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The real Jane Austen一个真实的简奥斯汀As vital as her stories生气勃勃,人如其著She still fascinates 200 years after the publication of ;Pride and Prejudice;《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人The Real Jane Austen: A Life in Small Things. By Paula Byrne.《真实的简奥斯汀:细微之物,足见平生》 宝拉伯恩著“A LIFE of usefulness, literature, and religion, was not by any means a life of event,” wrote Henry Austen of his spinster sister Jane. This image of the sequestered author persisted for years. But contemporary scholars have reappraised “dear Aunt Jane” as an independent and worldly-wise woman who wielded a sardonic pen. She continues to fascinate, 200 years after the publication of “Pride and Prejudice”. This is the charm of a new biography from Paula Byrne, a British author, who breathes yet more life into Austen and her works by considering the objects that populated her days.“她的一生虽裨益他人,与文学与宗教为伴,却并无白云苍,大起大伏。”简的哥哥亨利曾这样写道。多年以来,简的形象一直是终生未嫁,隐僻幽居。然而,当代学者开始重新审视这名“亲爱的奥斯汀姑姑”,把她看作一个深谙尘世智慧的独立女性,舞动着手中的讥讽之笔。《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人——这份魅力同样延续到英国作家宝拉伯恩为奥斯汀所著的传记之中。在宝拉笔下,那个时代的流行物件,是通向奥斯汀生平及著作神秘之门的钥匙,展示出一个更加生气勃勃的简。Each chapter is organised around a single thing. Some are Austens possessions, such as a topaz cross she received from her brother. Others are simply from the period, such as a barouche (an upmarket carriage), which helps to illustrate how well-travelled she was and how transport indicates status in her novels. In “Northanger Abbey” Catherine Morland finds a trip in Henry Tilneys curricle erotic, whereas she is nonplussed by John Thorpes gig. Broadly chronological, this thematic approach offers a revealing picture of Austen and a lively social history.这本传记的每一章都围绕着一个单独的物件展开。有些是奥斯汀的私人收藏,例如她从哥哥那儿得到的一个托帕石十字架。其余的则是那个时代的流行品,例如四轮马车(一驾上等马车),足现她游历之广以及在她的作品中,交通工具对于身份的烘托。在《诺桑觉寺》里,凯瑟琳.莫兰觉得享利.蒂尔尼的二轮马车新奇诱人,面对约翰.索普的马车时却不知所措。这种主题式的记传方式,按时序徐徐展开一幅奥斯汀生平及其活跃的社会活动的长卷。Austens formative years are the most interesting. Three vellum notebooks contain her “Juvenilia”—the stories and poems she wrote as a teenager. Her “greatest gifts are here in embryo”, writes Ms Byrne, clearly relishing Austens satire and lack of restraint. The young author lampooned famous figures and offered parodies of sentimental novels. But she reserved her choicest words of wit for her sister Cassandra. When they were not living together they corresponded frequently, and Austen often tried out different voices—“gossipy, jokey, affectionate”—to make her laugh.奥斯汀写作的成型期最耐人寻味。有三本羊皮纸笔记记录了她的“少女之作”——她在青少年时期写的故事与诗歌。宝拉很享受此时奥斯汀式的讥讽语调和无拘无束,她写道,她“无与伦比的天赋在此酝酿成型”。此时年轻的奥斯汀嘲讽当时鼎鼎有名的人物,戏仿那些多愁善感的小说。但是她最具智慧锋芒的字字珠玑却是散落在与其姊卡桑德拉的信件中。两人不住在一处时便频繁通信,而奥斯汀常常尝试不同的腔调——漫谈式的,玩笑式的,或是浪漫式的——来逗她发笑。During this time the movements of family followed the flows of inheritance; a vexatious matter that drives Austens narratives. Old maids and mothers were often housed by rich cousins; a child might be made heir to childless relatives. An East Indian shawl introduces Aunt Phila—who at 21 sailed to Bengal in order to find a husband—and her daughter, Eliza. A romantic figure, and presumably illegitimate, Eliza first married a man who fell under the guillotine in the French Revolution, and later married Austens brother Henry. This coquettish cousin is fictionalised as Mary Crawford in “Mansfield Park”. Austen also drew on Henrys militia experience for her depiction of flirtatious redcoats in “Pride and Prejudice”. Her midshipman brothers helped inform references to the navy.