then what was once a global scourge will now be endemic to a mere three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. The number of people infected, meanwhile, has dropped from 350,000 in 1988 to 650 last year.距印度最后一例小儿麻痹症患者被确诊到现在已经1年。那不足以宣布这个国家脱离了小儿麻痹症——人们习惯上将三年不出现小儿麻痹症病例作为一个国家宣布脱离小儿麻痹症的周期。但这已经是一个好的开始。如果印度摆脱了小儿麻痹症,那么曾经风靡全球的灾难在现在将仅存于三个国家:阿富汗、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。于此同时,感染小儿麻痹症的人的数量已经从1988年的350,000降低到了去年的650.All this is in large part thanks to the efforts of Rotary International. In 1985, after a successful pilot study in the Philippines, this businessmens club cum global charity announced a plan to eradicate polio by vaccinating every child under five at risk of catching it. The estimate then was that it would cost 0m. Some 0m of Rotary money later (plus a lot from other sources), the virus is still out there, but its remaining hidey-holes tell their own story: where civil disorder is rife, medicine is hard.所有这一切很大程度上得益于扶轮国际。1985年,一个在菲律宾进行的初步研究成功之后,商人组织和全球慈善团体宣布了一项计划,这项计划通过给有患小儿麻痹症风险的五岁以下儿童接种疫苗来根除小儿麻痹症。预计这个计划将耗资一亿两千万美元。其后要花费扶轮社八亿美元(加上许多通过其他途径获得的钱),病毒仍然还会存在,但是那些剩余的隐藏的地点发出自己的心声:越是内乱盛行的地方,医疗就越发的困难。On January 17th Rotary announced it had raised yet another 0m. The Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation will contribute a further 5m, and the pressure will thus be kept up. John Germ, one of Rotarys trustees, thinks that if all goes well 2016 might be the first year when no new cases are reported. That would, though, mean spending more than billion a year between now and then.1月17日,扶轮社宣布已经另外募集了两亿美元的资金。比尔及梅林达?盖茨基金会将另外捐献四亿零五百万美元,即便如此还是会有压力。扶轮社的理事之一约翰泽恩认为如果一切进行顺利,那么2016年可能是第一年没有新的病例被报道的一年。尽管那将意味着从此时到彼时每年要花费至少10亿美元。The inspiration for Rotarys campaign against polio came from the eradication of smallpox. Like polio, smallpox was a viral disease for which effective, easily administered vaccines existed. And crucially, like polio, smallpox had only one animal host: Homo sapiens. In principle, then, extermination should be possible. The practice, however, has turned out rather different.扶轮社遏制小儿麻痹症的启发来自天花的根除。和小儿麻痹症一样,天花是一种可以被存活的疫苗简单有效的治理的病毒性疾病。关键是天花像小儿麻痹症一样仅有一个动物寄主:人类。一般而言根除应该是可能的。然而时间明却是恰恰相反的。First, unlike smallpox, polio viruses can survive for long periods outside a host-for instance in sewage. Second, when the campaign began in earnest there were three main varieties of polio, each of which required a specially tailored vaccine. Focusing effort on one of these strains often led to the resurgence of another. Third, besides the inevitable difficulties of working in places that have poor medical infrastructure, the campaign ran into some specific human problems. The most notorious of these was the rumour, sp in 2003 by certain religious leaders in Nigeria, that the vaccine would sterilise girls and was part of an American plot to rid the world of Muslims. This helps explain why polio persists in Nigeria.第一,与天花不同的是,小儿麻痹症病毒在寄主之外可以长时间的存活—例如在下水道。第二,当此项活动开始正儿八经的进展的时候已经存在三类主要的小儿麻痹症,每一类都需要一种特别定做的疫苗。集中对其中一类小儿麻痹症下功夫经常会导致另一类病毒的死灰复燃。第三,除了这些不可避免的医疗设备落后的工作困难之外,此项活动偶尔还会遇到人类问题。