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吉安县妇幼保健人民医院做红色胎记手术多少钱吉安县做韩式开眼角哪家好Diarmuid:Hi Jean. You look very pleased with yourself today.戴拉蒙德:嗨,珍。你今天看起来很高兴。Jean:Hi Diarmuid.珍:嗨,戴拉蒙德。I am in a very good mood today.我今天心情很好。Diarmuid:Whys that then?戴拉蒙德:怎么了?Jean:Well, Ive had some good news.珍:哦,我有些好消息。Diarmuid:Really, whats happened?戴拉蒙德:真的,发生什么了?Jean:Ive been given a promotion and a pay rise.珍:我得到了晋升和加薪。Diarmuid:Result!戴拉蒙德:结果!Jean:Sorry?珍:对不起?Diarmuid:I said… result!戴拉蒙德:我说…结果!Jean:Result?珍:结果?Diarmuid:Thats right, result. R.E.S.U.L.T.戴拉蒙德:没错,就是结果。R e s u l t。We can use it when we get some good news.当我们有些好消息的时候就可以用它。Jean:But why do we use this when we get good news?珍:可是当我们有好消息为什么用这个?A result could be good or bad.一个结果可能是或好或坏。Diarmuid:Very true Jean.戴拉蒙德:完全正确,珍。A result could be a good result or a bad result, thats why we need to use intonation when we use this word in this way.一个结果可能或好或坏,这就是为什么我们以这种方式使用这个词的时候需要使用语调。Jean:So you need to say result with a particular intonation?珍:那照你所说要结果与特定的语调相关?Diarmuid:Yes, you need to say it in such a way that you sound excited and happy.戴拉蒙德:是的,你需要以这样一种方式来表达你听起来兴奋和快乐。Lets hear some examples:让我们听一些例子: 201310/259214吉安第一人民医院美容整形科 Leaders社论Britains planning laws英国规划法An Englishmans home英国人之家The shortage of housing is a gathering national crisis. Rev up the bulldozers英国住房匮乏,危机重重,应大兴土木!NOW that the economy is at last growing again, the burning issue inBritainis the cost of living.既然英国最终恢复了经济增长,如今国民生活成本问题便成了燃眉之急。Prices have outstripped wages for the past six years.过去六年来,物价一直超过工资水平。Politicians have duly harried energy companies to cut their bills, and flirted with raising the minimum wage.政治家们已适时地督促能源公司削减账单,辅以增加最低工资水平的措施。But the thing that is really out of control is the cost of housing.但是真正失控的是房价。In the past year wages have risen by 1%; property prices are up by 8.4%. This is merely the latest in a long surge.去年,工资已增长了1%;房地产价格却增长了8.4%。If since 1971 the price of groceries had risen as steeply as the cost of housing, a chicken would cost 51.这仅仅是长期价格飙升中最近的一次。倘若自1971年,百货商品的价格以房价一样的增长比例大幅上涨,一只鸡将会卖到51英镑。By subsidising mortgages, and thus boosting demand, the government is exacerbating the problem.政府助房屋贷款,进而促进需求,如此是不断使问题恶化。But that is not the main reason for rising prices.但是这并不是房价上涨的主要原因。Driven by a baby-boom, immigration and longer lives,Britains population is growing by around 0.8% per year, faster than in most rich countries.受婴儿潮、移民、寿命延长的影响,英国人口每年以大约0.8%的比率增加,要比大多数富裕国家更快。Foreign wealth, meantime, is pouring intoLondon.同时,外来人口正不断涌入伦敦。If supply were rising fast too, increasing demand would not matter; but it is not.如果供给也增长迅速,那么日益增长的需求问题也就不值一提了;然而事与愿违。Though some 221,000 additional households are formed in England annually, just 108,000 homes were built in the year to September 2013.尽管每年英国都会新建多达22.1万的额外住房,2013年年初到9月仅有10.8万建好。The lack of housing is an economic drag.住房的匮乏一直给经济拖后腿。About three-quarters of English job growth last year was inLondonand its hinterlands, but high prices make it hard for people to move there from less favoured spots.去年,四分之三的就业率增长是来源于伦敦与一些内地贸易区,但高昂的房价如今使人们对这些地方望而却步。It also damages lives.人们的生活也因此深受其害。