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2019年10月20日 12:33:27来源:最新解答

Books and Arts; Book Review;William Carlos Williams, American poet;On the outside looking in;文艺;书评;威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯,美国诗人;局外旁观;“Something Urgent I Have to Say to You”: The Life and Works of William Carlos Williams. By Herbert Leibowitz.《我有要事相告》:威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯生平及作品集。作者:赫伯特·莱维茨。To his patients in Rutherford, New Jersey, William Carlos Williams was just the local boy who had become their local doctor. And yet, as he made house calls, administered vaccinations or listened to their complaints, he heard not just what they said, but how they said it. A doctor but also a poet, Williams spent his life trying to capture the “infinite variety” of American speech, and to use it to create a uniquely American form of poetic verse.对于他的病人来说,威廉·卡洛斯·威廉姆斯只是新泽西州卢瑟福镇一位成长为本地医生的本地男孩。可是,当他出诊、注射疫苗或者倾听病人抱怨的时候,他所听到的不只是病人说话的内容,而是他们说话的方式。身为医生却更是位诗人,威廉姆斯花费一生时间尝试捕捉美国大众语言中的“无限可能”,并以此创作一种美国独有的诗歌体裁。It was not an easy task. As Herbert Leibowitzs new biography shows, Williams remained on the periphery of 20th-century literature as he spent a lifetime in the “grey-brown landscapes” of suburbia. He was disgruntled, with a severe dislike of many of his fellow poets, especially T.S. Eliot (Williams was both admiring and disdainful of “The Waste Land”), but his poems are now held up as some of the most daring examples of modern American poetry, and he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer prize in 1963.此非易事。根据赫伯特·莱维茨新的传记作品所述,威廉徘徊于20世纪的文学边缘地带,因为他在郊区“灰褐色的风景”中度过了一生。他心怀不满,对同时期的许多诗人报以一种强烈的厌恶之情,尤其是T.S.艾略特(威廉姆斯对《荒原》既钦佩不已又嗤之以鼻),但如今他的诗歌被奉为现代美国诗歌中最大胆的典范,并且在死后他被授予1963年的普利策奖。During his lifetime, however, Williams was “lil Bill” to his bigger, more successful friend Ezra Pound, who laughed at his insistence on staying in Rutherford. The son of immigrants who never naturalised, Williamss dedication to America did not flag, though it was a country that often disappointed him. Peopling his poems with “nurses and prostitutes, policemen and religious fanatics, farmers and fish peddlers, drunkards…blues singers and barbers”, Williams wanted to pin down the whole messy country with his short, punchy lines of poetry. Sometimes he succeeded, as when he describes the euphoric crowds at a baseball game, or when he catches a glimpse of “A big young bareheaded woman/in an apron” on the pavement, bending down to remove a nail from her shoe. With the eyes of a doctor, he recorded the idian and the overlooked. He coined the maxim “no ideas but in things”. To his critics, the saying exposed him as an anti-intellectual, or as a poet who could only create “American speech barking at song.”然而究其一生,在比威廉姆斯年长、事业更成功的朋友艾泽拉·庞德看来,威廉姆斯永远都只是“小比尔”。庞德嘲笑他留在卢瑟福镇的执着。作为从未加入美国国籍的移民者之子,威廉姆斯对美国的衷心从未减退,尽管这个国家一再地令他失望。充斥在他的诗歌间的是“护士和,警察和宗教狂热分子,农夫和鱼贩,醉鬼…布鲁斯歌手和理发师”,威廉姆斯意图用他简短有力的诗句来描绘整个国家的世间百态。有时他成功了,比如他描写棒球比赛上的欢快人群,或者当他瞥见“一位硕大的年轻女子不戴帽子/穿着围裙”,在人行道上俯身擦去她鞋子上的一片指甲。他以医生的视角记录那些平凡的事和被忽视的人。他首创了“文中无意,寓境于物”的格言。对威廉姆斯的批评家来说,这个说法暴露了他不是一位智者,或者说,他只不过是一位开创了“美语吠叫诗歌”的诗人。Mr Leibowitz, a New York literary editor, is keen to defend Williams against these charges, and focuses instead on the radical aspects of Williamss work. Banned in 1952 from being poetry consultant to the Library of Congress for his left-leaning views, Williams wrote poems in which the Rosenbergs appeared next to Geoffrey Chaucer. As a young doctor just starting out, he had mainly served the Italian, Greek and Polish communities around Rutherford, or attended to bruised prostitutes or addicts at the French Hospital of New York. As an elderly man with a respected practice, he still preferred the company of the socially marginalised: “I have known the unsuccessful, [and think them] far better persons than their more lucky brothers”.