其中最臭名昭著的就是在2003年尼日利亚的某一宗教领导人散布的谣言,谣言称疫苗将会使女孩绝育并且是一个消灭世界上伊斯兰教徒的美国阴谋的一部分。这帮助解释了尼日利亚的小儿麻痹症得不到遏制的原因。That polio can actually be eradicated is suggested by the elimination, in 1999, of one of the three strains. Whether the resources needed to do so might be better spent elsewhere, though, is a matter of debate. Some would prefer to see a shift to policies that improve overall health, including investing in decent sanitation and clean water.1999年,三类小儿麻痹症之一的消除明了小儿麻痹症实际上可以根除。但是根治小儿麻痹所需要的资源财力是否可以在别处更好的配是一个值得讨论的问题。一些人更希望看到一个改善全民健康的政策的转变,包括像样的环境卫生和干净的水。The response to that is that if you remove the specific pressure on polio it will simply bounce back. Moreover, in practice, a synthesis between the two positions is emerging. According to Mr Germ there is aly a debate within Rotary about what to do next. Providing clean water and improving maternal and child health are popular options.对于此观点的回应是如果你对小儿麻痹症疏忽大意它将会轻易的恢复活力。此外,实际上两种立场已经显现出达成一致的势头。据泽恩先生说,早就已经在扶轮社内部召开了关于接下来该怎么做的讨论会。提供干净的水和改善母婴健康是符合大众的选择。One thing everyone wants to avoid, though, is what happened after smallpox was eliminated. Then, the infrastructure of health workers and clinics that had been created to detect and fight the disease was allowed to evaporate. Had it been used instead to focus on polio, that illness, too, might have been vanquished by now.不过,每个人都想避免的一件事是天花被消除以后发生的事。此外,已经制造的用于检测和治疗疾病的保健人员和诊所的医疗设施是可以消除疾病的。至于这些设备是否也已经用于治疗小儿麻痹症这样的疾病到目前为止可能已经可行了。 /201210/202551

  IN 1989 Edward Kennedy tried to stop time. The ed States Coast Guard was preparing to automate and remove all remaining personnel from the old lighthouse in Boston Harbour. But Kennedy, a liberal senator from a family with deep roots in Boston, sponsored a bill requiring the Boston Light to be permanently manned. And so it soldiered on for nearly another decade, stubbornly holding to the old ways. Built in 1783, it is one of America’s oldest lighthouses (the oldest was its predecessor, which the British blew up as they slunk home in June 1776). In 1998 time and Senator Kennedy reached a compromise: the light itself was at last automated, but it remains the last one with resident Coast Guard keepers.爱德华.肯尼迪试图让时间定格1989年。当时,美国海岸防卫队正准备从波士顿港撤走所有留守人员,实现灯塔全自动化。然而与波士顿有着深厚渊源的自由派参议员肯尼迪,提出了一份议案,要求派人长期驻守灯塔。因此,灯塔由士兵守候了又是近十年光景,这样灯塔顽强地得以维持其原状。兴建于1783年的波士顿灯塔(其前身是美国最古老的灯塔,1776年6月英国人仓惶归国时,将其炸毁)是美国最古老的灯塔之一。经过长期的争取,肯尼迪最终于1998年出台了一项折衷方案:波士顿灯塔最终实现自动化,而且也是全美唯一一座由海岸警卫队驻守的灯塔。The Coast Guard took charge of America’s more than 1,000 lighthouses in 1939, when it absorbed the ed States Lighthouse Service. But it has been slowly letting them go. In 2000 the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act allowed the sale or transfer of lighthouses deemed “excess to service requirements” by the Coast Guard to private entities. Since then the federal government has moved 84 lighthouses of the 600 that were left off its books. Most have been transferred to local governments or non-profits, but 28 have been auctioned off to private individuals.1939年,美国灯塔划归到海岸警卫队。自那以后,海岸警卫队负责管理美国1000多座灯塔。但渐渐地,美国海军看护的灯塔越来越少。