New British homes are smaller than those anywhere else in Europe, household size is rising inLondonand slums are sping as immigrants squash into shared houses.新的英国住房变得比欧洲其他地方更小,但随着移民不断挤进合住房屋,伦敦的家庭规模日益庞大,贫民区也不断扩张。Inequality is growing, because the higher property prices are, the greater the advantage that accrues to those whose parents own their homes.不平等性日益明显,因为房价越高,对于父母拥有房子的家庭占据的优势越大。This is all the result of deliberate policymaking.这都是政府经过深思熟虑后才制定的政策。Since the 1940s house-building inBritainhas been regulated by a system designed to prevent urban sprawl, something it has achieved spectacularly well.自从20世纪40年代,英国就有专门的体系来控制建房以免城市扩张,部分成果显著。It is almost impossible to construct any new building anywhere without permission from the local council.要大兴土木必须要经过当地议会批准。In the places where people most want to live—suburbs at the edge of big cities—councils tend not to give it.但对于人人皆眼红的宝地—紧邻大城市的郊区—议会一般是不会批准。Ministers have tried to override local NIMBYs.部长们也努力推翻当地的邻避主义者。The previous, Labour, government set regional house-building targets and bullied councils to accept high allocations.之前的英国工党政府设立了区域性的建房目标以及强迫议会接受高额分配。The current coalition has scrapped that approach in the name of local democracy—but it, too, has resorted to strong-arming councils to release more land.现在的联合政府以当地民主之名不再采用了这种方式—但是它也有使高度警惕的议会让与出更多的土地。It has also worked with the Bank of England to reduce the cost of credit and has subsidised high loan-to-value mortgages through a scheme called “Help to Buy”.目前政府已和英格兰合作以减少信贷成本,也通过出台“购买帮手”这项体制以持高额的贷款比率。This has boosted demand for housing but not supply.这都促进了人们对住房的购买需求,但没有提高住房的供给。Compare global housing data over time with our interactive house-price tool采用交互式的房价工具,比较全球楼市数据不同时段的变化A much better way of encouraging house-building would be to give local councils bigger incentives to allow it.鼓励建房更好的方式就是刺激当地议会批准它。NIMBYism is not always irrational.邻避主义者并不总是不理性的。Housing developments spoil views; incomers fill roads, schools and doctors surgeries.楼市的发展会改变他们的观点;不断有移民者搭乘汽车上班、进入学校学习、去医院看病。Yet though land prices can soar 200-fold when planning permission is granted, councils cannot extract much of the increased value to spend on services.然而尽管建筑许可的颁发使房价翻了200番,议会却无法将增值的大部分用之于务。A new scheme, the Community Infrastructure Levy, nods in the right direction.社区基础设施征税这一新的体系算是走对了方向。But it is hedged with restrictions and is expected to raise just 650m a year nationally. That is not nearly enough to change minds.但是它的限制条件依旧模糊不清,可能税收每年全国范围仅会增长6.5亿英镑。这还不足以改变人们的观念。Local governments, which are short of cash these days, could be allowed to charge developers much more.当地政府如今缺乏资金,倒是可以向开发商收取些费用。But the ideal solution would be a tax on the value of land.但理想的解决方案是对土地价值征税。This would be low or zero for agricultural land and would jump as soon as permission to build is granted.这对于农业土地而言,税收近乎是零或者十分低,只要批准建房,那么税收就会猛增。It would prod builders to get to work quickly.如此可刺激建房者高效率工作。It would also help to capture the gains in house prices that result from investment in transport or schools.同时,也有助于获取因投资交通或学校的房价收益。The green belts that stop development around big cities should go, or at least should be greatly weakened.阻止大城市发展的绿化带必须去除或至少应极力减少。They increase journey times without adding to human happiness.他们只是增加人们旅行时间而没有提升人们幸福指数。