莱维茨是一位纽约的文学编辑,对于这些攻击,他不仅积极为威廉姆斯辩护,还转而关注威廉姆斯作品中极端的部分。1952年,因为其左倾观点而被赶出国会图书馆的诗歌顾问职位,威廉姆斯写了一首诗,在诗中罗森格弟与杰弗里·乔叟*一同出现。作为一位刚出师的年轻医生,他主要为在卢瑟福镇附近的意大利,希腊和波兰人的社区务,要么就去纽约的法国医院医治受伤的或瘾君子。作为一位事业体面的长者,他仍然更愿意以社会边缘群体为伴:“我认识那些失意者,并认为他们是]比他们走运的兄弟们要好得多的人。”However, in emphasising this side of Williams Mr Leibowitz skates over the less palatable aspects of his subjects character. A serial philanderer who publicly described his wife as “no Venus de Milo”, his poetry is occasionally voyeuristic and antagonistic towards women: “What I got out of women/was difficult/to assess.” Bitter from his lack of success in America or abroad, and obsessed with what he saw as the “European virus” in poetry, the Williams of this biography is not easy company. His poems, composed of short lines like “be a song—made of/particulars”, often resist Mr Leibowitzs lengthy analysis. Just as he preferred the quiet meadowlands around Rutherford to the glamour of literary New York, so too Williams manages to evade his biographers gaze. Like a figure in one of his poems, he remains on the sidelines, looking in.然而,莱维茨在着重描写威廉姆斯上述方面的同时,一笔略过了他的主角品格中不太值得称道的方面。公然比喻自己妻子是“米罗的维纳斯”却到处寻花问柳,他的诗歌偶尔透露出对女性的窥私欲和轻视:“我从女人中得到的/很难/评价”。苦于他在美国或国外都缺乏成功,并且执迷于诗歌中他所谓的“欧洲病毒”,该传记中的威廉姆斯并不是惬意的阅读伴侣。他的诗歌由像这样的短句组成:“一首歌——到处是/细节”,常常与莱维茨冗长的分析矛盾。就如同他喜爱卢瑟福镇周边的安静草地甚于纽约文坛的魅力,威廉姆斯同样也设法避开其传记作者的注视。就如同他诗歌中的一位人物一般,他在局外逗留,旁观。 /201302/227529。

  • Theoretically the federal reserve is independent of the president and the executive branch of government, but president do appoint the chairman of the fed, so it matters to you and your money who sits in that seat. Alan Blinder is a professor of economics at Princeton University, he is a former federal reserve vice chairman, thank you for joining us, sir, its good to see you, lets talk about Ben Bernankes fed, has it have more influence on our economy? Has this fed have more influence on our market and economy than the feds mission would dictate that it has?理论上,美联储独立于总统和行政政府机构,这一职位却是由美国总统任命的。因此,到底谁来做这个座子?这可事关重大,事关口袋中的钱。艾伦#8226;布林德是普林斯顿大学的一名经济学教授,美联储前副主席,感谢您参加我们的栏目,很高兴看到您。让我们谈一谈伯克南的美联储,是否对美国的经济产生了重大影响?美联储对市场和经济的影响是否比美联储使命所赋予它的还要大?Well, thats a hard question to answer, you know because the feds mission is to promote maximum employment and stable prices, as you just said the price level the inflation rate has been very stable over the Bernanke era as it was in the later part of Greenspan era, the fed has been working overtime so to speak both figuratively and literally on its employment mandate and it still is, whats clear is its been very activist by historical standard absolutely.嗯,这是一个很难回答的问题,因为美联储的使命是促成实现最大就业以及稳定物价。如您所说,在伯克南在任时期,物价水平,通货膨胀率已经非常稳定了,如同格林斯潘时代后期。由于美联储一直以来的努力工作,无论从数字上还是从实际上来说,而且从绝对意义的历史标准上看,很清楚,其就业政策相当激进。When you say activist you know some people call mission creep other say that its doing that because it has the effectiveness, its able to do it where congress doesnt do it, whats your sense on should congress be doing more of the work the fed is trying to achieve?当您说激进时,有人称其为“使命偏离”还有人认为美联储这样做是因为这种政策有效,美联储有能力这么做,然而国会没有能力。对于美联储正在努力实现的目标,国会是否应该承担更多工作?