2000年《国家历史灯塔保存法案》允许海岸警卫队将那些被认为是“其务已不再必要”的灯塔出售或转让给私有个体。从此,美国联邦政府出售转让了书中记载的仅存的600座灯塔中的84座。大部分灯塔转交给当地政府或非营利机构,但28座灯塔已被拍卖给个人。The sad truth is that satellite navigation has made many lighthouses surplus to requirements. Shifting commercial trends have done their damage, too. More than 1,500 ships lie wrecked off North Carolina’s Outer Banks, but today these islands depend far more on tourism than on maritime trade.遗憾的是,现在有了卫星导航技术,好多灯塔根本就用不上了。贸易趋势的转变也让灯塔越来越没有用武之地。北卡罗来纳州外班克斯港有1500多艘触礁的船只残骸,然而今天这些岛屿主要依靠旅游业而不是海上贸易。Still, some fishermen enjoy navigating by light rather than satellite. Sometimes they forget to take their navigation systems on board. Bett Padgett, who heads the Outer Banks Lighthouse Society, which petitioned the federal government for funds to restore Bodie Island’s once-crumbling lighthouse, warns of solar flares knocking out satellites.然而,有许多渔民仍然喜欢利用灯塔而不是卫星来导航,所以有时候,他们会忘记带导航系统。外班克斯列岛灯塔协会(该协会曾请求联邦政府拨款整修一度年久失修的Bodie灯塔)会长Bett Padgett提醒人们太阳耀斑会让卫星暂时失灵。All that is true, but defending lighthouses as a matter of utility surely misses the point.。 Of course, lighthouses draw tourists, who spend money; one informal study estimated that restoring the Bodie Island lighthouse, which is scheduled to open to visitors for the first time in April 2013, would add .7m in total income to the regional economy.But for Ms Padgett, preserving them is a way “to give our children and grandchildren a feel for what happened in this place a hundred or two hundred years ago.” Men built them by hand to stand watch over the sea. Lighthouses remind people that as mariners battled what Walt Whitman called “the wild unrest, the snowy, curling caps—that inbound urge and urge of waves, Seeking the shores forever,” someone was watching over them, and wishing them safely home.上面说的没错,但从实用性角度为灯塔辩护,显然没有说到关键之处。当然,灯塔吸引了大批来此消费的游客;一项非官方调查预计修整 Bodie灯塔将为当地经济带来总计870万美元的收入,该灯塔预计于2013年4月首次向游客开放。但在Padgett女士看来,保存好灯塔是让“我们子孙感受一两百年来这里变迁”的一种方式。人们建造灯塔来让它们守候大海。灯塔让人们想到,当水手们与沃尔特.惠特曼笔下“那永不宁静的奔腾,那白浪般的滚卷的浪峰----那向陆地急推又急推的浪头“搏斗时,有人在灯塔上眺望,盼望他们安全归来。201204/177262

  Business.商业。British law firms.英国律师事务所。Taking the magic abroad.进军梦幻般的国外市场。Londons big law firms are expanding their global footprints.伦敦的大型律师事务所正在进行全球扩张。LAWYERS are cautious folk. So the recent collapse of Dewey amp; Leboeuf, a big American law firm, has scared them. Dewey failed because it tried to grow too fast, by borrowing too much money. Other firms still want to grow, but they are doing so slowly and carefully.律师是十分谨慎的人群。因此,最近美国大型律师事务所Dewey amp; Leboeuf的倒闭已经吓坏了他们。Dewey律师事务所(后文简称Dewey)之所以倒闭,是因为急切扩张,借贷了大量贷款。其他事务所仍然寻求发展,但他们做的比较缓慢和小心。Consider Londons top five law firms, known as the ;magic circle;. Allen amp; Overy and Clifford Chance released results early this week, and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer and Linklaters were expected to do so later. (Slaughter and May does not release public results.) Allen amp; Overy had a good year, with its revenues growing by 6% and its profits by 7%. Clifford Chance, the biggest, did even better, with revenues up by 7% and profits up by 13%.