在这段时期,因为继承的缘故,她不得不经常搬迁—这类烦心事反倒丰富了她的叙述内容。老姑娘和母亲总是寄居在有钱的侄子家中;孩子会成为膝下无子的亲戚的继承人。一条来自东印度的披肩引出了费拉阿姨—她在二十一岁时乘船到孟加拉寻找结婚对象——和她的女儿伊莱莎的故事。伊莱莎是个天性浪漫的私生女,她的先夫死于法国大革命的断头台上;后来她嫁给了奥斯汀的哥哥亨利。这个轻佻娇纵的嫂子后来成了她在《曼斯菲尔德庄园》里玛丽.克劳福德的原型。亨利本人的军旅生涯也为她在《傲慢与偏见》中浮夸的“红制”军人形象提供了素材。而她作做海军的兄弟们则提供了海军生活的第一手材料。The books liveliest passages are about city life and romance. Austen frequently visited London and lived in Bath for years. She was probably not a beauty—only one authenticated portrait exists (although Ms Byrne makes a strong case for another with uncertain provenance). But her wit and intelligence lured many a suitor. None of them stuck, but many are recalled with mirth in her letters. Austen was no prude. Her novels feature illicit liaisons and she gives Mary Crawford a sexually loaded naval joke about “Rears and Vices”. But she had high standards and a mortal fear of childbirth. She was all too aware of the way women either died during labour or “grew old by confinements and nursing”.这本传记最轻快活泼的篇章描述了城市生活和浪漫故事。奥斯汀频繁造访伦敦并在巴斯寓居多年。她可能算不得一个美人—她的画像中只有一幅真迹存世(尽管宝拉坚信另一幅来历不明的画像也是真迹),但是她的机锋和智慧却吸引了许多追求者。无人获其芳心,成就美眷;然而在她的信件中,关于他们的回忆大多充满欢乐。奥斯汀并非严肃拘谨之人,她的小说写到过男女私通;玛丽.克劳福德就曾开过一个下流的海军玩笑“臀部与罪恶”。不过她的确道德自律,且畏惧生产。她十分明白:有些女性会死于生产,或是在不断怀和持续哺乳中年华逝去。Ms Byrne has an obvious affection for her subject. This book may offer few revelations, but it paints a fresh and vivid picture of an inimitable woman.显而易见,宝拉对其传记对象—简奥斯汀—充满喜爱之情。这本书可能并无多少“惊人内幕”,但它无疑描绘出了这名独一无二的女性—血肉丰满,栩栩如生。 /201406/304652

When I started seeing the news clips, the day he died, my heart sank.当我开始看新闻报道,他死的那一天,我的心为之一震。Michael was the most exciting performer I had ever seen in my life. 迈克尔是我在自己的生命中曾经见过的最令人激动人心的表演者。He was the ultimate pop superstar. 他是曾经最棒的流行巨星。He wanted more than anything for his legacy to be. 他想要自己留下的东西超过任何事物。He is the greatest performer of all time and thats what he became.他一直是最伟大的表演者之一而且他真的就是这样。A kid, 11 years old, singing that song with that much emotion, 一个11岁的孩子饱含那种情绪,唱着那首歌,it was incredible.太不可思议了。He had a dream. 他曾经怀揣梦想。He had direction and he stuck with it.他有前进的方向而且他坚持下来了。201306/244800

Science and technology科学技术Safe driving安全行驶Keep your mind on the road时刻看路Hands-free texting is more distracting to drivers than using a mobile phone语音发短信比手机通話更容易让驾驶人分心CARS, to paraphrase some in Americas gun lobby, do not kill people.套用美国步协会的说法,汽车不会杀人。People kill people.人杀人。And among the people more likely than others to kill people are those distracted by their use of mobile phones and other portable electronic devices while they are driving.在人群中,那些在开车时,使用手机或者其他便携式电子设备的人,比其他人更容易杀人。Actually holding a phone to your ear while driving is illegal in many places.事实上在许多地方,开车的时候将手机放在耳朵上是违法的。But not having both hands on the wheel is only part of the problem.但是没有把双手放在方向盘上仅仅只是一部分问题。Another part, probably more serious, is the dissipation of attention involved.另一部分,可能更加严重,是注意力不集中。If further evidence of this were needed, it has just been provided in a study published by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, in Washington,如果需要更多的据,这可以由在华盛顿特区的美国汽车协会的交通安全基金会发表的一份研究报告提供。DC. David Strayer and his colleagues at the University of Utah, the studys authors, looked at exactly how distracting various mental activities are to drivers.犹他州的大卫·斯特雷耶和他的同事,这份研究报告的作者,清楚地看到了精神活动是如何使驾驶员分心。In a world where cars are often fitted with hands-free electronic devices, what they found is worrying.在一个汽车配备了免提式电子设备的世界里,这就是他们所担心的事情。Dr Strayer divided 102 volunteers into three groups.斯特雷耶士将102名志愿者分为了三组。