2019年12月14日 01:13:27|来源:国际在线|编辑:快问面诊
It travels west,Through India, the Middle East and into Europe.丝绸的出口路线一直向西延伸 穿过印度 中东 最后进入欧洲A 5,000-mile trade route:The silk road.形成一条长达五千英里的商路 这就是丝绸之路The Romans wanted it, the Chinese have it,罗马人想要丝绸 而中国人有and, as a result, silk connected the east and west因此 东西方世界有史以来for the very first time in human history.第一次因丝绸而联系在一起The Silk Road becomes a kind of channel丝绸之路成为某种渠道along which goods, people, ideas,随之而来的是不同的商品 人民 思想armies, religions are moving back and forth.军队和宗教间的相互往来Trade booms.But also, the flow of ideas.贸易兴盛繁荣 而随之也带来了思想的涌动Ideas thatll transform the future of mankind.那些即将改变人类未来的思想方兴未艾Damascus, Syria.Four years after the crucifixion.在叙利亚首都大马士革 耶稣被钉死在十字架上的四年之后A man is on the run.Paul.有一个人正在逃亡路上 他就是保罗Preacher, troublemaker,And the most important convert in the story of christianity.一名传道者 一个闹事者 也是基督教历史中最重要的皈依者Before his conversion on the road to Damascus,在他还未信奉基督教 逃亡大马士革的路上He persecuted christians.他曾迫害过基督徒But now he will turn an insignificant sect Into a world religion.但现在 他将让一个无关紧要的教派 变成一种世界性的宗教201510/404953And just once, it recorded a signal that got everyone excited,仅一次,它记录下一组激动人心的信号the ;wow!; signal, as it became known.也就是人们所熟知的wow信号The signal was a steady source of radio waves,信号显示了一阵稳定的无线电波来源just the kind an alien race might send,正是外星人可能发送的讯息类型because it stands out from the radio static that fills the universe.因为它从宇宙浩大的信息量中脱颖而出A computer recorded the signal as six letters and numbers.电脑以六个字母和数字记录下了这组信号Astronomer Jerry Ehman saw the data天文学家杰里·艾汉看过数据后and wrote one word in the margin.在页面边缘写下一个词Ehman and others subsequently searched the same patch of sky many times艾汉和他的同事们不断地搜寻这一片天空But found nothing.但却空手而归The ;wow!; signal had vanished.wow信号消失了The whole mysterious episode reveals that making contact整个神秘事件揭示了with aliens via radio is always going to be difficult.用无线电与外星人取得联系的难度巨大In such a vast universe,在浩瀚的宇宙中messages take a long time to reach their destination.信息需要许久才能抵达目的地The ;wow; signal appeared to come from a star system 200 light years away.wow信号似乎来自一个200光年外的星系So it took at least 200 years to reach us.所以这信号历经至少200年才传到地球If we sent a reply, it would take another 200 years to reach them,我们倘若回复,将耗费又一个200年传去信号by which time they might have forgotten they sent anything时至那时,它们也许已经忘记曾发送过信号and stopped listening for a reply.并早已放弃了等候回音Worse, they might well have destroyed themselves in the meantime.更糟的话,它们也许已经与此期间自我毁灭了The human race very quickly discovered the power of the atom bomb.人类在短时间内就发现了原子弹的威力If the same holds for intelligent aliens,如果智能外星人也有类似的发现then they might not last long.他们也许活不长久Perhaps they all blow themselves up soon after也许他们在发现Emc2不久后they discover that ;E; equals ;mc; squared.就已毁灭了自己If civilizations take billions of years to evolve如果文明要历经百万年才能形成only to vanish virtually overnight,毁于一旦只是瞬间的事情then, sadly, weve next to no chance of hearing from them.很遗憾,我们几乎不可能听到来自他们的消息They are simply too far away in space and time to reach.他们的空间和时间对我们而言都太遥不可及But there is one last possibility但也有最后一种可能:that aliens who have avoided destroying themselves有效避免了自我毁灭的外星人are aly colonizing the universe.