对于这一问题,您如何看待?Congress should be doing more of the work the fed is trying to achieve, look, the reason the fed has been pulling so many different levers over the last several years is that its interest its normal weapon the short term interest rates, the federal fund rates hit virtually zero all the way back in December 2008, at that point the Bernanke fed could have said we give up, we are closing up shop, thats all we can do, I think that would be a huge mistake, or it could try to look for other things it can do, such as this various quantitative easing and other things that the fed has put into effect, thats the course it took, i think thats the right course, it doesnt mean you cut every little detail always, but it was basically the right course, and frankly the job might have been a little easier or might a lot easier if congress was more cooperative, i dont mean cooperative with the fed, I mean more cooperative with the president and getting things done such as for example the jobs act the president proposed a year ago and other things like that, rather than letting this thing go or basically leaving it to Ben Bernanke.对于美联储正在努力实现的目标,国会应该承担更多工作。原因在于,美联储在过去几年采取了各种手段,其中最常用的武器就是利率,短期利率,联邦基金利率一路降到2008年12月的零利率。在这一程度上,伯克南美联储本来可以说,放弃吧,我们把该关的商店都关了,这就是我们所能做的了。我认为那样做的话,将是一个大错误。或许它还可能做些能做的其他事情。比如各种定量宽松政策以及美联储已经采取的其他各项措施。这就是美联储这几年所选择的道路,我认为这是一条方向正确的道路,它不仅仅意味着你总是关闭小型零售店,而是因为它大体上是正确的方向。坦白地说,如果国会更加合作,就业情况会有一些好转,或者许多好转。我不说国会与美联储合作,我是说国会与总统更加合作,以推进诸如总统一年前提议的工作法案以及其他类似法案,而不是置之不理,基本上留给伯南克处理。201211/210222。
  • A budget impasse between the White House and Congressional Republicans could force the federal government to shut down on Friday when the current budget law allowing the government to spend money expires. The Republican-led House passed the bill of 61 billion dollars in cuts, but of course it was rejected by the Democrat-controlled Senate. Sources are saying negotiators are now looking at a package of cuts for the rest of the fiscal year of between 33 billion and 40 billon dollars. President Barack Obama hosted the Senate and House leaders at the White House at a rare late night meeting on Wednesday, but so far theres still no deal.白宫和以共和党为主的国会之间在预算案上的分歧持续,这可能迫使联邦政府于星期五关闭。临时的财政法案规定了政府开销的期限。由共和党领导的众议院通过了这项削减出610亿美元的财政法案,当然遭到由民主党控制的参议院的反对。据消息称,谈判代表试图将剩余财政年的财政削减缩小至330亿美元至400亿美元之间。奥巴马总统于星期三深夜在白宫召见参议院和众议院领导,但目前为止仍然没有达成一致协议。;A shutdown could have real effects on everyday Americans. It means that small business owners who are counting on that loan to open their business, to make payroll, to expand, suddently they cannt do it; it means folks who are potentially processing a mortgage, they may not be able to get it; it means that hundreds of thousands of workers across the country suddenly would work without paycheck—their families are counting on their being able to go to work and do a good job.;“联邦政府关闭会对美国人民造成实实在在的影响。这就意味着那些指望贷款开张,付员工薪水,扩大经营的小企业老板们突然就经营不下去了,这意味着那些准备抵押贷款的人,可能就拿不到贷款了;这意味着全国成百上千辛勤工作的工人突然就拿不到薪水了——他们的家庭还指望着他们好好工作。”Now if the government shuts down, that means thousands of workers will be off the job. The White House estimates that 800,000 workers could be asked to stay home. So what else does a government shutdown mean? Well, here are some of the possible outcomes if the U.S. government closes the shop temporarily: the military would still function, but paychecks would be delayed until after April 8th, because the government just wouldnt have the funds for payroll; national parks and national museums would close; passport applications could also be delayed; and tax audits would be suspended--keep in mind that Tax Day in the U.S. is in a week, on April 15th, but vital services like national defense, law enforcement, emergency medical care and air traffic control would still continue.如果联邦政府关门,这意味着数千名工人将下岗。白宫预计有80万雇员将失去工作,在家待业。政府关门还意味着什么呢?这里有一些可能的后果:如果美国政府临时关掉兵工厂,军方仍然要履行职责,但是薪酬则要推迟到4月8号,因为政府没有资金周转;国家公园和物馆也会关掉;申请护照也会延期,税收审计将推迟;牢牢记住美国的报税季是在4月的一个星期,4月15日截止。但是像国防部,执法部门,急救部门,空中交通管制部门这样的重要部门还是要照常运转。201206/185688。