Each participant performed eight tasks under the scrutiny of his team and while wearing an electrode-laden hat to record what is known as their Event-Related Brain Potentials.每一位参与者要在他的队伍的监督下完成八个任务,并且是戴了一个用于记录大脑的事件相关电位的,布满电极的帽子。The eight tasks were: doing nothing; listening to the radio; listening to an audio book; conversing with a passenger; calling a friend using a hand-held phone; calling a friend using a hands-free phone; using speech to send a text message; and, as an example of a difficult task few people engage in behind the wheel, verifying a set of mathematical equations while memorising nouns interjected between the maths problems.这八个任务是:什么都不做;听广播;听音频书;与一位乘客交谈;用一个手持式电话呼叫一位朋友;使用免提式电话呼叫一位朋友;用语音发送一条短信;作为一个困难的任务的一个例子,少数人加入这个团体;当熟记插入到这些算术问题中的名词时,明一系列算术等式。The first group of volunteers performed these tasks sitting at a computer.第一组人在电脑前完成这些任务。The second sat in simulators resembling the interior of a car, and followed another car on a screen.第二组坐在一个汽车模拟器里,在屏幕上他的前方有一辆车。The third drove real cars.第三组开真正的车。Besides their ERPs, the volunteers reaction times were assessed, their level of concentration was tested by studying their responses to lights shone in the periphery of their visual fields, and their subjective views of which tasks demanded most attention were recorded.除了他们的大脑的事件相关电位外,他们的反应时间也会被评估,他们的集中程度也会通过研究他们对视野边缘的灯光闪烁的反应进行测试,还有他们对哪种任务更加需要集中精力的判断也被记录下来。Dr Strayer then consolidated these various results into a single number that represented the overall mental distraction a task created.斯特雷耶士将这些不同的结果结合在一起形成一个单独的数字,用于表示一个任务所产生的综合精神分散。Doing nothing provided a baseline value of 1.0 and juggling maths and word-memory provided an upper bound of 5.0.什么都不做的情况设为基础值-1.0,然后尽量使用数学和字存储器产生一个更高的范围-5.0。As might be expected, listening to the radio or to a book were the least distracting activities.可能像预期的那样,听广播或者音频书是是最不容易使人分心的活动。Talking to a passenger and talking on the phone were intermediate.与一位乘客交谈和打电话是中等程度。The most distracting, at 3.06, was hands-free texting.最使人分心的活动的分数为3.06,是语音发短信。On a scale where 5.0 is the most distracted it is possible to be, that is worryingly high.在某种程度上,可能存在最使人分心的,程度为5.0的活动,那么3.06就相当高。In attention to the road is not the only cause of traffic accidents, but it is an important one.不集中注意力观察道路情况不是造成交通事故的唯一的原因, 但是它是最重要的。In America, various studies have suggested that it contributes to between a quarter and a half of accidents.在美国,许多研究表明这种情况所造成的交通事故的比率在1/4到1/2之间。Those who think that hands-free texting is low on the list of potential driving hazards might therefore wish to think again.那些认为语音发短信所造成的风险很小的人可能要因此重新考虑一下。 /201311/264215

  

  Have you ever wondered why we humans dont have spots or stripes?你是否曾经好奇过为什么我们人类身上没有斑点或条纹?Let me think,Humans and animals get their skin color from melanin pigments, which can be either black or yellow.让我想想,人类和动物的皮肤颜色来自黑色素,它不是黑色就是黄色。Together, these two pigments account for just about every color you might see on the skin of mammals: white, red, yellow, brown, and black and every shade in between.二者混合可呈现你能见到的各种哺乳动物的皮肤颜色:白色、黄色、棕色、黑色和他们之间的过渡色。产生黑色素的皮The skin cells that produce melanin are known as melanocytes.肤细胞是黑素细胞,In the embryos of mammals, the melanocytes originate from the same group of cells that produces the spinal cord and the brain.哺乳动物的胚胎中,黑素细胞源自制造出脊髓和大脑的同组细胞。From there, these cells migrate through the developing skin towards the belly of the animal.这些细胞从那里出来通过皮肤的生长迁往动物的肚子。If the melanocytes that produce dark pigments and light pigments migrate in streaks, you end up with stripes.如果产生深浅色素的黑素细胞以条纹状迁移,那么你身上就有条纹。The same goes for spots, but in this case, only random patches of certain pigments survive.