Londons, in particular, mostly protects scrubby agricultural fields and pony paddocks.尤其是伦敦的绿化带只是保护矮小的农业土地还有小马围场。Parts would be prettier with housing on.其中部分区域,在上面建上房屋会更宜人。This blessed plot天佑方案The government should also do more to organise and pay for industrial wastelands to be prepared for housing.政府也应大力组织或买下一些工业废址以为建房做准备。“Brownfield” sites are typically built on only when land prices rise enough to cover the high cost of development.只有当土地价格上涨至足以覆盖发展的高成本时,“布朗菲尔德”地区才特别作为建筑地址。Urban development corporations, such as the one established in the 1980s to regenerate eastLondons docklands, could assemble such plots of land more effectively than private developers.城市发展性企业可以比私人开发商更有效地集合这类土地,比如20世纪80年代成立的一家城市发展性企业就使东部伦敦多克兰港区改头换面。Not all these policies would be popular or easy.并非所有的政策都容易实施或大众化推广。Even the modest planning reforms introduced by the coalition are resented.甚至联合政府引进的最保守的规划改革都令人怨声载道。Building on fields in a country that is as crowded asEnglandwill always rile some people, however well-designed the system.不管该体制有多好,在同英格兰那般拥挤的乡村田地上建房,总会激怒一些民众。But the alternative is worse: a nation of renters and rentiers, where only the rich own houses但是可选的办法更糟:国家属于房东与靠出租生活的人,只有这些有钱人才有房子。 201401/273510吉安市中医院美容中心

吉安保仕柏丽医疗整形美容医院做祛疤手术多少钱Buzzfeed and online newsBuzzfeed与在线新闻Which media company are you?你是哪种媒体公司?How a young company plans to take on the news Leviathans一家年轻的公司该如何计划成为新闻业霸主WHEN Arianna Huffington sold her online-news firm for 5m in 2011, people gawked at the price tag. Now BuzzFeed, a hipper digital news firm co-founded by Jonah Peretti, a Huffington Post alumnus, has one-upped her. On August 10th Andreessen Horowitz, a venture-capital firm, said it was investing m in BuzzFeed, reportedly valuing the eight-year-old website at 0m, half the market value of the New York Times.当Arianna Huffington在2011年以3.15亿美元的价格卖掉她的在线新闻公司时,人们被这个价签惊呆了。如今,BuzzFeed—家由赫芬顿邮报员工Jonah Peretti联合创立的新潮的数字新闻公司,比她更胜一筹。8月10日,一家风险投资公司Andreessen Horowitz称其正拿出5000万美元对BuzzFeed公司进行投资,据报道,成立八年的BuzzFeed网站的估价为8.5亿美元,约为纽约时报市值的一半。Perhaps the investment is not so extraordinary. According to comScore, a research firm, BuzzFeed had around 75m unique visitors in June—more than the websites of the Times and other bigdailies. It makes money through “sponsored content”—which often looks remarkably and deliberately like a normal article, but is commissioned by advertisers. “Which Barbie Doll Are You?” was one of Buzzfeeds quizzes earlier this year . It was paid for by Mattel, Barbies maker.或许这一投资并非如此令人意外。根据一家研究公司comScore的数据,BuzzFeed 在6月拥有约7500万独立访问者,这个数字超过了时报等其他大型日报网站的独立访问量。它通过发布“赞助内容”来赚钱,这些“赞助内容”通常很引人注目且看起来很像普通的文章,但是实际上是由广告方委托发布的。BuzzFeed 今年年初的一个调查问卷—“你是哪种芭比娃娃?”就是由芭比娃娃的制造商—美泰花钱委托发布的。BuzzFeed is only one of several new-media firms making headlines. Others include Business Insider, Quartz and Vice. These firms know how to present stories slickly on screens and to create a buzz for their wares on social media.在这些新型媒体公司中,BuzzFeed 是唯一一家上头条的。这些新型媒体公司还包括Business Insider, Quartz 和Vice。这些公司熟知如何将故事巧妙的呈现在屏幕上,并在社交媒体上为其商品制造话题。ItsSilicon Valley. They say were toast这里是硅谷。他们说:我们完蛋了。