以伦敦最大的五家律师事务所为例,他们被称为;梦幻集团;。Allen amp; Overy和Clifford Chance在周初发布了他们的业绩报告,Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer 和 Linklaters随后也将发布业绩报告。(Slaughter and May没有发布公开的业绩报告。)Allen amp; Overy事务所的收益不错,总收入增长6%,利润增长7%。最大的Clifford Chance事务所表现的更好,总收入增长7%,利润增长13%。Emerging markets are where the growth is. Allen amp; Overy now gets 22% of its revenue from such places, up from 15% a few years ago. It opened an office in Vietnam a month ago and another in Jakarta 17 months previously. As for China, so many Western firms have piled in that they have competed each others fees down, but Wim Dejonghe, Allen amp; Overys (Belgian) boss, is still optimistic: the centre of gravity has moved from Shanghai to Beijing, he says, as the focus has shifted from inbound mergers and investment to Chinese money flowing out.这种增长来自于新兴市场。Allen amp; Overy事务所来自于新兴市场的收入从几年前的15%增长到22%。它一个月前在越南开了一个营业处,17个月前在雅加达同样开了另一个(营业处)。对于中国,涌入了如此多的事务所以至于他们相互低价竞争。但Allen amp; Overy的比利时老板Wim Dejonghe仍然很乐观,他表示:市场的中心已经从上海转移到北京,因为焦点已经从入境兼并和投资转移到中国资金的外流。David Childs, the boss of Clifford Chance, is also bullish on China. His firm cut partners during the recession, but not in Asia, the Middle East or Brazil. As for downward pressure on fees, Mr Childs says, slowly, ;They are very careful buyers…in Asia,; before insisting that his firm has no trouble with pricing there. The firms revenues grew by 28% in Asia this year, thanks in part to a push into Australia. Next year will be tougher: though bank regulatory work and dispute resolution are providing steady fees, ;Id much rather have healthy transaction flows.;Clifford Chance的老板David Childs同样看好中国市场。在经济萧条期间他的公司削减了合作伙伴,但不是在亚洲,中东和巴西。就收费走低的压力的问题,Childs先生缓缓地说:;亚洲人是很谨慎的买家。;随后他坚持,在亚洲他的公司没有定价方面的困扰。今年公司在亚洲地区的收入增长了28%,部分是得益于进入澳大利亚市场。明年的形式可能会困难一些:尽管监管工作和调解纠纷在提供稳定的酬金,我更希望拥有可观的交易佣金收入。The magic circle may be getting a new competitor. Herbert Smith, a second-tier firm, announced a merger with Freehills, one of Australias biggest, on June 28th. With revenues of over billion, the merged firm will be bigger than Slaughter and May. It will push for work related to Austrialias commodity boom and Asian capital markets. But David Willis, Herbert Smiths boss, is keen to stress the firms un-Dewey-like gradualism: ;Were not expecting a huge increase in earnings in year one. Thats not why were doing this.;梦幻集团可能会有一个新的竞争者。6月28日,位于行业第二集团的Herbert Smith事务所宣布与Freehills事务所进行合并,后者是澳大利亚最大的律师事务所之一。合并后的事务所将以10亿美元的收入超过Slaughter and May事务所。它将推进与澳大利亚商品市场和亚洲资本市场等相关的工作的发展。但Herbert Smith的老板David Willis着重强调公司不同于Dewey的增长模式:;我们不期望在一年之内实现收入的大幅增长。这不是我们进行合并的原因。; /201209/198873。

  Science and technology科学技术Collective behavior集体行为Follow my leader跟领导走A groups “intelligence” depends in part on its membersignorance群体“智慧”部分依赖于群体成员的“愚昧”HUMAN beings like to think of themselves asthe animal kingdoms smartest alecks.人们总是喜欢将自己看作动物王国中最聪明的。It may come as a surprise to some,therefore, that Iain Couzin of Princeton University believes they havesomething to learn from lesser creatures that move about in a large crowd.然而,令一些人感到惊讶的是,普林斯顿大学的Iain Couzin相信人们能从更低等的、大群活动的动物中学到东西。