斑点也是这么来的。但在这种情况下,只有随机的某些色素斑点能够存活。In either case, the migration pattern is genetically determined.不论哪种情况,其迁移方式由基因决定。For certain species, like zebras, stripes provided an evolutionary advantage because they worked as camouflage.对于特定物种 ,比如斑马, 条纹因可作为伪装对进化有利。Those animals with stripes were more likely to survive, and to pass along the genes that produce stripes to their offspring.身上有条纹的动物更有可能生存下来,并把能产生条纹的基因传给后代。For humans, this apparently wasnt the case.对于人类来说,情况显然不同。However, its likely that our overall skin color probably is a result of adaptation as well.但是我们全身皮肤的颜色也可能是适应环境的结果。 /201312/270280。

  Designer headphones名牌耳机The sound of music音乐之声Dr Dre’s creation of a market for costly cans may herald the return of true hi-fi说唱歌手Dr Dre创造的高端耳机市场可能预示着高保真时代的回归Aug 24th 2013 |From the print editionFOR decades the market for expensive headphones was mainly limited to hi-fi buffs. But now that the boxy stereo system in the corner of the bedroom is largely a thing of the past, and young music fans listen mostly on portable devices, headphones have become as much of a fashion statement as the music player itself. Among the first to spot the potential of this market was Dr Dre, an American rapper-cum-tycoon. In 2008 he and Jimmy Iovine, a record producer, launched their Beats range of headphones, to great success. They have all but created a new product category: premium-priced (0-plus) cans whose sound quality is good enough, but which mainly sell on their brand image.几十年以来,高端耳机市场都局限在高保真行家圈里。但是现在箱式音响系统已经过时了,年轻的音乐爱好者基本都用便携式设备听音乐,耳机跟音乐播放器一样成了一种时尚。Dr Dre就是最先发现这个市场潜力的人之一,他是一个著名的美国说唱歌手。2008年,其与音乐制作人Jimmy Iovine一起推出了他们的Beats系列耳机,大为成功。他们创造了一种全新种类的耳机品类:高价耳机,(价格在100美元以上),音质足够好,销售主要靠品牌形象。Beats Electronics and its founders have proved adept at using celebrity endorsements and product placement to plug their headphones. In America the company now has almost half the market for premium-priced cans, compared with 21% for Bose, a longer-established maker. Beats headphones are bassy: that’s what hip-hop fans want, but might not suit opera lovers. Overall, though, they are a lot better than the earbuds that come free with most portable devices.Beats电子和它的成立者擅长利用名人效应和植入式广告宣传其耳机。在美国,该公司现在拥有高端市场接近一半的市场份额,相比之下,老牌耳机生产商Bose只有21%的份额。Beats耳机重低音表现绝佳,这正是嘻哈乐粉丝想要的,但是可能不对歌剧爱好者的味。然而,总的来说,它们比便携设备标配的耳机好多了。There is in any case a limit to how good music will sound through even the best headphones. Most of the music tracks on portable music players are in the form of mp3 audio files, in which the music has been compressed to make the files smaller and thus fit more of them into a given amount of storage capacity. Jim Anderson, a sound engineer who teaches at New York University, first plays his students an mp3 music file through good speakers, and then an uncompressed master recording of the same song: they are amazed at how much they have been missing, he says.无论如何,即使是通过最好的耳机,好音乐也无法完全展现出来。大多数便携音乐播放器上的乐曲都是mp3格式的,这种格式下,歌曲被压缩的更小,以便在有限的容量内放更多首歌。音响师Jim Anderson在纽约大学任教,他说,他先通过优质播放器给他的学生播放了一首mp3格式的歌曲,然后播放了未压缩版本的歌曲,他的学生惊讶于前者丢失细节之多。Since consumers have been persuaded, largely by Beats, that it is worth paying a fair whack for some half-decent headphones that look nice, perhaps they could be persuaded—especially since the storage capacity of many portable devices is now huge—to turn their backs on cheap mp3s and seek out recordings in true high fidelity. Linn Records, an online distributor of high-resolution music files, sold around 60,000 songs between April and June of this year, most of them in the FLAC format, which compresses the music lightly, saving a bit of storage space, without any loss of quality. Apple’s iTunes has a similar, though slightly lower-quality offering.