正大张旗鼓地占领宇宙201506/381141As volcanoes continue to erupt,随着火山继续喷发levels of carbon dioxide steadily built up in the atmosphere.大气层中的二氧化碳含量稳定上升until around 630 million years ago,直至大约6亿3千万年前the layer of carbon dioxide became so thick二氧化碳层的厚度已经足够that it trapped enough heat to release the planet from its endless winter.它截留的热量足以让地球摆脱冰冻的掌控At last, a thaw began.终于,冰雪开始消融Fierce storms pounded the planet.猛烈的暴风雨肆虐整个行星and Earths cold and slushy climate began to warm.地球的天气开始变暖In just a few hundred years,短短数百年时间里temperatures would rise dramatically,气温大幅上升and Earths would never be the same.地球不将不再一样Fortunately,over time our planets climate stabilised幸运的是,随着时间流逝 气候逐渐稳定and Earth slowly returned to normal.地球缓慢地恢复正常Volcanoes had set the stage for a dynamic new era.火山设好了一个新时代的舞台201508/395799

Our sculpture, one of the earliest known, probably dates to the third century AD, when Gandhara was ruled by the Kushan kings of northern India, whose empire stretched from Kabul to Islamabad. It was a wealthy region, thanks to its position on the Silk Road - the trade routes linking China, India and the Mediterranean. From Gandhara the main route ran west through Iran to Alexandria in Egypt. Gandharas prosperity and political stability allowed the construction of a great landscape of Buddhist shrines, monuments and sculpture, and further missionary expansion. Its something that will be a recurring feature through this week - the religions that survive today are the ones that were sp and sustained by trade and power. Its profoundly paradoxical: Buddhism, the religion founded by an ascetic who spurned all comfort and riches, flourished thanks to the international trade in luxury goods. With the luxury goods like silk went the monks and the missionaries, and with them went the Buddha, in human form, perhaps because such an image helps when youre teaching across a language barrier.这尊佛像大约雕刻于公元三世纪,是已知最古老的佛像之一。当时犍陀罗在北印度贵霜王朝的统治之下,该王国的领土从喀布尔一直延伸到伊斯坦布尔。其时,丝绸之路连接着中国、印度与地中海地区,贵霜王朝位于这条路线的节点上,因而国力强盛。始于犍陀罗的主干道向西穿过伊朗,一直通往埃及的亚历山大港。国家经济繁荣,政治稳定,因而可以修建大量寺庙和佛像,并能派出僧侣,四处传扬佛法。能够流传至今的宗教,起初都是靠着贸易与国家实力发展起来的。佛教的创始人当年拋弃了荣华富贵,过着苦行僧的生活,但矛盾的是,佛教的繁荣靠的却是奢侈品贸易。僧侣们与丝绸等贵重物品一起踏上旅途,随身携带佛像。也许在语言不通的时候,用人类形象表现的佛像更能体现佛法的深意。There are four standard poses for the Buddha that we know today. He can be shown lying, sitting, standing and walking; and each pose reflects a particular aspect of his life and activity, rather than a moment or an event. Our sculpture shows him in his enlightened state. Hes robed as a monk, as might be expected, but unlike a monk his head is not shaved. Hes dispensed with finery and removed his princely jewellery. His ears are no longer weighted down with gold - but the elongated lobes still have the empty holes that show that this man was once a prince.我们今天所熟悉的佛像有四种标准姿势:卧姿、坐姿、站姿及行姿。 这些姿势所表现的与其说是某一时刻,不如说是佛陀生活中的某一侧面。本文中的佛像表现的就是佛陀开悟时的形象。他身着袈裟,但蓄有头发,与普通僧人不同。他已脱掉了华丽的衣饰,摘掉了珠宝。他的耳朵上不 再坠有沉甸甸的金饰,但长耳垂上的耳洞仍显露了他的王子身份。201504/369550