  • Our ancestors developed agriculture about twelve thousand years ago. As they harvested the first crops, they undoubtedly congratulated themselves on their cleverness—after all, cultivation is far more efficient than hunting and gathering. Little did they know, however, that humans were not the Earths first farmers. Certain species of ant have been practicing agriculture for millions of years.我们的祖先早在12000年前就开始发展农业了。想必在收获第一批粮食时,他们一定为自己的聪明才智好好庆祝了一番,毕竟耕种比打猎和采集更有效率。然而,殊不知人类并不是地球上第一群农民。某些种类的蚂蚁已有上百万年的耕种经验了。One example is the parasol ant of South America. The workers of this species clip large quantities of leaves from the forest and bring them back to the nest. These leaves are not eaten by the ants, but buried in a huge complex of underground chambers. As the leaves turn to compost, the ants seed them with their favorite type of fungus. They tend this fungus crop with great care, even weeding it to get rid of less desirable species. After a while, the fungus is harvested and eaten.其中南美洲的樵蚁就是一个例子。这类蚂蚁工人们修剪大量的树叶,在森林里拖回蚁巢。但这些树叶并不是用来吃的,蚂蚁把它们埋在一个大型复杂的地下室里。待树叶开始堆肥,蚂蚁就在树叶堆上播撒它们最爱的菌类的种子。它们精心照料呵护这些菌类作物,甚至会除草,以除掉那些长势不合人意的作物。过一阵子,菌类成熟,可以收获食用了。Planting and harvesting is one thing, but what would a real farm be without farm animals? Actually, humans are second to ants in this respect too. Several species of ant domesticate a kind of insect called an aphid. Aphids are good at sucking nutritious juice out of plants. In fact, theyre so good at it that they often suck out more than they can digest. The extra juice is secreted out the back of the aphid, where an ant can milk it like a farmer milking a cow.种植和收获是一回事,但是没有家畜的话还算是农场吗?实际上在这方面,人类也是仅次于蚂蚁。蚂蚁驯养的几种动物中有一种就是蚜虫。蚜虫善于吸食植物的营养汁液。因为它们太擅长,以至于吸食过多不能被消化的汁液。多余的汁液储藏在蚜虫后背上,蚂蚁就可以像农夫挤牛奶一样挤出汁液。This is a symbiotic relationship, and in exchange for the nutritious juice the ants protect their aphid flocks from predators. Some species even bring the aphids eggs into the safety of their own nest, and feed the aphid young until they are y for grazing.这是一种共栖关系,作为交换,蚂蚁保护蚜虫群不受猎食者的侵害。一些蚂蚁群甚至会把蚜虫卵带回安全的蚁巢,饲养幼小的蚜虫直至它们能够啃食绿叶。201206/186180。
  • The first trading day of the week finished with a modest sell-off amid worries of slower economic growth. It was data out of China which set the tone for Wall Street. Beijing downgraded its economic growth projections to 7.5% for 2012, putting China on track for its weakest growth in eight years. Not even figures showing the US servicesector grew in February at its fastest pace in a year was enough to undo globaleconomic jitters.上周因投资者担心经济增长放缓,第一天交易以小幅下降收尾。这是来自中国的数据,却为华尔街股市走势定下了基调。北京将2012年经济增长预测下调至7.5%,成为8年以来最低水平。即使有数据显示美国务业在2月份以年内最快的速率增长,也不足以撤销蔓延全球的经济恐慌。Company watchers were focused on Yahoo. According to a technology blog, the former internet darling is preparing a major restructuring that could result in thousands of job cuts. The announcement could come as early as the end of this month according to blog allthingsdigital.com. When asked to comment, Yahoo said in an email statement: ;Our leadership is engaged in a process that will generate significant strategic change at Yahoo.; But the company declined further comment.企业观察者将焦点放在雅虎身上。通过技术客的报导,这个前因特网宠儿正准备大规模重组,将裁掉数千个岗位。客allthingsdigital.com.说这次重组声明最早这个月底前出台。当被问及对此客内容作何时,雅虎通过邮件声明:“我们的领导层正在进行一场变革,一场会改变雅虎内部重大战略方向的变革。”但是雅虎拒绝作进一步。Back to Wall Street and the final numbers. The Dow dropped 14 points. The Samp;P 500 was down 5 points. And the Nasdaq gave up 25 points. Stocks were down in Europe as well with investors nervous about Greeces efforts to restructure government debt. Germany shed 54 points. France lost 13 points. And in the UK, stocks were down 36 points.再来关注华尔街和最终的数字。道琼斯指数下跌14点,标普500指数下降5点,欧洲纳斯达克指数下跌25点。欧洲的股市也在下滑,同时投资者们也担心希腊无力重组政府债务。德国股市下跌54点,法国下跌13点,英国股市下降36点。201206/186906。
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