既然Beats说了消费者放弃那些外观不错但是不够像样耳机,可能消费者也能接受购买高保真的音乐,而不是便宜的mp3格式音频,尤其是现在很多便携式音乐播放器容量变得巨大。在线高保真音乐销售商Linn Records今年二季度卖出了大约6万首歌曲,大部分都是Flac格式的歌曲,Flac格式对乐曲稍稍压缩,节省了一点空间,但是音质却没什么损失。苹果的iTunes也是一样,尽管质量稍差一点。If sales of these hi-fi recordings take off it may boost the market for really top-notch cans like those of Grado Labs, another American firm. Grado has for decades relied on reviews in specialist magazines, and word-of-mouth recommendations from fans, to sp news of its headphones’ faithful reproduction. In contrast to Beats, it has eschewed image-making: it has not advertised since 1964. Unlike Dr Dre, then, its fortunes are less tied to the fickle tastes and fast-changing fashions of the young.如果这些高保真音乐的销量飞涨的话,可能会使得顶级耳机生产商,诸如另一家美国公司Grado Labs生产的耳机市场火爆起来。几十年来Grado都凭借专业杂志的评测和粉丝的口口相传传播其质量过硬的耳机信息。相比Beats,它避免品牌化,自1964年以来从未做过广告。所以不像Dr Dre,其命运也与瞬息万变的年轻人的品味与潮流无关。 /201308/254541

  

  Schumpeter熊彼特Hidden gems束之高阁的宝藏Reviving old brands sometimes makes more sense than creating new ones有时,重启旧品牌比创造新品牌更有价值“CASH IN THE ATTIC” is one of the jewels in the Bs crown: “The show that turns hidden treasures into cash and viewers dreams into reality”. The format is as addictive as it is straightforward. A camera crew turns up at an ordinary-looking house and searches the attic and other nooks and crannies for things that might have hidden value. The choicest items are sold at auction. Joy is unconfined when a ragged doll turns out to be worth a small fortune. The business world has its own version of this game: entrepreneurs rummaging in corporate attics for neglected but valuable old brands. It is thanks to such treasure-hunting that you can ride an MV Agusta motorbike, wear a Shinola watch, stuff yourself with Twinkies, wash them down with Orangina and play a Gibson guitar.“阁楼里的宝藏”是B最热门节目之一,“把束之高阁的宝贝换成钱,把观众的梦想变成现实”。节目形式不仅简单,甚至容易上瘾。一个拍摄团队来到一座普通的房子里,到阁楼和其他边边角角搜寻可能存在价值的东西。最珍贵的那部分会被拍卖。当一个破旧的布娃娃卖出了一小笔钱时,总能带来抑制不住的喜悦。商界也存在这样的游戏:企业家们会从公司的阁楼里翻找被忽略的、却仍有价值的老品牌。也正是因为这些寻宝活动,我们才能骑上奥古斯塔托车,戴 Shinola手表,吃Twinkies 奶油蛋糕吃到撑,再喝上一大罐 Orangina,玩一会儿吉布森吉他。There are two reasons why such rummaging is so popular. The first is that companies often discard brands that contain plenty of what marketers call “equity”. In plain English, ones that people still remember fondly. Healthy brands can be sacrificed on the altars of corporate takeovers and restructurings: Brim Coffee bit the dust when a succession of mergers and acquisitions left it sharing a stable with Maxwell House; Procter amp; Gamble abandoned White Cloud toilet paper to focus on its Charmin brand. Or they can become orphans when their parent companies die: former household names that are currently looking for a new guardian include Hidden Magic hairspray, Climax ginger ale and Pussn Boots cat food.这种翻箱倒柜之所以如此盛行,原因有二。首先,公司经常会丢弃一些充满了营销专家所说的“资产”的品牌。简单来说,就是那些仍然存在于人们美好记忆中的品牌。好品牌有时会成为公司收购重组时的牺牲品。在一系列收购兼并之后, Brim咖啡不得不和麦斯威尔咖啡同处一室,最后一败涂地;宝洁为了集中发展 Charmin,抛弃白云卫生纸。有时,当母公司破产,旗下品牌便成了孤儿: Hidden Magic喷发定型剂,Climax 姜汁汽水和 Pusssn Boots猫食都曾是家喻户晓的名字,如今全在寻找下一位东家。