Ashe told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, groups of animals often make whatlook like wise decisions, even when most of the members of those groups areignorant of what is going on.正如他在华盛顿AAAS召开的会议上所说的,虽然群居动物中的大部分成员对接下来会发生什么一无所知,但整个群体却常常做出看起来更明智的决定。Coming to that conclusion was not easy.得出这个结论并不容易。Beforelessons can be drawn from critters perched on the lower rungs of theevolutionary ladder, their behaviour must first be understood.因为必须首先理解这些动物的行为,人们才能借鉴,而由于这些动物处于进化阶梯的较低位置。One way to dothis is to tag them with devices that follow them around—motion-capturesensors, radio transmitters or global-positioning-system detectors that can puta precise figure on their movements.要做到这点,首先要用设备为他们打上标签以便跟踪—采用运动传感器、无线电发射装置和全球定位系统的探测器能精确描述它们活动。Unfortunately, it is impossible to tag morethan a few individuals in a herd, flock or swarm.不幸的是,能被标定的个体只是兽群、鸟群或蜂群中的少数。Researchers have thereforetended to extrapolate from these few results by using various computer models.研究者们因此将这些少量数据采用各种电脑模型进行推演。Dr Couzin has done quite a bit of this himself.Couzin士已经完成了一部分工作。Most recently, he has modelledthe behaviour of shoals of fish.最近,他建立了鱼群行为模型。He posited that how they swim will depend oneach individuals competing tendencies to stick close to the others while not actually getting too close to anyparticular other fish.他推测鱼群游动的方式有赖于鱼类个体倾向于截住对方,而又不真的靠近对方的竞争方式。It turns out that by fiddling with these tendencies, avirtual shoal can be made to swirl spontaneously in a circle, just like somereal species do.基于这些倾向就归纳出模型,这些模拟的鱼群可以自行转圈巡游,就像真的一样。That is a start.那只是一个开始。But real shoals do not existto swim in circles.不过真实的鱼群并不只是转圈游动。Their purpose is to help their members eat and avoid beingeaten.他们的目的是帮助成员觅食,同时防止被猎食。At any one time, however, only some individuals know about—and can thusreact to—food and threats.然而,无论什么时候,只有一些个体能对食物和威胁做出反应。Dr Couzin therefore wanted to find out how suchtemporary leaders influence the behaviour of the rest.因此,Couzin士想找出这些临时领导如何影响其余个体行为。He discovered that leadership is extremelyefficient.Couzin士发现这种领导方式及其有效。The larger a shoal is, the smaller is the proportion of it thatneeds to know what is actually going on for it to feed and avoid predationeffectively.鱼群越大,需要知道接下来做什么才能有效觅食和避免危险的“领导”比例就越小。Indeed, having too many leaders with conflicting opinions resultsin confusion.的确,领导越多,矛盾观点造成的混乱就越多。At least, that is true in the model.至少,模型上是这样。He is now testing it inreality.他现在正在真实环境下测试模型。Tracking individual fish in a shoal is hard.跟踪记录鱼群中的个体很困难。Fortunately, advances in pattern-recognition software mean it is no longerimpossible.幸运的是,模式识别软件的进步让这变成可能。Systems designed to follow people are now clever enough not only totrack a person in a crowd, but also to tell in which direction his head isturned.为跟踪人类设计的系统已经足够智能,不仅能跟踪人群中的某个人,而且能显示这个人的头转向何方。Since, from above, the oval shape of a human head is not unlike theoblong body of a fish, this software can, with a little tweaking, followpiscine antics, too.因此,尽管鱼类的身体是长条形,与这个软件可以识别的人类椭圆形头部不同,从原理上说,只要稍作修改使之适应鱼类外形即可。