According to the FDA there is no apparent evidence根据FDA报告显示,没有明确据表明that Aspartame is a carcinogen or DNA damaging chemical.阿斯巴甜是一种致癌或者损害DNA的化学物质A carcinogen is a chemical that can cause direct damage to DNA or promote increased cell replication.致癌物是一种能直接对DNA造成损伤或能够促进细胞复制的化学物质Animal studies showed no risk of cancer even at high doses of Aspartame.动物实验表明,即便是高剂量的阿斯巴甜也不会增加患癌几率DNA assay tests did not show any DNA damage effects of Aspartame.DNA分析实验并未显示,阿斯巴甜能够损害DNA,Through the mass media Aspartame has been claimed to cause brain tumours.尽管舆论认为阿斯巴甜能导致脑肿瘤This association was made because the rate of brain tumours simultaneously increased人们之所以这样认为是因为脑肿瘤患病几率开始增加的时候,when Aspartame was introduced into the market.正是阿斯巴甜引入市场之时For any chemical to cause a health effect such as a tumour对于任何一种化学物质而言,it would have to act on the body for a significant amount of time,要造成肿瘤等健康问题都需要长期作用于身体therefore Aspartame would not instantly cause brain tumours因此阿斯巴甜不会立即造成脑肿瘤,and research has shown that it is not even associated with brain tumours after long term exposure.研究表明,即便是长时间接触阿斯巴甜也不会造成脑瘤Aspartame was also claimed to be associated with an increase in the rate of breast cancer.人们还认为阿斯巴甜会增加罹患乳腺癌的可能性This is now considered not feasible但这其实也是不可信的because the rate of breast cancer increased before the introduction of Aspartame into the food system.因为乳腺癌的患病几率在阿斯巴甜进入市场之前就已开始上升Also the rate of breast cancer has been declining in the last few years.除此之外,在过去的几年中乳腺癌的发病率已经有所下降In a study by Limm et al the consumption of在莱姆等人进行的研究中Aspartame containing beverages and incidents of types of brain cancer were analyzed.研究人员分析了摄入含阿斯巴甜的饮品和脑瘤患病率之间的关系Questionnaires were used to evaluate the final 470000 participants nutritional intake.研究人员里利用调查问卷来评估47万参与者的营养摄入This included a food frequency questionnaire two 24 hour recalls其中包括一张进食频率问卷24小时内两次电话回访,and a survey to evaluate possible consumption of Aspartame containing beverages.以及一项研究来评估人们可能摄入的含有阿斯巴甜的饮品The rate of brain cancer was analyzed through the cancer registries of the 8 states the participants were from.脑瘤的发病率由调查参与者来自的八个州的癌症检验机构负责分析和检验The general categories of cancer studies were hemopoitic and gliomas.一般的癌症研究包括血细胞生成和神经胶质瘤检查These are the results from the analyses between the risk of the two types of brain cancer这就是关于两种脑癌的发病率and the intake of aspartame through beverages these intakes include data from both men and women.和通过饮料摄取阿斯巴甜之间的关系研究的数据样本,包括男性样本和女性样本The relative risk of men represents the reference value.而男性患病的几率起到参照作用The reference value of one represents no risk of cancer from Aspartame.一个样本的参照价值代表其由于摄入阿斯巴甜而患癌的风险为零Overall the relative risks of each intake level did not show an increased risk for either hemopoitic or gliomas.总体来说,每个等级的摄入量都不会增加造血细胞和神经胶质瘤的患病几率This means the relative risk values did not vary enough这就意味着相对风险值的区分不够大,to conclude that Aspartame was clearly associated with brain cancer.不足以表明阿斯巴甜与脑癌之间有明显的关系,It said the differences are probably due to chance.而这些差异可能是由巧合造成的201601/421541

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