The second reason is that reviving an old brand often beats spending months and millions on creating a new one, with a lower risk of failure. If something has worked before there is a good chance that it will work again. Old brands come with y-made logos, slogans, jingles and memories. Brim Coffees previous owners had spent 35 years and hundreds of millions of dollars drumming the phrase “Fill it to the rim—with Brim” into American brains. Besides equity, another folkloric quality brands are said to need is “authenticity”: whereas Wally Olins, a veteran branding expert, warns creators of new brands that the worst thing they can do is to try to fake this (see article), old brands are more likely to possess it.第二大原因,重启老品牌经常好过花数月时间、砸数百万美元来创造新品牌,而且失败的可能性还更低。一样东西如果曾经成功过,就极可能再一次成功。老品牌有现成的标志,口号,广告语和回忆。 Brim咖啡曾经的老东家们花了 35年时间、投入数亿美元让“倒满杯缘为止”这句话深深烙在美国人脑海中。除了资产,另一个传说中的品牌必要特质是“正宗”。资深品牌专家威利·奥林斯警告新品牌创造者们,他们能做的最糟糕的事情就是装得很“正宗”;而老品牌则更可能拥有这一特质。The simplest version of this strategy is for a company to revive one of its own brands. The textbook case is Volkswagens revival of the Beetle in the 1990s. VW played on nostalgia for the 1960s, when the Beetle became the semi-official vehicle of the hippie movement, while reassuring purchasers that it was thoroughly modern: “less flower, more power”. A second version is for a healthy firm to take over an ailing rivals brands and breathe new life into them. BMW acquired Mini when it bought Rover in 1994, retooled the car to German standards, and made it a huge success.实施这种策略,最简单的方式莫过于重启公司过去已有的品牌。一个被写进教科书中的案例是上世纪九十年代大众甲壳虫的重生。大众打的是六十年代的复古牌,当时它可是嬉皮运动人士的半官方座驾,但同时它让买家坚信这款车从内到外都是现代的:“更少点缀,更多动力。“第二种方式,是让一家健康的企业收购正在衰落的对手的品牌,并让其重现生机。 1994年,宝马收购路虎之后获得 Mini品牌。重整为德国标准汽车之后, Mini大获成功。There are now companies that, like the Bs antique-hunters, specialise in rooting out undervalued gems. The Himmel Group, based in Florida, buys old health and beauty brands and relaunches them with a blitz of advertising. Its successes include Ovaltine, a hot drink, Topol tooth polish and Lavoris, a mouthwash. Private-equity groups have also become enthusiastic recyclers. In 2006 the Blackstone Group and Lion Capital joined forces to buy the rights outside America to Orangina, a soft-drink brand discarded by Cadbury, and sold it three years later to Suntory of Japan, realising a 30% annual return on equity. In 2013 Apollo Global Management and Metropoulos amp; Co acquired Hostess Brands for 410m, and relaunched Twinkies and Ho Hos in what it billed as “the sweetest comeback in the history of ever”. Supermarkets are also savvy purchasers, buying old brands and keeping their distinctive appearance, to justify charging a bit more than for their own-label products. Walmart did this with White Cloud nappies andtissues, for example.和B的寻宝活动一样,如今有一些公司专门挖掘那些价值被低估的宝藏。福罗里达的 Himmel集团买下老的保健和美容品牌,通过广告轰炸再次将它们推向市场。成功案例包括热饮料 Ovaltine,美白牙膏Topol 和漱口水 Lavoris。同样热衷于回收再利用的还有私募集团。 2006年,黑石集团和利安资本合力买下 Orangina的海外所有权。Orangina是吉百利公司丢弃的软饮料品牌。三年后,两家投资公司将其卖给日本的三得利,获得 30%的年股本回报率。2013年,阿波罗全球管理和梅特珀罗斯公司以 4.1亿美元买下美国著名面包生产商 Hostess Brands,并重启 Twinkies和Ho Hos 两大品牌,被其称作“史上最甜蜜回归”。超市也是精明的买家,买下老品牌,保留其独特的外观,以便收取比自有品牌稍高一些的价格,如沃尔玛对白云尿布和餐巾纸的处理方式。Some striking examples of brand revival are the work of individual entrepreneurs. Shinola was once such a successful producer of shoe polish that Americans reprimanded each other with the phrase, “You cant tell shit from Shinola.” Tom Kartsotis, a college drop-out turned businessman, revived the name for a new company that produces luxury watches in Detroit and sells them for up to 975 each. The East India Company once controlled half the worlds trade, commanded its own army and issued its own currency, but went out of business in 1873. Sanjiv Mehta, an Indian diamond trader, bought the brand in 2005 and applied it to a new, upmarket retail chain.