Robo fish机器鱼Dr Couzin has been using a program developedby Colin Twomey, a graduate student at his laboratory, to track individual fishin a tank.Couzin士一直在使用他实验室的研究生Colin Twomey开发的程序来记录水池中鱼类个体的行为。The result is not just a model of shoaling fish, but a precisenumerical representation of their actual movements and fields of vision.这个成果不仅是鱼群的模型,更是鱼群真实行动和视野的精确数值反应。Thatmeans it is possible to investigate whether real-life fishy leaders have thesame effect on a group as their virtual kin.这就意味着深入研究真实鱼群中的领导们与他们的“模拟亲戚”在鱼群中是否有同样影响变成可能。Alas, merely observing a shoal does not makeit clear which individuals lead and which follow.然而,仅仅只观察一个鱼群并不能清楚地区分哪个是领导,哪个是随从。Instead, Dr Couzin has builta biddable robot three-spined stickleback.作为替代,Couzin士制作了一条能发出命令的机器三棘刺鱼。A preliminary study of a shoal often flesh-and-blood sticklebacks shows that they do indeed mingle with therobot and that they follow its leadership cues as predicted.对一个有十条真实刺鱼鱼群的初步研究显示,他们确实接纳了那条机器鱼,并且接受它的领导指示。He is now making arobot predator to see how the shoal reacts to less benign intruders.他现在正在制作一个机器猎食者,用来观察鱼群对凶猛入侵者的反应。If the models are anything to go by, the bestoutcome for the group—in this case, not being eaten—seems to depend on mostmembers being blissfully unaware of the world outside the shoal and simplytaking their cue from others.如果模型一切正常,那么就可得出对群体来说最好的结果—不会被吃掉—这看起来有赖于大多数成员对鱼群外部世界毫无知觉,仅仅只是接受其他鱼指示的“傻鱼傻福”。This phenomenon, Dr Couzin argues, applies to allmanner of organisms, from individual cells in a tissue to voters in the democratic process.Couzin士指出,这个现象符合所有的组织行为,从组织中的个体单位到民主过程中的选民。His team has aly begun probing thequestion of voting patterns.他的研究团队已经开始探索选举模式的问题。But is ignorance really political bliss?然而,愚昧真是政治之福吗?DrCouzins models do not yet capture what happens when the leaders themselvesturn out to be sharks.Couzin士的模型还没有涉及领导们自己变成“鲨鱼”会发生什么。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/229553

  每次生病了,家里人最多说的一句话就是“不吃药怎么行?”。可是,有的时候吃药不一定就对身体有好处,反而有可能会帮助病原体“攻击”我们的身体。今天我们来了解了解一种新的理论“达尔文医学”,开开眼界吧!Calling Dr. Darwin呼叫达尔文Yaeuml;l: Sounds like you have a bad cold, Don? Do you need some cough medicine?Don, 你感冒很严重呢!要不要吃些止咳药?Don: No.不用了。Y: Dont you want anything to help you feel better?难道你不想吃点药让自己好受点?D: I dont need help, Yaeuml;l. Always sniffling, sneezing, and coughing are doing the work for me.Yaeuml;l,我不需要这个。流鼻涕、打喷嚏、咳嗽都不用管,这样子我比较容易好。Y: But, doesnt that make you feel worse?但是,放任不管的话你的咳嗽不会更严重?D: Theres more than one way to look at sneezing and coughing. They can be symptoms, in which case your first reaction is to try to ;cure; them with all sorts of pills and syrups. Or, you can see them as the bodys natural defense system. Its called Darwinian medicine.我们看待打喷嚏和咳嗽的时候可不能只从一个方面来看哦。当出现这些症状时,人们的第一反应就是吃药、和止咳糖浆来将其“治愈”。或者说,人们可以把这些看成是身体免疫系统会出现的自然现象。这样的理论来叫做“达尔文医学”(又称“演化医学”)。Darwinian medicine tries to find evolutionary explanations for why we get sick. It also tries to figure out how and why we respond to sickness. For example, when you get a low grade fever it might be because your body is trying to make things uncomfortable for invading microbes. When you take medicine to lower a fever you might actually be helping whatever’s making you sick in the first place.