It is rare for venture capitalists to invest in the news business, especially at a time when many owners of newspapers are selling them, from Gannett (publisher of USA Today) to Tribune Company (the Los Angeles Times). Perhaps Silicon Valley has so much cash that money is flooding all the way toNew York. But venture capitalists also seem to see an opportunity for new firms in a business mostly controlled by veterans.风险投资者鲜少投资新闻业,尤其是在这个众多报业拥有者纷纷出售其报纸产业的时期,从Gannett报业集团到论坛报业集团。Surprisingly, BuzzFeed is starting to look a bit like an old-media organisation itself. It plans to hire more journalists, opening outposts around the world this year. But Mr Peretti does not see any tension. “What you see in the history of media is that companies start out doing small, lower-cost ways of content and then move up the chain,” he says. BuzzFeed could yet go from producing “listicles” to listing on the stockmarket. But it still needs to answer the question, “Which Media Company Are You?”令人惊奇的是,BuzzFeed正开始看起来有点像一家传统媒体机构。它计划今年雇佣更多的记者,在全世界部署前哨。但Peretti先生没有感到任何压力。他说“你们在媒体历史中看到的是媒体公司一开始使用低档的低成本的方法从事媒体工作以及随后升级产业链”。 BuzzFeed 还能通过开发listicles功能进而使公司上市。但是“你是哪种媒体公司?”—这个问题依然需要解答。 /201408/321926吉安祛雀斑手术哪家医院好 泰和县人民中医院切眼袋手术多少钱

吉安保仕柏丽医院治疗狐臭多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Robots and psychology机器人与心理学Mapping the uncanny valley了解恐怖谷理论Why androids are scary为什么人形机器人那么吓人Who are you calling inhuman?你说谁不像人呢?ARTIFICIALLY created beings, whether they be drawn or sculpted, are warmly accepted by viewers when they are distinctively inhuman.无论是画出来的还是造出来的机器人,当它们与人类很不相像时,人类就能很好地接受它们。As their appearances are made more real, however, acceptance turns to discomfort until the point where the similarity is almost perfect, when comfort returns.但是,随着它们的外貌越来越近似真人,这种接受就会转变为反感。直到它们与人类的相似度达到一个几近完美的状态,人类又会重新接受它们。This effect, called the uncanny valley because of the dip in acceptance between clearly inhuman and clearly human forms, is well known, particularly to animators, but why it happens is a mystery.因为在不够拟人和非常拟人之间人们对机器人的接受度有一个下降的过程,所以这种效果被称为恐怖谷。恐怖谷理论众所周知,尤其是对动画家来说,但它的出现原因却是个谜。Some suggest it is all about outward appearance, but a study just published in Cognition by Kurt Gray at the University of North Carolina and Daniel Wegner at Harvard argues that there can be something else involved as well: the apparent presence of a mind where it ought not to be.一些人认为这一理论只和外表有关,但最近北卡罗来纳大学的Kurt Gray与哈佛大学的Daniel Wegner在《认知》上发表了一篇研究文章,称这其中可能还包含着别的东西,即本不该出现在机器人身上的明显的思维能力。According to some philosophers the mind is made up of two parts, agency and experience.根据哲学家的说法,思维由两部分构成:执行和体验。Both set people apart from robots, but Dr Gray and Dr Wegner speculated that experience in particular was playing a crucial role in generating the uncanny-valley effect.这两者都能将人与机器人区分开,但Gray士和 Wegner士推测,在产生恐怖谷效应方面,经验起着尤其重要的作用。They theorised that adding human-like eyes and facial expressions to robots conveys emotion where viewers do not expect emotion to be present.他们建立了一个理论,即如果使机器人拥有像人类一样的眼睛和表情,它们就能传递感情,但在观察者的预期中这种感情是不该出现在机器人身上的。The resulting clash of expectations, they thought, might be where the unease was coming from.他们认为这种预期所产生的冲突可能就是不适感的来源。To test this idea, the researchers presented 45 participants recruited from subway stations and campus dining halls in Massachusetts with a questionnaire about the Delta-Cray supercomputer.