一些品牌的惊天大逆转是由企业家们个人完成的。 Shinola曾是极成功的鞋油品牌,美国人在埋怨对方的时候甚至会说:“你啥也不知道,连 Shinola都不知道!”大学辍学改做生意的 Tom Kartsotis在一家新公司重塑了Shinola品牌,这是一家底特律的奢侈表公司,手表每块能卖到 975美元。东印度公司曾经控制世界一半的贸易,有自己的军队和货币,却在 1873年破产。2005 年,印度珠宝交易商 Sanjiv Mehta买下这一品牌,以此命名一家新开的高端零售连锁店。Whole lotta lolly一大堆棒棒糖There is no guarantee that your dead brand in the attic will turn into cash: Daimler tried to revive its Maybach luxury marque as a competitor to Rolls-Royce and Bentley, but sales were dire, and it gave up in 2013. You need to choose your brand well—there is a big difference between Shinola and, say, Enron—and manage its revival carefully. Many of the most successful exercises in reviving brands are also exercises in repositioning them. Henry Juszkiewicz revitalised Gibson Guitars because he focused on selling to ageing lawyers and doctors, who were willing to pay 20,000 to own the same type of guitar as Eric Clapton and Jimmy Page, rather than struggling young musicians. He has since added brands such as Slingerland drums and Wurlitzer jukeboxes to his portfolio. Claudio Castiglioni revived his familys MV Agusta brand by repositioning a classic racing bike as a mid-market roadster.没人能保,在阁楼里躺着的品牌一定能赚钱:为与劳斯莱斯和宾利抗衡,戴姆勒下力气复兴奢侈品牌梅巴赫,但业绩暗淡,最终在 2013年放弃。你必须选择一个好品牌: Shinola和,比方说安然,差别是巨大的;同时你还必须小心处理。品牌复兴最成功的案例当中,有很多对品牌进行了重新定位。 Henry Juszkiewicz之所以能让吉布森吉他死而复生,是因为他专注于年长的律师和医生,而不是生存都成问题的年轻音乐人,理由是前者愿意掏两万美元,买下和艾瑞克·克莱普顿、吉米·佩吉同一品牌的吉他。之后他又加上了 Slingerland鼓和Wurlitzer 自动唱机。克劳迪奥·卡斯蒂格利奥尼复兴家族品牌 MV奥古斯塔,就是通过将经典竞赛自行车重新定位为中端敞篷跑车。Such quibbles aside, rediscovering and restoring a neglected brand, tapping into consumers fond memories of times gone by, is surely a cost-effective way of competing in a marketing landscape where start-up costs are prohibitive and the chances of failure are high. If capitalism is a system of creative destruction, in Joseph Schumpeters famous phrase, it is a system of creative reconstruction as well.尽管存在种种争议,在起步费用高昂,失败几率极高的当今市场,挖掘和重塑一个被遗忘的品牌,挑起消费者美好的回忆,绝对是一个性价比颇高的竞争手段。如果说资本主义是一个创造性毁灭的体系,就像约瑟夫·熊彼特的那句名言,它也是一个创造性重建的体系。 /201404/289609

  Science and technology科学技术Pilotless aircraft无人机Giving drones a thumbs up向无人机打手势How to integrate the control of piloted and pilotless aircraft如何让指挥有人机的方法适用于无人机DECK officers on American aircraft carriers use hand gestures to guide planes around their vessels.在美国的航空母舰上,甲板指挥员会用手势指挥母舰附近的飞机。These signals are fast, efficient and perfect for a noisy environment.这种信号快速、高效,而且十分适用于嘈杂的环境。Unfortunately, they work only with people.但遗憾的是,只有人才能读懂这些手势。They are utterly lost on robotic drones—and even if a drone is under the control of a remote pilot deep in the bowels of the ship,在无人机上,这一套完全失效;而即便有飞行员在船舱深处远程操控这架飞机,that pilot often has difficulty ing them.他往往也很难识别那些手势。Since drones are becoming more and more important in modern warfare, this is a nuisance.这是个麻烦,因为无人机在现代战争里变得越来越重要了。Life would be easier for all if drones were smart enough to respond directly to a deck officers gesticulations.若无人机的智能达到了足以直接响应甲板指挥员手势的程度,那一切都会好很多。Making them that smart is the goal of Yale Song, a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.让无人机具备这样的智能是麻省理工学院计算机科学家Yale Song的目标。He is not there yet but,这个目标虽尚未达成,as he reports in ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems,不过正如他在《美国计算机学会交互式智能系统学报》所报告的,he and his colleagues David Demirdjian and Randall Davis have developed a promising prototype.他和他的同事David Demirdjian和Randall Davis已开发了一个很有前景的原型系统。To try teaching drones the language of hand signals Mr Song and his colleagues made a series of s in which various deck officers performed to camera a set of 24 commonly used gestures.