“达尔文医学”理论试着从进化的角度来解释我们为什么会生病。这种医学理论还试着具体阐释人体是如何应对疾病,为什么会对疾病有所反应。比如说,人体发低烧,很可能是因为机体试图通过这样的“改变”使侵入机体的细菌感觉不适。在这样的情况下,如果你吃药退烧的话,你可能反而是在帮“始作俑者”的忙了。Y: So you are saying I should never take medicine?你的意思是说我们不该吃药?D: Not at all. Sometimes medicine is absolutely necessary, like when you have a really high fever. But the point is that its not always best to automatically try to stop all symptoms when you dont feel well. Until studies are done on the effectiveness of taking aspirin and other fever-lowering drugs, it may be hard to know when to treat cold symptoms and when to leave them alone.并不全是。有的时候确实需要吃药,比如说发高烧的时候。但这并不是说当你不舒的时候都不管不顾,让那些症状自己消失。直到对用阿司匹林及其他的退烧药的效果的研究完成之前,我们很难确定什么时候该治疗感冒症状,什么时候该放之任之!But in the case of a cold or mild fever, it may very well be worth letting nature take care of business. Bear in mind, too, that aspirin should never be given to children.但是在小感冒或是轻度发烧的情况下,就顺其自然吧!还有一点,一定要记住,千万不要让儿童用阿司匹林! /201208/196897

  

  Did you ever wonder what occurs inside your body when something funny happens? What is this thing we have in our brains that makes us say “ha-ha” when someone slips on a banana?你有没有想过当一些有趣的事情发生的时候,你身体内部会发生怎样的变化呢?当我们看到有人踩到香蕉皮摔倒会“哈哈”大笑,那到底是什么让我们做出这样的反应呢?One way to find out is to watch the brain laugh. That’s what Dartmouth neuroscientist William Kelley did. He and his team had a number of volunteers watch an episode of Seinfeld while being monitored by an MRI–that’s a machine that allows researchers to see which parts of the brain are active at any given time. They then synchronized the MRI data with the laugh track to see how the brain changes when it’s registering something funny. There’s no one “funny center” in the brain–but the findings were pretty suggestive.找出的方法之一就是观察大脑。达特茅斯神经学家威廉#8226;凯利就做了这样的实验。他让许多志愿者观看了一集“宋飞正传”,同时监测他们的核磁共振成像。这样研究人员就能看到任一特定时段大脑的哪个部分是活跃的。然后研究远让磁共振数据与笑的轨迹同步,观察当有趣的事情发生时大脑的变化。大脑内没有“滑稽中心”这样一个地方——但结果很有启发。When subjects were looking at something funny, the two regions in their left hemispheres lit up. From previous studies these regions are known to be associated with resolving ambiguity. Is there something in “getting it” that’s related to the process by which we work with unclear information until we suddenly see the pattern in it?当注意到有趣的事情时,左大脑半球的两个区域就会兴奋。从前面的研究中我们得知,这些区域是与解决歧义有关的。明白滑稽事情与我们处理不了解的信息过程有关系吗?A couple seconds later two other brain regions became active, called the insula and the amygdala. The insula is associated with emotion, so it seems likely that this is the brain feeling good when it gets the joke–the “ha-ha” response.几秒钟后,其它两个区域就会变活跃,这两个区域叫脑岛和扁桃腺。脑岛与情感有关,因此很有可能是大脑接收到笑话时感觉很好,然后做出“哈哈“大笑的反应。The amygdala is associated with memory formation. As the researchers point out, while you may not be able to remember every plot detail in a Seinfeld episode, you can probably remember the jokes. Humor stays with us, forming a lasting memory. Get it?扁桃腺与记忆的形成有关,正如研究人员指出,尽管你不能记住”宋飞记“的每一个情节,但能记住其中的笑话。幽默能够保持形成一个长久的记忆。明白了吗? /201303/231061

  

  

  

  

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