为了验这个想法,研究者从马萨诸塞州的地铁站或大学食堂征集了45位参与者,就Delta-Cray超级计算机对他们做了一份问卷调查。A third were told this machine was like a normal computer but much more powerful.参与调查问卷的人中有三分之一被告知这台机器和正常的电脑一样,但强大许多;Another third heard it was capable of experience, by being told it could feel hunger, fear and other emotions.另外三分之一的人被告知它有体验的能力,即它能感受到饥饿、恐惧以及其他一些情感;The remainder were told it was capable of self-control and the capacity to plan ahead, thus suggesting it had agency.剩下的三分之一则被告知它能自我控制,并有能力提前制定计划,也就是说它具有执行力。Participants were asked to rate how unnerved they were by the supercomputer on a scale where one was not at all and five was extremely.研究者请他们从一分到五分对这台超级电脑给他们带来的恐惧感进行打分。Dr Gray and Dr Wegner found that those presented with the idea of a supercomputer that was much more powerful than other computers or was capable of planning ahead were not much unnerved.Gray士和 Wegner士发现,那些被告知这台电脑只是一台比其他电脑强大许多的超级计算机和它有提前制定计划的能力的问卷参与者都没有感到十分恐惧。They gave it a score of 1.3 and 1.4 respectively.他们给出的平均分分别是1.3和1.4分。By contrast, those presented with the idea of a computer capable of experiencing emotions gave the machine an average of 3.4.相比之下,那些被告知这台电脑有体验情感能力的参与者打出的恐惧分数为3.4分。These findings are consistent with the researchers’ hypothesis.这一发现与研究者的假设相吻合。There seems to be something about finding emotion in a place where it is not expected that upsets people.似乎是发现一个不该有情感的机器却有了情感这类事使人类感到不安。This led Dr Gray and Dr Wegner to wonder if the reverse, discovering a lack of experience in a place where it was expected, might prove just as upsetting.这使Gray士和 Wegner士不禁想问,如果将情况反过来,人类发现一个该有情感的人却没有体验情感的能力时会不会同样会感到不安。To explore this, they presented a further 44 volunteers, recruited in the same manner as those in the earlier experiment, with a picture of a man.为了弄清这一问题,两位士以同样的方式再次征集了44位志愿者,并向他们展示了一张男人的照片。A third were told that he was normal; a third that he was unable to plan; and a third that he was unable to feel pain, pleasure or fear.其中三分之一的人被告知这个男人是正常的,另外三分之一的人被告知他没有制定计划的能力,剩下的三分之一则被告知他没有感受疼痛、愉悦或恐惧的能力。As in the first experiment, participants rated how unnerved they were by the man on a five-point scale.和第一次实验一样,士们要求参与者按五分制给这个男人给他们带来的恐惧感进行打分。Those who were told the man was normal, or was incapable of planning, gave scores that averaged 1.8 and 1.9 respectively.那些被告知这个男人是正常的和他没有能力制定计划的参与者给出的平均分分别是1.8分和1.9分。Those told he could not feel pain, pleasure or fear were much more unnerved.但那些被告知这个男人没有能力感受疼痛、愉悦或恐惧的参与者要比前两批人恐惧得多,They gave average scores of 3.0.他们给出的平均分为3.0分。Dr Gray and Dr Wegner believe their findings argue that a big part of the uncanny-valley effect stems from expectations not being met.Gray士和 Wegner士认为:他们的发现表明引起恐怖谷效应的大部分原因根源在于人们的预期没有得到满足。Robots are not expected to have feelings and when such feelings are found, it seems somehow wrong.人们认为机器人不会有情感,当发现它们拥有情感时,人们就会觉得这是不正常的。Humans, by contrast, are expected to have feelings—and when such feelings are not found, the effect is equally frightening.相比之下,人类是有情感的,当人们发现某个人没有情感时,他们同样会感到恐惧不安。Their conclusions will perhaps give pause to those who see the ultimate robot as something which physically resembles a human being.一些人认为机器人发展到最后,会在物质形态上与人类十分相似,但这次研究的结论可能会让他们断了这种念头。 /201402/277294吉安哪家医院美白针效果好吉安隆鼻要花多少钱



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