为了让无人机读懂手语,Yale Song和他的同事制作了一系列视频,视频记录了多位甲板指挥员对着摄象机摆出的24个常用手势。They then fed these s into an algorithm of their own devising that was designed to analyse the position and movement of a human body, and told the algorithm what each gesture represented.然后他们用一个自己设计的算法来处理这些视频,并让算法知道每个手势的意义。The idea was that the algorithm would learn the association and, having seen the same gesture performed by different people,他们的设想是,该算法会记住每个手势所对应的意义,而在对不同人摆出的相同手势进行处理后能够概括出手势本身的意义,would be able to generalise what was going on and thus recognise gestures performed by strangers.从而识别任何人摆出的手势。Unfortunately, it did not quite work out like that.很遗憾,实际与预想的不太一样。In much the same way that spoken language is actually a continuous stream of sound,其实指挥飞行员所用的手语和人说的话差不多。so the language of gestures to pilots is also continuous, with one flowing seamlessly into the next.后者实际上是一串连续的声音,而手语同样也是连续的,因为两个动作之间是连贯的。And the algorithm could not cope with that.但该算法无法处理这种连续的信息。To overcome this difficulty Mr Song imposed gaps by chopping the s up into three-second blocks.为了解决这个问题,Yale Song以3秒为一段将视频截开,在各段之间插入时间间隔。That allowed the computer time for reflection.这样就给计算机留出了响应时间。Its accuracy was also increased by interpreting each block in light of those immediately before and after it,同时识别的准确率也有所提高。因为这样计算机就能根据前一段及后一段的视频来理解当前这一段,to see if the result was a coherent message of the sort a deck officer might actually wish to impart.看看结果是不是那种甲板指挥员可能真的想摆出的有特定意义的手势。The result is a system that gets it right three-quarters of the time.他们最终做出了一个正确率为75%的系统。Obviously that is not enough:显然,那样是不够的:you would not entrust the fate of a multi-million-dollar drone to such a system.你不会将一架价值数百万美元的无人机交给这样的系统。But it is a good start.但这是个好的开始。If Mr Song can push the accuracy up to that displayed by a human pilot, then the task of controlling activity on deck should become a lot easier.若Yale Song能将无人机识别手势的正确率提高至与真人飞行员相当,那么在甲板指挥无人机会容易得多。 /201307/247186

  Hi,Stewart ,remember you . Hi.嗨 stewart 还记得你哦Um...tell us about the show.额 不扯了 跟我说下你的演出吧The show is...um... probably the hardest show that I have ever done.这次的表演 可能是我最艰难的一次Im like... rehearing really really hard for it.我想要 排非常辛苦Im dancing the most Ive ever danced.蹦蹦跳跳的很累人And..um...Its goona be fun.会有意思的Its gonna be a lot of fun.会很有意思的And how long is the show?那个表演多长时间Its nine...ninety minutes. ninety minutes.九十分钟 九十分钟And is it... how many nights a week?一周几场Um...I think four nights a week.应该是 四场That is... thats very strenuous and exhausting. Yeah.那还真是有点累人 是有点That would be fun though. a whole lot of fun. Yeah.但是会很有意思 超有意思的 对All right, well, we have um...好的 我们看下Thats the set right there.舞台布景就是这个Thats very cool.很酷Wery very cool.相当炫目All right, so um...we are gonna give someone a chance好的 我们要给以为观众一次机会actually you just added shows, right. Yes.实际上你还加了几场表演 是吧 是的You added shows april through september.从四月到九月加了几场I have two tickets to give away to britneys show.我现在手上有两张布兰妮演唱会的票要送出Its called britney: price of me. Its in Las Vegas.叫Britney: price of me 表演场地在And here is the one Im gonna give away.现在我们来送礼了A three-day two-night stay at planet hollywood三天两夜的旅行 住在好莱坞星球which is the center piece of the strip with the best shopping , dining and entertainment.那是购物美食的中心地带So,it will be fun.所以 非常好玩Where is ... we are gonna give Lisa Chow a chance.我们要给Lisa chaw一个机会 在哪儿呢Lisa ,Lisa, where are you?Lisa lisa 你在哪注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201401/271154。

  

  

  

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